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Business Concepts & Tools ch1-2

Digital Literacy understand of how computers work
Computer a digital electronic device that combines hardware and software to accept the input of data, and then process and store data to produce an output
Information Processing Cycle Input->Processing->Output->Storage->Input
Computer Literacy understanding of how computers work
Bits (short of binary digit) -the smallest unit of information that a digital electronic device can manipulate -a digit can be 1 or 0
Byte a group of 8 bits
ASCII the american standard code for information interchange used to represent keyboard characters in digital form: 1s & 0s
Binary Number System number system used by computers, utilizing only two digits: 0&1
Digital Convergence digitization standardizes all types of data to 1s & 0s to create devices that combine the functionality of several digital electronic devices into one
Personal Computer any general-purpose computer designed to meet the many computing needs of one individual
Mobile Computing the use of battery-powered mobile computing devices that provide access to computing, communication, information, and/or entertainment anywhere, anytime
Synchronization the process of maintaining common files and data across multiple devices so that all copies are up to data
Server a powerful computer that often utilizes many processors to provide services to many users simultaneously over a network
Super computer the most powerful type of computer, to solve the world's most dicicult problems
Special-Purpose Computer computers designed to meet a specific need and are more prevalent, yet less noticeable, then general-purpose computers -ex: ATM machine, MRI
Hardware the tangible parts of a computer or digital devices and typically includes support for processing, storage, input, and output
Processing caries ut the instructions provided by software using specially designed circuitry and a well-defined routine to transform data into useful outputs
Transistor an electronics component typically composed to silicon that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits
Central Processing Unit (CPU) a group of circuit that perform the processing in a computer, typically in one integrated circuit called a microprocesssor
Moore's Law states that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years
Motherboard the primary circuit of a computer to which all core components are connected, including the CPU
Bus a subsystem on the motherboard that transfers data among system components
Machine Cycle 1.Fetch 2.Decode 3.Execute 4.Store
Storage the ability to maintain data within the system temporarily or permanetly
Random Access Memory (RAM) temporary memory that store bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access
Video Memory is used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video and graphic units
Read Only Memory (ROM) provides permanent storage to data and instructions that do not change, such as firmware - programs and data from the computer manufacture
Magnetic Storage storage technology that uses the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles rather than electric charges to store bits and bytes
Optical Storage -media such as CDs, DVDs and Blue-ray discs, store bits by using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective disc -a pit in a specific location represents a 0, and the lack of a pit represents a 1
Solid State Storage devices that store data using solid-state electronics such as transistors, and unlike magnetic and optical media, does not require any moving mechanical parts
Created by: NickUD



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