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Psycho Social Feb 18

Psychiatrist who believed in the therapeutic value of crafts Willeam Dunton
Who emphasized balance of habits and a balance of work and leisure Adolph Meyer
Who directed first OT program Eleanor Clarke Slagle
Who valued work as a remedy for illness Herbert Hall
3 types of OT Group Leadership directive, facilitative, advisory
directive leadership Therapist determines structure, activity and processing, takes an active role in shaping membership participation, group goals are achieved through active leadership Ex communication groups
Directive leadership is appropriate when: members have cognitive impairment, poor capacity for insight, immaturity, poor verbal skills, low motivation, specific goals/activities are desired, topic is educational and requires therapist expertise/demonstration
With directive leadership - most group roles are performed by the leader, feedback to members given mostly by the leader
facilitative leadership leader gathers support from members,OT earns group members' support by giving choices and asking them to collaborate in reaching goals, group presumes a certain level of ability&rational thought, allows group to experience advanced levels of grp devlpmnt
Facilitative leadership is appropriate when: members have middle-high level of cognition &capacity for insight, at least a med level or maturity, verbal skills & motivation, capable of making choices of activity, topic, structure, can learn from experience
Facilitative leadership is appropriate when (con't) therapist can delegate some leadership roles to members, members are encouraged to give each other feedback, therapist does not do anything for the group that they can do for themselves
Advisory Leadership assumes high level of functioning, appropriate for more informal activities, assumes motivation of members, OT leader acts as resource & imparts info as needed
Advisory Leadership is appropriate when: OT's role is consulting, wellness or care-giver education, members have high cognition, verbal skills, insight capacity & motivation
Advisory Leadership is appropriate when (con't) members have selected a specific activity or opic area, can seek advice from leader on as-needed basis, lead their own group & experience natural consequences from the environment
Five Axes of DSM-IV Axis I - Clinical disorders & other conditions requiring clinical intervention Axis II - personality disorders, MR Axis III - general medical disorders Axis IV - psychosocial & environmental problems Axis V - global assessment of functioning
Axis I Main psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia, depression). Individual may be assigned more than one diagnosis on Axis I, or they may not have diagnosis on Axis I
Axis I Psychological conditions affecting medical condition medication induced movement disorders, problems with relationships, problems related to abuse or neglect, problems in school, work or adjusting to new culture
Axis II main diagnosis may be on Axis II - Personality disorders or MR
Axis III general medical disorders. Goal is to encourage communication among health professionals, physical problems may evoke psychological problems
Axis IV describes problems in the environment, in life circumstances or in relatinships with others, could be negative or positive stressors
Axis V coding the person's level of functioning at the time of evaluation, important to OT practitioners, rated on a scale of 0-100 (10 is persistent danger to self/others, 90 indicates good functioning overal)Rated with Global Assessment of Functioning Scale
Proprioception identifying where our body parts are in space without visual cues
kinesthesia The sensory system for receiving information about gravity and the weight of body parts and other objects during movement
vestibular awareness Sensory mechanism for receiving information about balance, velocity and acceleration of the body
psychoeducation an educational approach used by many service providers to improve the skills of persons with mental disorders. Teach symptom management, health/safety awareness, assertiveness
Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia delusions, hallucinations, abnormal affect(uncontrollable laughing or silliness), language disturbances (bizzare speech or echolalia), motoric responses(rock, restlessness or lethargic), disturbance or sleep patterns
Symptoms of Depression daily depressed mood indicated by subjective report. Can be irritable, marked decrease of interest or pleasure in most daily activites, significnat weight loss (not dieting) or wt gain, inability to sleep or sleeping most of day,
Symptoms of Depression (cont) psychomotor agitation or its opposite, psychomotor retardation, exreme fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or inapropriate guilt, lack of concentration, recurring thoughts of death or suicide ideas
Symptoms of Mania grandiosity or overinflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, talking more than usual or pressured speech ( speaking very rapidly) flight of ideas (skipping from one topic to another) experience that thoughts are racing, extreme distractibility,
Symptoms of Mania (con't) increase in goal-directed activity or psychomotor agitation, excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have potential for painful consquences
affective flattening limited ability to express emotion
alogia impoverished thought process that is manifested in speech paterns (speech is slow)
avolition lack of interest or energy unaccompanied by depressed affect
anhedonia inability to experience pleasure or sustain interest in activities
inattention inability to sustain attention or concentration
mood disorder disturbance of mood - mood is depressed, manic (high) or alternating between the two. A recurring pattern of mood episodes ( single incident of disturbed mood)is termed a mood disorder
sensory intergration model treatment for learning disorders in children. based on neuroscience studies of how brain works.Involves smooth working together of senses to provide info for accurate perception and motor action. Includes proprioception, kenesthesia, vestibular awareness
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