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Knee Pathologies

Knee and Patella Pathologies

QuestionAnswer
Patellar Dislocation Occurs when the patella slides out of place; dislocation of the patella.
Patellar Dislocation Identifying Information Pain in the medial joint capsule, vastus medialis, and beneath the patella. MOI: valgus blow to knee; rapid change of direction. Obvious deformity w/ patella positioned laterally with knee flexed. Displaced patella. ROM isn't performed due to dislocation.
Patellar Dislocation Identifying Information Cont. Special Tests: (+) Apprehension Test post reduction. Not used if dislocation was known to have occurred.
Patellar Dislocation Differential Diagnosis Patellar tendon rupture, fracture of posterior aspect of patella or lateral femoral condyle.
Patellar Fracture Fracture of the patella.
Patellar Fracture Identifying Information Acute onset; pain arising from the patella. Swelling over and around the patella. AROM: extension lag of 10-30; MMT: decreased quad strength; PROM flexion limited by pain. Special Tests: Not Applicable
Patellar Fracture Differential Diagnosis Patellar tendon rupture, quadricips tendon rupture, patellar dislocation.
Meniscal Tears Tearing in the Lateral Meniscus or Medial Meniscus.
Meniscal Tears Identifying Information Knee "giving out," knee clicking, pain and crepitus along the joint line, meniscal cyst. AROM: decreased PROM: pain in flexion and extension MMT: unremarkable Special Tests:McMurray's, Apley's Compression, & Thessaly
Meniscal Tears Differential Diagnosis Patellofemoral joint dysfunction, synovial plica irritation, osteochondral defect, instability.
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Friction caused by the IT band and the lateral femoral epicondyle rubbing together.
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Identifying Information Pain over the lateral femoral condyle. Genu varum, leg-length discrpancy. AROM: w/in normal limits MMT: TFL may be weak PROM: w/in normal limits Special Tests: Noble's compression Test, Ober's Test.
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Differential Diagnosis Lateral meniscus tear; biceps femoris tendinopathy; patellofemoral dysfunction; popliteus tendinopathy.
Tibiofemoral Joint Dislocation Dislocation of the tibia from the tibiofemoral joint.
Tibiofemoral Joint Dislocation Identifying Information Severe diffuse pain about the knee, obvious deformity of the joint, swelling and discoloration, ROM is contraindicated. Special Tests: Avoided in presence of a dislocation.
Tibiofemoral Joint Dislocation Differential Diagnosis Femoral Fracture, tibial fracture.
ACL Sprain Stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament.
ACL Sprain Identifying Information Pain within the knee joint, pain with AROM, pain and limitations with MMT, and pain is likely with PROM. Special Tests: Lachman's test, Anterior Drawer Test, Prone Lachman's test.
ACL Sprain Differential Diagnosis PCL sprain, meniscus tear, hamstring strain, strain of the gastrocneius origin, osteochondral fracture, patellar dislocation.
MCL Sprain Stretching or tearing of the medial collateral ligament.
MCL Sprain Identifying Information Pain in the medial portion of the knee, caused by a calgus force, over time edema may occur, palpation will reveal tenderness along the length of the MCL. AROM: pain and decreased ROM; MMT:decreased flexion and extension; PROM: pain and loss of ROM.
MCL Sprain Identifying Information Cont. Special Tests: Slocum drawer test
MCL Sprain Differential Diagnosis ACL, PCL, medial meniscal tear, semimembranosus strain, pes anserine strain, pes anserine bursitis, common peroneal neuropathy, distal femoral epiphyseal fracture.
Created by: soccerizmygame