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More violence than actually occurred was averted by the parliamentary maneuvers employed by moderates at a meeting at Parkinson's Ferry, soon after its more extreme leaders tried to incite its participants with information from letters gained while robbin Whiskey Rebellion
Despite the passage of a bill transferring some federal trials to state courts, disgruntled citizens burned the home of General John Neville, a regional inspector of the excise that was crippling the economy of the western United States Whiskey Rebellion
Collapsing after Washington called out state militias, FTP, what was this rebellion of the early 1790s caused by the taxing of alcohol? Whiskey Rebellion
Precedents used in reaching the opinion in this case included Patterson v Schenck v. United States (accept United States v. Schenck, or Baer v. United States before mentioned)
Colorado, Aikens v Schenck v. United States (accept United States v. Schenck, or Baer v. United States before mentioned)
Wisconsin, and Gompers v Schenck v. United States (accept United States v. Schenck, or Baer v. United States before mentioned)
Buck's Stove and Range Company Schenck v. United States (accept United States v. Schenck, or Baer v. United States before mentioned)
Decided along with the case Baer v Schenck v. United States (accept United States v. Schenck, or Baer v. United States before mentioned)
United States, it concerned the constitutionality of the Espionage Act Schenck v. United States (accept United States v. Schenck, or Baer v. United States before mentioned)
It arose when the general secretary for the Socialist party challenged his conviction for distributing pamphlets designed to obstruct the draft Schenck v. United States (accept United States v. Schenck, or Baer v. United States before mentioned)
FTP, what was this 1919 case in which Justice Holmes issued his famous opinion containing the "clear and present danger" test and the analogy to a person yelling fire in a theater? Schenck v. United States (accept United States v. Schenck, or Baer v. United States before mentioned)
This man was imprisoned in Missouri in 1854 for preaching to African Americans Hiram Revels
Later, when elected as a state senator in 1869, he sought to restore voting and office holding rights to former confederates Hiram Revels
Ending his career as president of Alcorn College, he left his position as a church pastor and school principle in Baltimore to serve as a chaplain to black Union soldiers during the Civil War, and later settled in Natchez, Mississippi, where he gained his Hiram Revels
FTP, who was this man, the first African American elected to the U.S Senate? Hiram Revels
Moore v. Dempsey's ruling guaranteeing important rights for defendants was an important step in ending them, while Gaines v Jim Crow laws
Canada attempted to force the Supreme Court to overturn them completely Jim Crow laws
The cause of riots in Wilmington and Tulsa, they were named for a song written by Thomas Rice Jim Crow laws
Smith v Jim Crow laws
Allright overturned "white primaries", but they were not completely overturned until Brown v Jim Crow laws
Board of Education Jim Crow laws
For 10 points, name these segregation laws in the American south established after the Civil War. Jim Crow laws
This man's final bid for the senate was defeated by John Gordon in 1872 Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Famed for giving what became known as the "Cornerstone speech," this Whig published a number of books, including a memoir of his five-month confinement at Fort Warren Alexander Hamilton Stephens
From his estate, Liberty Hall, in Crawfordville, he championed policies such as the unconditional discharge of Federal prisoners, and later headed a commission to the Hampton Roads conference Alexander Hamilton Stephens
FTP, identify this Georgian who opposed many of Jefferson Davis' decisions as vice president of the Confederacy. Alexander Hamilton Stephens
In addition to his achievements in Congress, this politician gained renown for his public addresses, notably the Bunker Hill oration and his speech on the deaths of Jefferson and Adams Daniel Webster
He served as Secretary of State for a second time from 1850-52 after having alienated the antislavery movement with his eloquent support for the Compromise of 1850 Daniel Webster
Earlier, he had emerged as a champion of the federal government in his famous series of 1830 debates with Robert Hayne, and won acclaim as a lawyer for his arguments in the cases Dartmouth v Daniel Webster
Woodward and McCulloch v Daniel Webster
Maryland Daniel Webster
FTP, who was this Massachusetts senator perhaps best known for his 1843 treaty with Ashburton? Daniel Webster
His attempt to determine the signs of true, saintly belief are found in "A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections", while another major work was A Careful and Strict Enquiry into Freedom of the Will Jonathon Edwards
He first gained fame for "A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God", but soon saw his strict Calvinism alienate him from other Puritans, resulting in his dismissal from his post as pastor of Northampton Church in Massachusetts Jonathon Edwards
FTP, who was this leader of the "Great Awakening" best known for his sermon Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God? Jonathon Edwards
In 1839 the Spanish invoked Article 9 of this treaty in its petition that the cargo and slaves of the Amistad be returned Pinckney's Treaty
In part, it guaranteed free navigation of the Mississippi and the right of deposit in New Orleans for 3 years Pinckney's Treaty
Necessary to settle issues left unresolved by the Jay-Gardoqui Treaty and the Treaty of 1783, it is also called the Treaty of San Lorenzo Pinckney's Treaty
FTP, identify this 1795 American-Spanish treaty that set the southern US boundary at the 31st parallel. Pinckney's Treaty
He remarked that he didn't know whether he was running for the presidency or the penitentiary due to the fierce attacks to which he was subjected as the nominee of the Liberal Republicans, when he polled 86 electoral votes but died before the electoral co Horace Greeley
He lost much of his following for opposing Lincoln's renomination and for signing the bail bond of Jefferson Davis, but earlier his editorials touting abolitionism and other Republican causes led him to be known as the greatest newspaper editor of his day Horace Greeley
FTP, who was this founder of the New York Tribune, known for the advice "Go west, young man"? Horace Greeley
He was born with the name Thunder Rolling Down Mountains, but is best known by the name his father gave him when he converted to Christianity in 1838 Chief Joseph (accept Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt)
After he reluctantly agreed to leave the Grande Ronde valley and move to a new reservation in Idaho, some of his warriors attacked a local white settlement Chief Joseph (accept Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt)
He then won several engagements against the US army during his attempted retreat to Canada, which ended with his surrender to Nelson Miles only 50 miles from the border in 1877 Chief Joseph (accept Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt)
FTP, name this chief of the Nez Perce Indians best known for his speech declaring "I shall fight no more forever"? Chief Joseph (accept Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt)
A lawyer before William Howard Taft appointed him Secretary of War, he later served as Secretary of State under Herbert Hoover Henry Stimson
While there he shut down the Black Chamber, the American cryptanalysis group, famously saying "Gentlemen don't read other people's mail." He later took full advantage of reading other people's mail during World War Two Henry Stimson
For ten points, name this man who was Secretary of War under Franklin Roosevelt, known for his doctrine stating that the U.S Henry Stimson
would not recognize gains achieved by armed aggression. Henry Stimson
He was editor and co-owner of the Kennebec Journal, a crusading political newspaper James G. Blaine
Eight years after being elected speaker of the House, his good friend Robert Ingersoll called him the "Plumed Night" in offering up this man's name for a presidential nomination James G. Blaine
His later career was marked by his association with the Pan-American Movement, whose first conference he chaired James G. Blaine
However, the death of that movement and ill health caused him to leave public office in 1892 James G. Blaine
FTP, name this failed Republican presidential candidate in 1884 and two-time secretary of state, a politician from Maine. James G. Blaine
He is currently the UN's Envoy for Western Sahara James Addison Baker III
He was a Houston lawyer before he managed the 1970 Senate campaign of George Bush and the 1976 presidential campaign of Gerald Ford; he'd already been serving as Ford's Secretary of Commerce, and later was Reagan's chief of staff and Secretary of the Trea James Addison Baker III
More recently he headed the George W James Addison Baker III
Bush team during the Florida recount fiasco James Addison Baker III
FTP--name the man who helped build the Gulf War coalition as George Bush's Secretary of State. James Addison Baker III
The document that led to the plaintiff's arrest quoted the first section of the Thirteenth Amendment and included the line, "a conscript is little better than a convict." The Court's decision cited an earlier case, Patterson v Schenk v. U.S.
Colorado, as precedent for the restraint of certain types of expression Schenk v. U.S.
Just six months afterward, in Abrams v Schenk v. U.S.
U.S Schenk v. U.S.
Justice Holmes modified his famous decision in this case Schenk v. U.S.
Adjudicated in March, 1919, the majority decision famously argued that shouting fire in a crowded theater is an example of dangerous speech Schenk v. U.S.
FTP name this case that established the doctrine of "clear and present danger." Schenk v. U.S.
One of the provisions of the last one was to disband the klaverns and weaken the newly sprung Ku Klux Klan Force Bill
That was the second of a set that allowed Radical Republicans to strengthen their programs by imposing severe penalties on those who tried to obstruct Reconstruction Force Bill
They were passed in 1870 and 1871, while the first was an act of March 2, 1833 Force Bill
It was passed in response to the nullification ordinance of South Carolina Force Bill
FTP, name these bills having to do with action, the last of which allowed the president to suspend the privilege of habeas corpus in lawless areas. Force Bill
Organized by George S Trail of Tears
Gaines using steamboats after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, the title came from a Choctaw chief's interview with the Arkansas Gazette Trail of Tears
It was then applied to a later event precipitated by the Treaty of New Echota and was opposed by John Ross Trail of Tears
Ignoring the Supreme Court's decision in Worcester v Trail of Tears
Georgia, President Jackson began enforcing the Indian Removal Act in 1838 Trail of Tears
FTP, give the title most famously used for the forcible eviction and deaths of 4,000 Cherokee. Trail of Tears
While serving on the editorial board of the New York Tribune, he published sketches of his experiences in Spain, Castilian Days John Milton Hay
After being appointed minister to Great Britain, he was recalled a year later John Milton Hay
His political experience began when he worked with John Nicolay, and the two collaborated on a biography of Abraham Lincoln John Milton Hay
His literary value rests on two works, the collection Pike County Ballads and his novel The Bread Winners John Milton Hay
FTP, name this man, who as McKinley's secretary of State, authored the Open Door Policy and signed a treaty with Pauncefote. John Milton Hay
His son was a member of the House of Representatives from California, and he himself served in the Air Force during World War II Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
His books include The Coming Breakpoint and With No Apologies Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
After coming to the senate, he gained notoriety by opposing arms-control negotiations, yet he received only one electoral vote as a vice-presidential candidate in 1960, the same year he wrote Conscience of a Conservative Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
His own vice presidential candidate was William Miller, who could not stop him from getting smoked by Lyndon Johnson Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
FTP, name this Republican candidate for president in 1964. Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
In a surprising move it was voted down by Iowa's legislature Wilmot Proviso
In its first appearance it was linked to a two million dollar appropriations bill and the next year to a three million dollar appropriations bill Wilmot Proviso
In the nominating convention the next year, Lewis Cass failed to address it and his Democrats voted down a resolution condemning it, giving Zachary Taylor the momentum Wilmot Proviso
FTP, name this resolution that passed in the House but not the Senate and which sought to ban slavery in any acquired Mexican territory. Wilmot Proviso
An alumnus of Alcorn A&M College, as an insurance agent in Mound Bayou, he organized a boycott of several Neshoba County gas stations that refused African-Americans the use of their restrooms Medger Wiley Evers
His unsuccessful 1954 attempt to enroll in a local school of law gained him an appointment by the NAACP as his state's first field secretary Medger Wiley Evers
He first attracted national attention with his support of James Meridith, who wanted to attend the University of Mississippi Medger Wiley Evers
Awarded the Spingarn Medal posthumously in 1964, FTP, name this civil rights activist assassinated in 1963 by Byron de la Beckwith. Medger Wiley Evers
Among this document's proposals were cooperation in stamping out the slave trade, mutual extradition of criminals, and the drawing of lacustrine boundaries per an earlier agreement Webster-Ashburton Treaty
It settled that waterways such as the St Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Johns River would remain open to navigation by both countries, and the transfer of the Allagash River Valley to the United States brought an ongoing war to a close Webster-Ashburton Treaty
It was signed by Alexander Baring and an American secretary of state Webster-Ashburton Treaty
FTP, name this treaty that ignored the ignored the Oregon boundary issue but did end the Aroostok War and resolve the Northeastern Boundary Conflict in 1842. Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Only the ninth resolution was passed narrowly Seneca Falls
Advertised only with an unsigned notice in a county newspaper, it was held in a Wesleyan Methodist church with about 300 attendees Seneca Falls
It was convened partly as a result of the World Anti-Slavery meeting in London eight years earlier, and was attended by Frederick Douglass Seneca Falls
It was given press by New York Herald editor Gordon Bennet, who in ridicule, published the entire Declaration of Sentiments Seneca Falls
Presided over by none other than Lucrecia Mott's husband, FTP name this convention of feminists organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1848. Seneca Falls
He served three terms in the California state assembly in the 1950s before becoming the chair of the state's Republican Party in 1962 Caspar Weinberger
He started in the Cabinet as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare from 1973-1975, then took a six-year hiatus into private industry in California, but re-emerged in the Cabinet to increase compensation to service members, order development of steal Caspar Weinberger
FTP, name Ronald Reagan's first secretary of defense. Caspar Weinberger
He founded a paper, the Daily Theocrat, which quickly went out of business Charles Guiteau
Despite failing the University of Michigan's entrance exams, he gained admission by using his inheritance Charles Guiteau
He failed to get a job at Henry Ward Beecher's Independent, after having had several stays at John Humphrey Noyes' Oneida Community Charles Guiteau
Before becoming infamous he issued a warning in a letter to William Sherman Charles Guiteau
FTP, name this Stalwart partisan, who on July 2, 1881 shot and killed James Garfield. Charles Guiteau
At the Battle of Quebec General Montgomery died in this man's arms Aaron Burr
His father was the second president of Princeton, and the first president of Princeton was his grandfather, Jonathan Edwards Aaron Burr
After Governor Clinton appointed him attorney general of his state, he defeated General Schuyler for the Senate, starting a bitter rivalry Aaron Burr
In a future position he cast the deciding vote in the impeachment of Salmon Chase, and at Weehawken, N.Y Aaron Burr
killed his enemy Aaron Burr
FTP, name this vice president of Thomas Jefferson and murderer of Alexander Hamilton. Aaron Burr
It is currently led by Kermit W Granger movement (accept early buzz of Patrons of Husbandry)
Richardson, and Ignatius Donnely's weekly newspaper The Anti-Monopolist grew out of this organization's rise Granger movement (accept early buzz of Patrons of Husbandry)
Originally founded by a government clerk from Minnesota this group was modeled on the Masonic order, but soon expanded and Oliver Hudson Kelley's agencies soon numbered over 800,000 members Granger movement (accept early buzz of Patrons of Husbandry)
It was involved in several Supreme Court decisions, including Munn v Granger movement (accept early buzz of Patrons of Husbandry)
Illinois Granger movement (accept early buzz of Patrons of Husbandry)
FTP, name this agrarian political and social movement also know as the "Patrons of Husbandry." Granger movement (accept early buzz of Patrons of Husbandry)
Justice Sanford's decision included a comparison between revolutionary speech and a conflagration-starting spark, while Holmes and Brandeis dissented Gitlow v. New York
Clarence Darrow represented the petitioner, who had earlier distributed a pamphlet entitled Left Wing Manifesto, which violated a state stature prohibiting "criminal anarchy." FTP, name this 1925 Supreme Court case, notable for its declaration that the d Gitlow v. New York
An illiterate high school graduate, he finally taught himself to read and was able to attend the San Francisco School of Law Huey Newton
Years later he received a PhD in philosophy at UC-Santa Cruz and his dissertation was subtitled, "A Study of Repression in America." Three years after officially embracing nonviolence, he fled to Cuba to avoid murder charges Huey Newton
His last run-in with the law stemmed from misappropriation of funds marked for a school founded by the group in which he served as defense minister Huey Newton
FTP, name this activist and social worker who co-founded the Black Panther Party with Bobby Seale in 1966. Huey Newton
The plaintiff in this case cited a specific clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Congress to support his cause Gibbons v. Ogden
It resulted in the Court overturning the decisions of the Court of Errors and Court of Chancery of a state, whose actions were deemed "repugnant to Gibbons v. Ogden
the Constitution." It arose out of the plaintiff's use of a path between Elizabethtown and New York, which trod upon the monopoly passed onto the defendant by Livingston and Fulton Gibbons v. Ogden
FTP, name this 1824 case regarding steamboat monopolies and federal power to regulate commerce. Gibbons v. Ogden
After failing to gain aid as minister plenipotentiary in France for three years, he was sent to join Benjamin Franklin in Paris John Jay
As a delegate to the First Continental Congress he drafted The Address to the People of Great Britain, and he refused to sign the Declaration of Independence as president of the Second Continental Congress John Jay
In those roles he represented New York, and he was that state's governor from 1795 till 1801 John Jay
FTP, name this American politician, who had already negotiated a namesake treaty with the British in 1794 and served as the nation's first Chief Justice. John Jay
As inspiration one commanding officer repeated most of Thomas Grey's famous "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" from memory Battle of Quebec (accept early buzz of Plains of Abraham)
Afterwards, Brigadier General Robert Monckton, second in command, led a force of 4,500 through Anse de Foulon, a lightly protected cove two miles south of the target city Battle of Quebec (accept early buzz of Plains of Abraham)
The surprised French elected to attack across the flat terrain anyway, but their line of battle was shattered by a sharp volley from British muskets Battle of Quebec (accept early buzz of Plains of Abraham)
Thus, it was actually fought on the Plains of Abraham Battle of Quebec (accept early buzz of Plains of Abraham)
FTP, name this fierce 1759 battle that saw the deaths of generals Montcalm and Wolfe outside a Canadian city. Battle of Quebec (accept early buzz of Plains of Abraham)
Replaced by Lew Wallace in 1881 as ambassador to Turkey, he lost popularity in after the Civil War owing to his Republicanism and friendship with Grant James Longstreet
Under Bragg, he directed the assault that broke the Union line at Chickamauga, but lost the use of his arm when wounded in the Wilderness James Longstreet
Among his nicknames are "old Pete" and the "Old War Horse." His critics blamed his hesitation to attack during the second day and his slowness in ordering "Pickett's Charge" for the loss at Gettysburg James Longstreet
FTP, name this Confederate Lieutenant General, Lee's second-in-command at Gettysburg. James Longstreet
Visitors to the Old Jail Museum in Jim Thorpe where these people were held can see the "Hand on the Wall" in Cell 17 left by Alexander Campbell who claimed the imprint would remain as a sign of his innocence Molly Maguires or Workingmen's Benevolent Association
Their first president was John Siney, selected when they united in 1868 Molly Maguires or Workingmen's Benevolent Association
Many of them had already been associated with the Ancient Order of Hibernians Molly Maguires or Workingmen's Benevolent Association
Their downfall came after they were infiltrated by a series of Pinkerton spies Molly Maguires or Workingmen's Benevolent Association
FTP, identify this group that organized Pennsylvania coal miners in the 1870s and which was named after a group of Irish peasants that dressed like women. Molly Maguires or Workingmen's Benevolent Association
During World War I, he rose to the rank of brigadier general, and coordinated the purchase of supplies under General Pershing Charles Gates Dawes
When Congress investigated wasteful military, it was his vehement testimony using the expletive "Helen Maria" that earned him a nickname Charles Gates Dawes
He railed against the filibuster in an inaugural address that eclipsed that of his boss, and after his term he was invited to lead a commission to save the finances of the Dominican Republic Charles Gates Dawes
FTP, name this vice president under Calvin Coolidge, who won the 1925 Nobel Peace Prize for his plan for German reparations. Charles Gates Dawes
The winning general tried four separate experiments to try and reach it Vicksburg, Mississippi
Grierson's Raid was launched before this battle in an attempt to confuse the Rebels Vicksburg, Mississippi
Battles that immediately preceded include Port Gibson, Raymond, Champion Hill, Big Black River Bridge, and Jackson Vicksburg, Mississippi
The 4th of July was not celebrated here for more than 80 years after John Pemberton's surrender of the 30,000 man garrison Vicksburg, Mississippi
FTP, name this city captured by Grant in July of 1863 whose surrender split the confederacy in two. Vicksburg, Mississippi
In 1864, Secretary of State William Seward attempted to abrogate this treaty, but he rescinded the abrogation before the end of the six-month grace period Rush-Bagot Agreement or Treaty
The initial agreement had placed limits 100 tons and an 18-pound cannon Rush-Bagot Agreement or Treaty
It resulted from negotiations between a former attorney general and then acting secretary of state and the British minister to the U.S Rush-Bagot Agreement or Treaty
However, it was John Quincy Adams who laid the groundwork, FTP, for what agreement that effectively demilitarized the U.S.-Canadian border in 1817. Rush-Bagot Agreement or Treaty
It was the primary opportunity to cut off General Porter from the rest of the army after that army moved south of the Chickahominy River Seven Days' battles
Skirmishes included Gaine's Mill, Savage's Station, and Frayser's Farm Seven Days' battles
At Melvarn Hill, McClellan's forces repulsed the Confederates, but McClellan withdrew to Harrison's Landing, ending the Peninsular Campaign Seven Days' battles
General Jackson arrived too late to take part in Mechanicsville, the first battle, but Lee did prove successful in saving Richmond Seven Days' battles
FTP, identify this series of battles in late June 1862 so-named for the duration of their occurrence. Seven Days' battles
The lone dissent in this case came from Justice Harlan, who disagreed with the use of Brown v United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
Maryland and Gibbons v United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
Ogden cited by the opinion delivered by Chief Justice Fuller United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
The opinion of court rested on the interpretation of Kidd v United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
Pearson, in which the court ruled that the refusal of a state to allow articles to be manufactured within its borders did not directly affect commerce United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
Concerning the attempts of the American Sugar Refining Company to corner the market, FTP, identify this 1895 Supreme Court decision that rendered ineffectual the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
The night prior to this battle saw Walk-in-the-Water defect to the American side with sixty followers Battle of the Thames
The Americans pursued the British, who retreated from Malden and fortified themselves at this site Battle of the Thames
Precipitated by the cavalry charge of Colonel Richard Johnson, the English were quickly routed under General Proctor, though stiff fighting came from their Native American allies under Tecumseh, who died at this battle Battle of the Thames
FTP, identify this battle of the War of 1812 that proved a victory for General William Henry Harrison, named after an English river. Battle of the Thames
The investigation into this event was spearheaded by Montana Democrat Thomas J Teapot Dome scandal
Walsh Teapot Dome scandal
Attorney General Harry M Teapot Dome scandal
Daugherty resigned as a result of the subsequent press coverage Teapot Dome scandal
Businessmen Edward L Teapot Dome scandal
Doheny and Harry F Teapot Dome scandal
Sinclair were the perpetrators of the "loans" doled out to Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby and the infamous Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall Teapot Dome scandal
FTP, identify this scandal that involved petroleum reserves under the administration of Warren Harding. Teapot Dome scandal
Among the many illustrations in this work that appeared in the first edition were chapter seven's "Matthews's Action off Toulon, 1744" and chapter eleven's "Rodney and De Guichen, April 17, 1780." Its introduction begins with the idea that the title conc The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783
Mahan. The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783
Among his writings are the works Power and Diplomacy and Present at the Creation, as well as his famous analysis The Korean War Dean Acheson
He was appointed Under Secretary of the Treasury by FDR, but earlier served as private secretary to Louis Brandeis from 1919-21 Dean Acheson
While serving in his most famous post, he produced the "White Paper", a 645-page denouncing Chiang Kai-shek, and gave his famous "Perimeter" speech outlining Japan and the Philippines as areas to be defended by the U.S Dean Acheson
FTP, identify this post-War secretary of state that served under Harry Truman. Dean Acheson
His only written work recounts his experience with a black cook forced to wear an iron muzzle and unable to eat or speak Olaudah Equiano (accept early Gustavus Vassa)
Early in his life, he was captured by Aro tribesmen and eventually sold to Michael Henry Pascal, who gave him his alternate name Olaudah Equiano (accept early Gustavus Vassa)
He was taught English by Richard Baker, under whom he gained considerable sailing knowledge, which he used to purchase his freedom, accruing forty pounds sterling in four years Olaudah Equiano (accept early Gustavus Vassa)
Most famous for his autobiographical Interesting Narrative, FTP, identify this former slave turned abolitionist alternately named Gustavus Vassa. Olaudah Equiano (accept early Gustavus Vassa)
He always kept one of his hands wrapped in black silk due to a hunting accident Richard Henry Lee
In 1765, he co-authored the Westmoreland Resolves, which promised "danger and disgrace" to those who paid the taxes enforced by the Stamp Act Richard Henry Lee
As a member of the original seven-man delegation from Virginia to the first Continental Congress, he was appointed to frame the Declaration of the Rights of the Colonies and later introduced the Declaration of Independence bill before Congress Richard Henry Lee
FTP, identify this colonial statesman and first senator from Virginia. Richard Henry Lee
This document ends abruptly with the words, "There goes Amblard De Lôme letter
I believe he comes deeply taken up with political matters" De Lôme letter
Addressed to "His Excellency Don José Canalejas," it was first published in the New York Journal after being intercepted by a Cuban agent and inflamed its readers with its descriptions of President McKinley as "weak" and a "bidder for the affections of hi De Lôme letter
The last incarnation of this group was curbed by Indiana governor Oliver Morton Knights of the Golden Circle (prompt on early Copperheads)
This group manifested itself in John Hunt Morgan's raid into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio, but garnered little support Knights of the Golden Circle (prompt on early Copperheads)
This organization's last leader was Clement Vallandigham when it was known as the Order of the Sons of Liberty, prior to which it was called the Order of American Knights Knights of the Golden Circle (prompt on early Copperheads)
It was founded under its original name in Cincinnati in 1854 by George Bickley, who also named its members Copperheads Knights of the Golden Circle (prompt on early Copperheads)
FTP, identify this secret order of Southern sympathizers in the North during the Civil War. Knights of the Golden Circle (prompt on early Copperheads)
In 1973 he traveled to Moscow as part of the East-West Trade Policy Committee to negotiate trade protocols with the USSR George Schultz
Nixon's Secretary of Labor for eighteen-months, after that time he became director of the Office of Management and Budget George Schultz
Quitting government service in 1974, he became president and director of the Bechtel Group, and as Secretary of State he pushed for close relations with Saddam Hussein in an attempt to win a two billion dollar oil pipeline deal for Bechtel George Schultz
Resigning to become Secretary of State in 1982, this is, FTP, what member of the Reagan Cabinet? George Schultz
Every membership card came with a little red song book carrying the motto "To Fan the Flames of Discontent" and containing songs like "Pie in the Sky" and "Hallelujah, I'm a Bum" by men like Ralph Chaplin and T-Bone Slim IWW or Industrial Workers of the World or Wobblies
Their most famous strikes include miners in Goldfield Nevada, silk workers at Paterson, New Jersey, and iron miners in the Mesabi Range of Minnesota IWW or Industrial Workers of the World or Wobblies
Daniel De Leon and his followers were expelled for their Marxist views in 1908, just three years after the organization was founded in Chicago from the Western Federation of Mines IWW or Industrial Workers of the World or Wobblies
FTP, identify this Syndicalist organization led by Eugene V IWW or Industrial Workers of the World or Wobblies
Debs and Big Bill Haywood. IWW or Industrial Workers of the World or Wobblies
It was supported by rectangular yellow pamphlets encouraging voters to vote yes on May 24 "for the sake of our boys and girls." This support was galvanized by the WCTU and was lobbied for in Washington under the aegis of its formulator Wayne Wheeler Volstead Act (accept early 18th Amendment before *)
It was sponsored by the chair of the House (*) Judiciary Committee, a congressman from Minnesota, and it gave power of enforcement to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue Volstead Act (accept early 18th Amendment before *)
It defined as being illegal items with more than one-half of one percent of the involved substance Volstead Act (accept early 18th Amendment before *)
FTP, name this act passed in 1919 to enforce the 18th Amendment and which began the era of Prohibition. Volstead Act (accept early 18th Amendment before *)
In the 1930's he served as assistant military advisor to the Philippine government and later he authored the book Waging Peace Dwight David Eisenhower
An advocate of "Modern Republicanism", he organized the "atoms for peace" program that donated uranium to needy countries for peaceful purposes Dwight David Eisenhower
Before ordering the desegregation of the U.S Dwight David Eisenhower
armed forces, he had sent troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to pursue the desegregation of public schools Dwight David Eisenhower
FTP, name this president who had previously led the Allied invasion of North Africa and was Supreme Allied Commander on D-Day. Dwight David Eisenhower
In 1949, the U.N Chester W. Nimitz
secretariat appointed him to supervise a plebiscite to consider whether Kashmir should become part of India or Pakistan, and Truman appointed him to head a committee on Internal Security and Individual Rights, but neither committee ever functioned Chester W. Nimitz
In 1914, he built the Navy's first diesel engine, but it severed one of his fingers in a demonstration Chester W. Nimitz
In 1940, Kimmel was chosen ahead of him to command the Pacific Fleet, but after Pearl Harbor, he replaced Kimmel Chester W. Nimitz
FTP, name this man who would serve as Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet throughout World War II. Chester W. Nimitz
This politician worked as a television commentator and served on the U.N Geraldine Ferraro
Human Rights Commission between losses in the 1992 and 1998 Democratic Senate primaries Geraldine Ferraro
Representing Queens in the House of Representatives from 1979 to 1985, a contributor to this politician's downfall was allegations of family tax problems and bad business connections which first surfaced during a 1984 campaign Geraldine Ferraro
FTP, name this politician best known for being the running mate of Walter Mondale. Geraldine Ferraro
This phrase first appeared in 1762's The Real Advantages Which Ministers and People May Enjoy, Especially In the Colonies, By Conforming to the Church of England Blue Laws
Their constitutionality was upheld in the 1961 case McGowan v Blue Laws
Maryland despite arguments that they violate the Sherman Anti-Trust act Blue Laws
A more thorough explanation of them appeared in 1782's General History of Connecticut by Samuel Peters, whose contention that their name derives from the word "bloody" has no basis Blue Laws
FTP, identify these restrictions on Sabbath behavior named for the color paper they were printed on? Blue Laws
Rufus Peckham cited his decision in 1897's Allgeyer v Lochner v. New York
Louisiana and denied the relevance of 1898's Holden v Lochner v. New York
Hardy in his majority opinion, which raised the specter of communism Lochner v. New York
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes' dissent included his defense of the "reasonable man" test and included his statement that "General propositions do not decide concrete cases," but is best known for his assertion that "The 14th Amendment does not enact Mr Lochner v. New York
Herbert Spencer's Social Statics." FTP, name this 1905 decision in which the court struck down a New York law setting maximum working hours for bakers. Lochner v. New York
In 1817 he became the first American to receive a Ph.D Edward Everett
at Göttingen before becoming a professor of Greek literature at Harvard and editing The North American Review Edward Everett
A Congressman from 1825 to 1835, he led the opposition to Andrew Jackson's dispossession of the Cherokee and went on to serve as the governor of Massachusetts, the president of Harvard, and the vice presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union party Edward Everett
FTP, name this Whig orator, best known for a two-hour speech that was completely overshadowed by Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. Edward Everett
Its sixth provision allowed for the outfitting of "vessels of war" without prior approval in the advent of piracy, while the fifth section prohibited anyone from being a delegate more than three years out of six Articles of Confederation
The fourth Article included a "full faith and credit clause" and the third promised a "firm league of friendship" among the States Articles of Confederation
Due to such failures as a lack of a federal taxation clause, delegates to the Annapolis Congress were forced to call for its emendation Articles of Confederation
Drafted by John Dickinson, FTP, name this short-lived precursor to the U.S Articles of Confederation
Constitution that lasted from 1781 to 1789. Articles of Confederation
Its precursor, the Distribution Act, increased the money supply by distributing the accumulated federal surplus to the states, but the effect spurred deflation and caused a seven-year depression Specie Circular
Issued by treasury secretary Levi Woodbury, it was the largest attack of the president's war against the Second Bank of the United States as well as state "pet banks." Though specifically targeted only at those profiting unfairly from government land tra Specie Circular
A botched invasion of the island of Koh Tang inflamed this incident, which resulted from the dispute over international waters U.S.S. Mayaguez Incident or Affair
The trouble in this affair began en route to Hong Kong, where Captain Charles T U.S.S. Mayaguez Incident or Affair
Miller received orders to divert to Sattahip to pick up retreating personnel U.S.S. Mayaguez Incident or Affair
It was resolved by the dispatch of the U.S.S U.S.S. Mayaguez Incident or Affair
Henry B U.S.S. Mayaguez Incident or Affair
Wilson and the U.S.S U.S.S. Mayaguez Incident or Affair
Coral Sea, which anchored near Poulo Wal Island near the location of a group of survivors U.S.S. Mayaguez Incident or Affair
FTP, name this international incident named for a ship retaken from the Khmer Rouge on May 15, 1975, a military triumph during the presidency of Gerald Ford. U.S.S. Mayaguez Incident or Affair
He got his start in New York City's Plumber's Union and served as business agent for Local 463 George Meany
After, he was elected president of the New York State Federation of Labor and served until 1939 George Meany
He served on the National Labor Relations Board during World War II and as secretary-treasurer of the American Federation of Labor George Meany
After the death of William Green in 1952, he became president of that organization during which he expelled Hoffa and the Teamsters in 1957 George Meany
FTP, name this labor leader that oversaw the merger of and served as first president of the AFL-CIO. George Meany
This political party was formed at a Chicago convention in 1869, and after entering candidates in nine state elections from 1869-71 ran its first three presidential candidates: James Black, Green Smith, and Neal Dow Prohibition Party
They allowed Grover Cleveland to carry New York with the strong 1884 showing of John St Prohibition Party
John, but their best results came in the next two presidential elections, in which Clinton Fisk and John Bidwell polled over 200,000 votes Prohibition Party
FTP, what is this oldest minor U.S Prohibition Party
political party whose cause was hurt by the 21st Amendment? Prohibition Party
After he declined to seek the presidency in 1928 he was appointed ambassador to Great Britain Charles Dawes
He resigned his early post as U.S Charles Dawes
comptroller of the currency in 1897 to seek a Senate seat from Illinois, which he failed to win Charles Dawes
Turning to private business, he organized the Central Trust Company of Illinois, and during WWI headed supply procurement for the American Expeditionary Force Charles Dawes
In 1925 he became Coolidge's vice-president and shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Austen Chamberlain Charles Dawes
FTP, who was this man who chaired a committee that developed a plan for German WWI reparations? Charles Dawes
The first paper it produced was entitled Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, while other seminal work by its members includes Paul Baran's work on packet switching that laid the foundations for the internet RAND Corporation
Inspired by the military's desire to incorporate public-sector technology developments in the aftermath of WWII, it was originally a department of the Douglas Aircraft Company, but in 1948 became a non-profit corporation dedicated to promoting the public RAND Corporation
FTP, what is this California-based think-tank? RAND Corporation
This document failed to receive support in the Senate's Committee of Thirteen and was defeated by one vote Crittenden Compromise
The House Committee of Thirty-Three centered its attentions on other plans and was flat out rejected Crittenden Compromise
It originally proposed six amendments to the Constitution that would maintain slavery in the District of Columbia and stretch the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Crittenden Compromise
Introduced to Congress in December 1860, FTP, identify this last-ditch effort to avoid the Civil War put forth by a Kentucky senator. Crittenden Compromise
In October 1981, members of this group, including leader Kathy Boudin, were captured by police after they attempted to rob a Brink's armored truck in New York Weathermen or Weather Underground
One of its members, Brian Flanagan, assaulted Chicago city prosecutor Richard Elrod in 1969 during the Days of Rage Weathermen or Weather Underground
Also responsible for a bomb that went off in the U.S Weathermen or Weather Underground
Capitol, FTP, what radical terrorist branch of the Students for a Democratic Society was named after the a line in "Subterranean Homesick Blues" by Bob Dylan? Weathermen or Weather Underground
As chair of the President's Committee on Economic Safety in 1934, this social reformer was instrumental in the creation of social security Francis Perkins
Truman appointed her to the U.S Francis Perkins
Civil Service Commission and in 1910 she became head of the New York Consumer's League Francis Perkins
However it was role investigating the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire that brought her recognition as a fighter for the rights of workers and led to her nomination as State Labor Commissioner for New York in 1929 Francis Perkins
FTP, name this woman who, from 1933 to 1945, served as FDR's Secretary of Labor, the first woman cabinet member. Francis Perkins
Its epigraph, revealing the title character has no family and has time to wander among men, is taken from Robert Burton The Sketchbook of Geoffrey Crayon, Gentleman
The second edition ends with "L'Envoy," an elaborate apology for previous sections, including "The Angler," "Traits of Indian Character," and "The Spectre Bridegroom" The Sketchbook of Geoffrey Crayon, Gentleman
It begins with "The Voyage," and other essays include "Westminster Abbey" and "English writers in America." It is best remembered for introducing Katrina van Tassel, Brom Bones, and Rip van Winkle The Sketchbook of Geoffrey Crayon, Gentleman
FTP, identify this work with "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," a work by Washington Irving. The Sketchbook of Geoffrey Crayon, Gentleman
Later the mayor of Massillon, Ohio, he named his son "Legal Tender" and following the event for which he is famous, he served as a delegate to the 1896 Populist convention Jacob Coxey
He established the God Roads Association to promote his public works plan prompted by the Panic of 1893, and in the ensuing depression decided to deliver "a petition with boots on." FTP, identify this man who in the spring of 1894 organized an "Industria Jacob Coxey
One of them resulted in the arrest of both Vermont congressman Matthew Lyon and Benjamin Bache Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (prompt on partial answer)
Two of them expired within three years, leading to angry debates over their political motivation Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (prompt on partial answer)
Allegedly a response to a possible war with France sparked by the XYZ affair, one of them increased the naturalization period and another empowered the President to deport persons considered a threat to the national government Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (prompt on partial answer)
Opposition to this series of four acts prompted the passage of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (prompt on partial answer)
FTP, name this Federalist legislation aimed at curbing Democratic criticisms of John Adams's presidency. Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (prompt on partial answer)
He wrote the book Walls and Bars, a critique of prisons, partly from his own experience in one Eugene Debs
He had his citizenship revoked, only restored posthumously in 1976, and was sentenced to ten years in prison for criticism of the Espionage Act of 1917 although he was released by Harding's order in 1921 Eugene Debs
A native of Terre Haute, he was earlier unsuccessfully defended by Clarence Darrow for his leadership in the Pullman Strike Eugene Debs
He may be most notable, however, for running as a third party candidate in the presidential elections of 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920 Eugene Debs
FTP identify this longtime Socialist Party leader. Eugene Debs
He defended his administration in Presidential Problems, and authored the Olney Corollary along with his secretary of state in response to the Venezuela and British Guiana boundary dispute Grover Cleveland
Earlier, he had vetoed the Five Cent Fare Bill for violating the transit company charter as governor of NY Grover Cleveland
Reverend Samuel D Grover Cleveland
Burchard propelled him to office by calling Democrats the party of "rum, Romanism, and rebellion," causing his opponent James G Grover Cleveland
Blaine to lose the Irish vote Grover Cleveland
FTP name this president first elected in 1884, the only man to serve served two non-consecutive terms in that office. Grover Cleveland
His political writings include Friends and Enemies and What I Think Adlai Ewing Stevenson
This politician was attacked by McCarthy and Nixon for appearing as a character witness in the Alger Hiss trial Adlai Ewing Stevenson
John F Adlai Ewing Stevenson
Kennedy made him the chief U.S Adlai Ewing Stevenson
representative to the United Nations and he died holding that position in 1965, fitting as he was instrumental in setting up that organization Adlai Ewing Stevenson
The grandson of the 23rd U.S Vice-President, in 1948 he was elected governor of Illinois Adlai Ewing Stevenson
FTP, identify this Democratic politician who lost presidential elections in 1952 and 1956 to Dwight Eisenhower. Adlai Ewing Stevenson
The capture of Breymann Redoubt and the death of General Simon Fraser were among the occurrences in the last conflict of this larger battle Battle of Saratoga (prompt on "Bemis Heights" or "Freeman's Farm")
Earlier in the campaign the eventual losers had a detachment defeated at Bennington before their march was stopped following the Battle of Freeman's Farm Battle of Saratoga (prompt on "Bemis Heights" or "Freeman's Farm")
It was part of planned pincer movement in which Barry St Battle of Saratoga (prompt on "Bemis Heights" or "Freeman's Farm")
Leger would advance south from Canada and then attack from the west and Howe would come north from Philadelphia Battle of Saratoga (prompt on "Bemis Heights" or "Freeman's Farm")
FTP, name this 1777 victory of Horatio Gates over John Burgoyne, regarded as the turning point in the Revolutionary War. Battle of Saratoga (prompt on "Bemis Heights" or "Freeman's Farm")
After losing his fortune in a failed railroad venture he served as governor of the Arizona territory from 1878-1881 John Charles Fremont
At the beginning of the Civil War he commanded the Western Department based in St John Charles Fremont
Louis but was later transferred to the Shenandoah where he was defeated by Jackson's forces at Cross Keys John Charles Fremont
He angered Thomas Hart Benton by marrying Benton's daughter and made his name by helping wrest California from Mexico John Charles Fremont
FTP, name this man who, in 1856, became the Republican party's first candidate for president and who was known as "The Pathfinder" for his exploring exploits. John Charles Fremont
This battle's end featured a little known skirmish that involved George Custer's cavalry forces on Cress Ridge Battle of Gettysburg
It included the mortal wounding of General Barksdale and began when Harry Heth's troops stumbled onto those of John Buford Battle of Gettysburg
Oddly, the corps of Confederate general Richard Ewell had to march south to reach the battlefield Battle of Gettysburg
The second day saw a fight for the Peach Orchard but more famously, Longstreet's delaying on the right combined with Joshua Chamberlain's stout defense allowed Little Round Top to hold Battle of Gettysburg
FTP, name this victory for George Meade over Robert E Battle of Gettysburg
Lee, a three-day battle in July 1863 that saw Pickett's charge and was the turning point of the Civil War. Battle of Gettysburg
He revealed the details of his most traumatic time in his autobiography Go Quietly Spiro Agnew
or Else Spiro Agnew
Among the things discussed is his disdain for the man who succeeded him, the then minority leader in the House of Representatives Spiro Agnew
His first political office was as Baltimore County Executive and four years later he won the governorship of Maryland Spiro Agnew
He was reelected twice more, but resigned the second time to become vice president Spiro Agnew
However, within a year Elliot Richardson charged him with accepting bribes and tax evasion Spiro Agnew
FTP, name this man who resigned in disgrace in 1973, just like his president Richard Nixon. Spiro Agnew
Although he was a judge in his state's circuit court he enlisted in the Marines during WWII Joseph McCarthy
He lost his first senatorial campaign to Alexander Wiley but two years later defeated Howard McMurray to gain a seat Joseph McCarthy
In his early senatorial career he was suspected of taking bribes from the Pepsi-Cola company but it was for the campaign that began with a statement he made to the Republican Women's Club of Wheeling, West Virgina that he received a condemnation for condu Joseph McCarthy
After one in 1698, which exempted the poor, England stopped the practice for several hundred years poll tax
1990's "Community Charge," one led to massive protests and the fall of Margaret Thatcher poll tax
Wat Tyler's Peasant Revolt came in response to the one that John of Gaunt passed to finance the Hundred Years War poll tax
In the United States, the term has a more specific meaning, and Harper vs poll tax
Virginia Board of Elections and the 24th Amendment effectively outlawed them poll tax
FTP, give the term for any tax levied on individuals instead of property or merchandise, or as a prerequisite to voting. poll tax
He was known as "King Coody" when he led a Federalist faction known as the "Coodies" during the War of 1812, after which he was elected to the senate Roger B. Taney
The brother-in-law of Francis Scott Key, whom he met while studying law in Annapolis, he became Attorney General under Andrew Jackson, who rewarded him for his service in opposing the National Bank by naming him to the Supreme Court Roger B. Taney
FTP, name this successor to John Marshall as Chief Justice who wrote the decision in the Dred Scott case. Roger B. Taney
After being assaulted by a Catholic soldier in Italy, he returned to America and used the pseudonym "Brutus" to argue that Catholic immigrants were being deployed by the Church to win control of the West for Europe Samuel Morse
He was in England during the War of 1812 as a student of history painting, and on his return produced an enormous depiction of The Old House of Representatives, though he is better known for his scientific achievements Samuel Morse
FTP, name this man who gave up on art to prove that electricity could be used for long-distance communication, which he did by inventing the electric telegraph. Samuel Morse
In its most famous engagement Samuel Greene had to take over command when John L USS Monitor
Worden was blinded USS Monitor
It was lost at sea on route to Cape Hatteras and had nearly sunk while being pulled to its first action by the tug Seth Low USS Monitor
So skeptical were officials about the seaworthiness of this vessel that all development costs were to be returned by its designer, John Ericsson, if it failed USS Monitor
Critics were silenced when this long, low, maneuverable steam boat with a rotating turret famously described at a "cheesbox on a raft" defended the Minnesota in the Battle of Hampton Roads USS Monitor
FTP, name this first ironclad, a Union ship that fought to a standstill with the Merrimack. USS Monitor
Its first two presidents were William Jones and Langdon Cheeves while Alexander Dallas was instrumental in its set-up and Stephen Girard in its financing 2nd Bank of the United States
After its demise it continued for five years under a Pennsylvania State Charter 2nd Bank of the United States
It came under heavy criticism for its supposed role in the Panic of 1819 but its legality was upheld in McCulluch v Maryland where a state law taxing one of its branches was ruled unconstitutional 2nd Bank of the United States
FTP, identify this financial institution headed by Nicholas Biddle whose charter was not renewed because of Andrew Jackson's vetoes. 2nd Bank of the United States
He thanked "the communists of the world for their help in my defense" in his memoir In Battle for Peace about his arrest for being an unregistered agent for a foreign power W(illiam) E(dward) B(urghardt) Du Bois
His many works include a biography of John Brown, the Marxist influenced history Black Reconstruction, and the sociological work The Philadelphia Negro W(illiam) E(dward) B(urghardt) Du Bois
A longtime teacher at Atlanta University, at the end of his life he became a citizen of Ghana, where he died W(illiam) E(dward) B(urghardt) Du Bois
The editor for twenty-five years of the journal Crisis, he developed the idea of the "Talented Tenth." FTP, identify this author of The Souls of Black Folks and co-founder of the NAACP. W(illiam) E(dward) B(urghardt) Du Bois
Its causes include one party's unauthorized publication of "The Public Conduct and Character of John Adams," a document in which the other party ragged on the president the Duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr [accept obvious equivalents for "Duel", accept with names reversed, etc.]
It became inevitable when one participant's statement that the other "ought not be trusted with the reins of government" helped Morgan Lewis win the governorship of New York in 1804 the Duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr [accept obvious equivalents for "Duel", accept with names reversed, etc.]
FTP, name this July 11, 1804 event that took place in Weehawken, New Jersey, in which the Vice President mortally wounded a former Secretary of the Treasury. the Duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr [accept obvious equivalents for "Duel", accept with names reversed, etc.]
The majority opinion cites the 1939 English case Rex v Roe v. Wade
Bourne Roe v. Wade
Earlier, it begins by citing Holmes' dissent in Lochner v Roe v. Wade
New York, acknowledging that "one's exposure to the raw edges of human existence" and other things "are all likely to influence" one's thinking on the subject at hand Roe v. Wade
In addition to the main ruling, the court held that Dr Roe v. Wade
James Hallford did not have standing to sue Roe v. Wade
The court also cites the 1971 case U.S Roe v. Wade
v Roe v. Wade
Vuitch to infer that the Fourteenth Amendment does not apply prenatally Roe v. Wade
Ruling that Article 1196 of the Texas Penal Code "sweeps too broadly," FTP, name this 1973 Supreme Court case which struck down severe state restrictions on abortion. Roe v. Wade
The image of Mary Ann Vecchio, then a teenage runaway, kneeling and screaming in horror, was captured after this event in a Pulitzer Prize-winning photo by John Filo Kent State massacre
Glenn Frank was credited with preventing more casualties by rushing in after the violence began and pleading with the crowd to disperse Kent State massacre
The culmination of tensions that began when Governor James Rhodes ordered troops to watch over a demonstration against action in Cambodia, it left nine wounded and four dead Kent State massacre
FTP, name this May 4, 1970, incident that saw the National Guard fire into a crowd of student protestors at an Ohio university. Kent State massacre
His first major case was 1935's Murray v Thurgood Marshall.
Pearson, but more important was Shelley v Thurgood Marshall.
Kraemer in which he succeeded in abolishing "protective covenants." In 1965 he became U.S Thurgood Marshall.
Solicitor General, a position which acted as a springboard to his most famous post in which he wrote notable dissenting opinions in San Antonio School District v Thurgood Marshall.
Rodriguez and 1978's Bakke case, clearly stating his support of affirmative action Thurgood Marshall.
FTP, name this one-time NAACP lawyer who won Brown v Board of Education and became the first African-American to sit on the Supreme Court. Thurgood Marshall.
Members of this political grouping included former Whigs Lewis Parsons and James Alcorn, but more notorious was Franklin Moses, Jr Scalawags
Many of them, unlike William Holden and John Mosby, were from the small planter caste Scalawags
General James Longstreet was also regarded as a member of this group, whose name was originally used to designate small animals below the attention of farmers and has now come to refer to allies of carpetbaggers Scalawags
FTP, give this term for southerners who joined the Republican Party and supported Reconstruction. Scalawags
Members of its first council included John Twine, clerk of the General Assembly, and John Pory, who was designated its secretary and speaker House of Burgesses
It initially consisted of 22 members based on a plan drawn up by Governor George Yeardley, who awarded each settlement two representatives House of Burgesses
Eventually its members were only elected by men with fifty acres of land or more, and its seat was moved to Middle Plantation House of Burgesses
FTP, name this group whose later members would include Patrick Henry, and when it was formed in 1619 in Jamestown, was the first elected legislative assembly in the New World. House of Burgesses
It was initially dispatched when news came of riots instigated by forces who supported Weyler y Nicolau USS Maine
It was to be reinforced based on the recommendation of Fitzhugh Lee, the local American consul USS Maine
In 1976 Hyman Rickover published a book questioning the long-held belief about the cause of its destruction, claiming that Captain Charles Sigsbee's poor supervision of the coal bunker was the real cause USS Maine
Regardless, the incident was greatly magnified by the bellicose "Yellow Press" back home USS Maine
FTP, name this vessel whose explosion in Havana harbor in 1898 was a catalyst for the Spanish-American War. USS Maine
As Alien Property Custodian, he presided over the confiscation of German chemical patents A. Mitchell Palmer
Promoted to replace Thomas Gregory, he was rebuked by the Senate for his failure to act during the strike of the Seattle General Labor Council A. Mitchell Palmer
Stung by this criticism, he broke up the Union of Russian Workers and deported several hundred radicals on the Buford A. Mitchell Palmer
FTP, name this Fighting Quaker, the attorney general who presided over the Red Scare of 1919 and conducted a series of namesake "Raids." A. Mitchell Palmer
Its provisions were extended in 1972's Argersinger v Gideon v. Wainwright
Hamlin, and it overturned the 1942 decision of Betts v Gideon v. Wainwright
Brady Gideon v. Wainwright
Abe Fortas argued that by allowing states to implement only certain elements of the Bill of Rights, the Supreme Court was allowing a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment Gideon v. Wainwright
The decision, written by Hugo Black, stated that "The individual, especially the indigent, is in the greatest need of his Constitutional Rights when he finds himself in trouble with the law." Sparked by the arrest of an electrician for breaking into a poo Gideon v. Wainwright
Vermont Governor William A Anti-Masonic Party
Palmer and Pennsylvania governor Joseph Ritner were members of this party which was heavily supported by Thurlow Weed and his numerous publications Anti-Masonic Party
Sending several men to the 32nd Congress its presidential candidate carried only Vermont in the 1832 presidential election Anti-Masonic Party
Started after the dissapearance of William Morgan, they nominated Willaim Wirt at a convention in Baltimore, the first national nominating conventional held Anti-Masonic Party
FTP, identify this American political party that was against secret societies, particularly the namesake one. Anti-Masonic Party
He was a leading attorney on the defense team of Congressman Sickles and briefly served as attorny general during the lame-duck period of Buchanan's presidency Edwin M. Stanton
He died after only four days on the Surpreme Court and was the legal advisor to Simon Cameron whom he replaced therby entering his most famous office Edwin M. Stanton
A proponent of Radical Reconstruction, it was his removal from office against the dictates of the Tenure of Office act which caused Andrew Johnson's impeachment Edwin M. Stanton
FTP, name this man who served as Secretary of War during the Civil War. Edwin M. Stanton
Noted examples of this type of legislation are the 1976 Hart-Scott-Rodino Act as well as the 1950 Celler-Kefauver Act and the 1936 Robinson-Patman Act Anti-trust act or legislation or regulation etc.
Opposing a type of arrangement devised by Samuel Dodd, they are based upon Congress's right to regulate interstate commerce Anti-trust act or legislation or regulation etc.
The first of its type was crippled by the Supreme Court's ruling in U.S Anti-trust act or legislation or regulation etc.
v E.C Anti-trust act or legislation or regulation etc.
Knight Co Anti-trust act or legislation or regulation etc.
although it was eventually used successfully against Standard Oil Anti-trust act or legislation or regulation etc.
FTP, identify this type of law, the most famous of which are the 1914 Clayton Act and 1890 Sherman Act and which deter corporate monopolies. Anti-trust act or legislation or regulation etc.
He served as America's first secretary of foreign affairs and drafted the Address to the People of Great Britain for the First Continental Congress John Jay
While serving abroad, he found that he was elected governor of his home state in absentia John Jay
He had already drafted the constitution of that home state, New York, in 1777 John Jay
However, he is better remembered for negotiating defined U.S.-Canada boundaries with Lord Greenville in 1794 as part of his namesake treaty, and for the post he was appointed to in 1789 John Jay
A co-author of the Federalist Papers with Hamilton and Madison, FTP, name this first chief justice of the U.S John Jay
Supreme Court. John Jay
The head of this man was embalmed by Frederick Weedon and was eventually lost during a fire in Valentine Mott's Surgical and Pathological Museum Osceola (accept William Powell before it is mentioned)
His father was a British trader named William Powell, but he became better known by a name derived from a ceremonial black drink Osceola (accept William Powell before it is mentioned)
His bitter opposition to the Treaty of Payne's Landing led to his beginning, in 1835, a two-year guerilla war against U.S Osceola (accept William Powell before it is mentioned)
forces in and around Georgia and Florida Osceola (accept William Powell before it is mentioned)
FTP, name this Indian leader and chieftain of the Seminole tribe. Osceola (accept William Powell before it is mentioned)
The convention at the Cow Palace nominated him on the first ballot, and his platform included the sale of the TVA and a plan to make Social Security voluntary Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
A five-term senator, he served both before and after the presidential election Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
In that election he won his home state by only 5,000 votes and only five others in the Deep South partly because of his remark that the U.S Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
should use "a low-yield atomic bomb on Chinese supply lines in Vietnam." FTP, identify this ultra-conservative Arizona Republican senator who also claimed that "extremism in defense of liberty is no vice" before he lost the 1964 presidential election. Barry Morris Goldwater, Sr.
In the first decades of the twentieth century, this organization was divided into "lily-white" and "black and tan" factions over the issue of African-American participation Republican Party [accept GOP]
It was originally founded and named by Alvan Bovay and Chicago Tribune publisher Joseph Medill Republican Party [accept GOP]
It suffered another factional dispute over the issue of civil service reform, with leaders including Roscoe Conkling of the Stalwarts and James G Republican Party [accept GOP]
Blaine of the Half-Breeds Republican Party [accept GOP]
FTP, name this political party founded in 1854, whose first successful presidential candidate was Abraham Lincoln. Republican Party [accept GOP]
Taking place at 53 Christopher Street just off Sheridan Square in a pair of converted nineteenth-century stables, after entering, the police barricaded themselves inside and called for help from the Tactical Patrol Force Stonewall Riots
A popular hang out for the Mattachine Society, the event here was touched off by the second police raid in a week and not by Judy Garland's death as some have suggested Stonewall Riots
Among those arrested was folk singer Dave Van Ronk and for days crowds of protesters gathered to shout "Gay Power" Stonewall Riots
For 10 points, name this disturbance that began on June 27, 1969 outside a New York bar and led to the beginning of the Gay Rights movement. Stonewall Riots
It suffered setbacks when a proposal for a Manchurian railroad fell through, but it did succeed in gaining J.P dollar diplomacy (prompt on "open door policy" before "Nicaragua")
Morgan entrance into a European financing consortium dollar diplomacy (prompt on "open door policy" before "Nicaragua")
In Nicaragua, it materialized as support for President Adolfo Diaz against Jose Zelaya, who threatened the interests of the United Fruit Company dollar diplomacy (prompt on "open door policy" before "Nicaragua")
It was officially abandoned by the Wilson administration, though its final end did not come until the overthrow of Carlos Manuel de Cespedes in Cuba dollar diplomacy (prompt on "open door policy" before "Nicaragua")
Formulated by Philander Knox, FTP, identify this Taft foreign policy, which stated that U.S dollar diplomacy (prompt on "open door policy" before "Nicaragua")
power should be used to aid U.S dollar diplomacy (prompt on "open door policy" before "Nicaragua")
business interests abroad. dollar diplomacy (prompt on "open door policy" before "Nicaragua")
It included a clause that declared that the federal government was responsible for compensating slave owners whose runaways could not be retaken because of violence or intimidation Crittenden Compromise
Thus slavery in the District of Columbia would be protected, as was the movement of slaves between states Crittenden Compromise
Joint resolution S Crittenden Compromise
No Crittenden Compromise
50, it was defeated in the Senate by a single vote and it would have been the first document to introduce the word "slavery" into the constitution Crittenden Compromise
For 10 points, name this last ditch effort to avert the Civil War proposed in December 1860 by a Kentucky congressman. Crittenden Compromise
Within the first few minutes of this event, 53 dead bodies littered the ground with many of them dead from jumping out of a window Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (or Triangle Factory Fire)
One of the people to investigate this disaster was Francis Perkins, FDR's future Labor Secretary, who determined that the large death toll was due to neglect as well as the company policy of keeping its exit doors locked Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (or Triangle Factory Fire)
Resulting in the deaths of 148 people, most of them immigrant workers, FTP, what was the name of this conflagration that occurred at the eponymous sweatshop in New York City in 1911? Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (or Triangle Factory Fire)
At the battle of Gettysburg, this man commanded the Union XI Corps and ordered the retreat from McPherson's Hill on the first day Oliver O. Howard
In 1877, he commanded the United States cavalry pursuing the Nez Perce and eventually forced the surrender of Chief Joseph Oliver O. Howard
But he is best known for his post-Civil War role, when he was selected to head the Freedman's Bureau Oliver O. Howard
For ten points, who is this man, namesake of a historically black college founded in 1867 in Washington DC? Oliver O. Howard
He was instrumental in getting a civil rights proposal on President Truman's platform in 1948, and after becoming assistant majority leader of the Senate in 1961, he helped win approval for the nuclear test ban treaty of 1963 Hubert H. Humphrey
In a brief stint out of public service, he taught at Macalaster College from 1969-70 before being re-elected to the Senate and taking the post of deputy president pro tem, which was created just for him Hubert H. Humphrey
FTP, name this man who also served as mayor of Minneapolis, the Vice President under LBJ, who lost the 1968 Presidential election to Nixon. Hubert H. Humphrey
Martin Luther King refers to him in the introduction of Why We Can't Wait as a specific example of a man whose contribution to history has been overlooked by standard histories Crispus Attucks
He may have been using the name Michael Johnson for some time and it is unclear whether his father was an Indian executed for treason during King Philip's Wart or a runaway from William Brown's farm Crispus Attucks
Records do agree that he was a sailor, originally hailing from Framingham who was on the Common to voice his opposition to the Townshend Acts when a stick was thrown and the shooting began Crispus Attucks
He thus died on March 5, 1770 Crispus Attucks
For 10 points, identify this main rabble-rouser of the Boston Massacre who is commonly considered the first casualty of the American Revolutionary War. Crispus Attucks
Nine years after the treaty was signed, the Bay Islands were ceded to Honduras Clayton-Bulwer treaty
A year before the treaty, E G Clayton-Bulwer treaty
Squier obtained Tigre Island from Nicaragua, after which the United States refused to recognize the protectorate of Mosquitia Clayton-Bulwer treaty
The treaty was in force for 51 years, until being abrogated by the Hay-Pauncefote agreement Clayton-Bulwer treaty
FTP, name this treaty in which the United States and Great Britain both guaranteed the neutrality of an eventual canal through Panama and which was signed in 1850. Clayton-Bulwer treaty
He was named after his grandfather, who served as secretary of state under Benjamin Harrison and also happened to be the nephew of Robert Lansing, who was Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
In 1949, Thomas Dewey appointed him to Robert Wagner's vacant U.S John Foster Dulles
Senate seat in New York, which he served in for a year John Foster Dulles
The next year, as an ambassador at large, he negotiated the peace treaty with Japan and he would move on to his most famous post in 1953, setting foreign policy for the next six years John Foster Dulles
FTP, identify this secretary of state under Eisenhower and namesake of a Washington D.C John Foster Dulles
airport. John Foster Dulles
It became a territorial capital on 25 November 1861, three years after its founding on the site of Eagle Station, and just over a century later it was consolidated with surrounding Ormsby County to form one governmental unit Carson City
The branch mint established there in 1870 was the only one in U.S Carson City
history to strike coins with two letters in its mark, and marked the shortest service of any U.S Carson City
mint at 23 years Carson City
Helped by the Virginia and Truckee Railroad, that mint converted much of the Comstock Lode's deposit into coins Carson City
The namesake of a famous frontiersman and scout for explorer John C Carson City
Frémont, FTP identify this capital of Nevada. Carson City
He wrote novels like An Eye for an Eye and Farmington that reflected on his professional experiences, but the publications Prohibition Mania and Crime: Its Cause and Treatments seem more apropos Clarence Darrow
His clients included the Sweets, a black family from Detroit threatened with expulsion from an all-white neighborhood Clarence Darrow
Originally from Kinsman, Ohio, he nearly succeeded in buying the McNamara Brothers, who were accused of dynamiting the Los Angeles Times building, a new lease on life, but failed when they suddenly pleaded guilty Clarence Darrow
He did help "Big Bill" Haywood and also Eugene Debs Clarence Darrow
FTP identify this man most famous for his courtroom showdown with William Jennings Bryan at the Scopes Monkey Trial. Clarence Darrow
Along with his secretary of the navy William Chandler he recommended appropriations to improve the U.S Chester Alan Arthur
fleet and it was during his presidency that the coaling station at Pearl Harbor was acquired Chester Alan Arthur
He won the Lizzie Jennings case resulting in New York forbidding segregation on public transport Chester Alan Arthur
This one time Director of the New York City Customhouse vetoed a bill excluding Chinese immigration for 20 years, but signed the Chinese Exclusion Act that banned them for 10 years Chester Alan Arthur
Expected to be a defender of the Stalwarts, for 10 points, name this president who disappointed Conkling by signing the Pendleton Civil Service Act after the assassination of his predecessor James Garfield. Chester Alan Arthur
The citation of Boos v Texas v. Johnson
Barry, which was decided a year before this case, held that "the most exacting scrutiny" must be applied to statutes that could allow government regulation of political expression, such the one in this case that dealt with the "desecration of venerated ob Texas v. Johnson
FTP, name this 1989 Supreme Court decision declaring that the first amendment right to free expression protected flag-burning. Texas v. Johnson
After graduating from Brown University, he worked as an editorial writer for the New York Tribune after practicing law in Springfield, Illinois John Milton Hay
Later in life, he collaborated with his friend John Nicolay on the publication of Abraham Lincoln: A History, describing the man for whom he worked as private secretary John Milton Hay
His literary talent resulted in his novel The Bread-Winners and The Pike-County Ballads and Other Pieces, but this politician may be best-known for his negotiation of the 1898 Treaty of Paris and for several namesake treaties with Herran, Bunau-Varilla, a John Milton Hay
FTP, name this major proponent of the Open Door policy and secretary of state under McKinley and Roosevelt. John Milton Hay
In the days leading up to this battle, the Neosho and Tippecanoe refueled the American Fleet, allowing for the sinking of the destroyer, Kikuzuki Battle of the Coral Sea
Inferior scouting led to the sinking of the Sims and Shoho, and the overlooking of the most important forces Battle of the Coral Sea
Damage to the Zuikaku and Shokaku on the second day eliminated them from participation in the Battle of Midway, and the Japanese operations to capture both Tulagi and Port Moresby were abandoned Battle of the Coral Sea
FTP, what is this battle that resulted in the loss of the carrier USS Lexington, the first in which the opposing fleets never saw each other? Battle of the Coral Sea
His chief employees included John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon, who used the pseudonym Cato John Peter Zenger
His target quarreled constantly about his salary and was especially disliked for replacing chief justice Lewis Morris John Peter Zenger
During his trial, chief justice Delancey rebuffed his lawyer, who was forced to make his case that truth as a defense cannot be held as libel directly to the jury John Peter Zenger
His rival, the Gazette had aroused his ire by supporting new governor William Cosby John Peter Zenger
FTP, name this printer of the New York Weekly Journal defended by Alexander Hamilton in a 1735 case that aided establishment of freedom of the press. John Peter Zenger
This name provides an alternate name for the Lokono people of Guyana Arawaks
Often associated with the Saladoid culture, the "Island" version of this group is also more accurately called the Taino Arawaks
Perhaps their greatest cacique was Hatuey who, despite their reputation as being exceedingly friendly, led them in revolt against the Spanish Arawaks
They probably originated in the Orinoco Basin and inhabited all the Antilles until they were driven further north by the cannibalistic Caribs Arawaks
FTP name this tribe of Native Americans who greeted Columbus upon his arrival. Arawaks
He was the architect of the Pact of Espino Negro which ended the civil war between Diaz and Moncada in Guatemala and soon after was appointed governor-general of the Philippines, a post he held until 1929 Henry Lewis Stimson
He authored "The Decision to use the Atomic Bomb," the first written defense of that action Henry Lewis Stimson
Much earlier he had headed the U.S Henry Lewis Stimson
delegations to the Geneva Disarmament Conference and the London Naval Conference and, in opposition to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, put forth his namesake doctrine Henry Lewis Stimson
FTP identify this secretary of state for Hoover and secretary of war for FDR and Truman. Henry Lewis Stimson
The majority decision in this case relied upon the implied right to "freedom of contract" in the 14th Amendment established by Allgeyer v Lochner v. New York
Louisiana, combined with an appeal to the cleanliness and sanitation required by the industry in question Lochner v. New York
It overturned Holden v Lochner v. New York
Hardy despite Holmes' dissent, in which he defended the "reasonable man" test and objected that the 14th Amendment was being used to institute social Darwinism Lochner v. New York
Overturned by Muller v Lochner v. New York
Oregon, FTP, what was this 1905 case that declared invalid a law setting limits for the working hours of bakers in New York? Lochner v. New York
It was voted on and defeated for a final time after Congress passed the English Bill, requiring a referendum on the document as a whole and promising over 5,000,000 acres of land if ratified Lecompton Constitution
Its drafters did not allow a vote on the entire document, and only offered a choice between two versions, each unacceptable to the drafters' opponents Lecompton Constitution
After new elections brought Free Soilers to power in the legislature, it was voted on and rejected, but nevertheless Buchanan recommended statehood be granted under its terms Lecompton Constitution
FTP, what was this 1857 pro-slavery proposal for the constitution of Kansas? Lecompton Constitution
This president suffered a major defeat when Georgia forced him to accept the controversial treaty of Indian Springs J ohn Q uincy Adams
After getting his start in politics as envoy to the Netherlands and Prussia, he served in the Senate from Massachusetts, but resigned in 1808 for having supported the Embargo Act J ohn Q uincy Adams
Late in life he returned to the Senate, where his opposition to the "gag rule" gave him the nickname "Old Man Eloquent", while earlier he had negotiated an 1819 treaty setting the U.S J ohn Q uincy Adams
border with Spain with Onis J ohn Q uincy Adams
FTP, who was this president who defeated Andrew Jackson via the "corrupt bargain" of 1824? J ohn Q uincy Adams
A year after he passed away in San Antonio, The Road to Freedom featured an essay by Emma Goldman that criticized this man for his positions on the MacNamara Case and the Russian Revolution Samuel Gompers
Only John McBride, and then only for one year, interrupted his leadership of the organization with which he is most associated Samuel Gompers
After participating in the meetings of the Economic and Sociological Club and the International Workingmen's Association, this man began to organize his fellow cigarmakers into a powerful Union, this led him to organize the FOTLU and eventually led to wha Samuel Gompers
It called for a President-General; a General and Particular Treasurer to handle the government's finances; and a Grand Council whose members were elected every three years Albany Plan [accept Franklin's Plan of Union before Franklin]
The Grand Council would meet in Philadelphia and its creator outlined the number of Council members for 12 of the 13 colonies Albany Plan [accept Franklin's Plan of Union before Franklin]
Some of the impetus for this plan can be seen in the author's cartoon "Join or Die." For ten points, name this plan espoused by Benjamin Franklin that he presented at the namesake Congress in 1753. Albany Plan [accept Franklin's Plan of Union before Franklin]
This Vermont native's political positions included head of House and then Senate committees on territories, in which capacity he gave a speech telling opponents of expansion that "you cannot fetter the limbs of this young giant." His support for expansion Stephen Arnold Douglas
For 10 points, name this man who ran for president against John Bell, John C Stephen Arnold Douglas
Breckenridge and Abraham Lincoln, against the last of whom he had held a famous series of debates in Illinois. Stephen Arnold Douglas
After losing all his savings in Grant and Ward's failure in 1884 he was offered the consul generalship at Guayaquil, Ecuador, where he stayed until he died Thomas Nast
Though afflicted with dyslexia, his wife often helped him write captions for work, which began with his coverage of Garibaldi for The London News Thomas Nast
But he truly gained notoriety with work for Harper's Weekly during the Civil War Thomas Nast
He also contributed illustrations to books, including Mary Dodge's Hans Brinker and a version of Clement Clarke Moore's A Visit from St Thomas Nast
Nicholas Thomas Nast
That vision of Santa Claus was almost as famous as his vision of the "Tammany Tiger Lose," and his depictions of William Tweed Thomas Nast
For 10 points, name this pioneering cartoonist remembered for popularizing the elephant and donkey as images of the Republican and Democratic parties. Thomas Nast
The effort to enact it was led by Dr Pure Food and Drug Act
Harvey W Pure Food and Drug Act
Wiley, head of the Bureau of Chemistry in the Department of Agriculture Pure Food and Drug Act
Wiley enlisted the support of the American Medical Association, the General Federation of Women's Clubs, and other consumer groups Pure Food and Drug Act
Impetus for this act came following a scandal during the Spanish-American War in 1898 involving an "embalmed" substance, this event, plus a series of articles by Charles Edward Russell and Samuel Hopkins Adams, which slammed, respectively the Beef Trust a Pure Food and Drug Act
General Snowden set up his headquarters at the local schoolhouse as he and his troops took up a strong defensive position at Munhall Homestead Strike
Any prisoners were brought to the temporarily constructed Camp Sam Black Homestead Strike
The problems had begun six days earlier, on July 6th, when Hugh Douglas confronted the two hundred and eighty armed men who had floated down the Monongahela on the orders of Henry Clay Frick Homestead Strike
These Pinkerton guards were supposed to continue the policy of evicting the strikers from company owned housing so that scabs could replace the members of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers Homestead Strike
FTP, identify this 1892 Pennsylvania strike against the Carnegie Steel Company. Homestead Strike
He was a 10 term member of the House of Representatives signed a namesake act with Arthur Capper that is still in effect and enables farmers to form combines without fear of anti-trust prosecution Andrew Joseph Volstead
His House votes in favor of anti-lynching legislation were fostered during his time as Yellow Medicine County's prosecuting attorney Andrew Joseph Volstead
Entering politics after becoming mayor of Granite Falls, Minnesota, he is best remembered for writing a bill that was originally vetoed by President Wilson in 1919, but passed and would serve to enforce the 18th amendment Andrew Joseph Volstead
FTP identify this politician who authored the National Prohibition Act. Andrew Joseph Volstead
While working for Congressman Richard Kleberg he was elected speaker of the "Little Congress", and two years later became the youngest state director of the National Youth Administration Lyndon Baines Johnson
Elected to the 10th Congressional District to fill the seat of the late James P Lyndon Baines Johnson
Buchanan and held the seat until being elected to the Senate in 1948 Lyndon Baines Johnson
He first gained national attention as chairman of the Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee of the Senate Armed Services Committee during the Korean War Lyndon Baines Johnson
Particularly proud of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and his work on the US space program, this is, for 10 points, what Texan who served as Kennedy's first vice-president? Lyndon Baines Johnson
He took over John Quincy Adams' congressional seat in 1848 Horace Mann
As a Massachusetts senator he led a movement to establish a state hospital for the insane at Worcester, the first of its kind in the country Horace Mann
Largely self-educated, he attended Brown and later Litchfield Law School and finished his life as the president of Ohio's Antioch College where he attempted to implement the plans he had made as secretary of Massachusetts' state board of education Horace Mann
For 10 points name this founder of the Common School Journal, the "father of American education". Horace Mann
Four years after becoming editor of the Newburyport Herald in 1824 he was appointed editor of the National Philanthropist in Boston William Lloyd Garrison
He adopted a quote by Thomas Paine: "Our country is the world - our countrymen are mankind" as the motto of his paper William Lloyd Garrison
In 1828 he began working with Benjamin Lundy on the Genius of Universal Emancipation William Lloyd Garrison
The Tappan brothers broke away from his Anti-Slavery Society because of his attacks on the Constitution and the prominent role of women in the organization William Lloyd Garrison
For 10 points name this American abolitionist known for his newspaper The Liberator. William Lloyd Garrison
His collected essays were released in 2002 with the title Another Day at the Front: Dispatches from the Race War Ishmael Reed
Later novels like Reckless Eyeballing and The Terrible Threes were written in response to feminist criticism of early works such as Yellow Back Radio Broke Down Ishmael Reed
Henry Gates' Signifying Monkey cites his use of Hoodoo conventions in works like The Freelance Pall Bearers as a primary example of black literature's transformative style Ishmael Reed
The detective Papa LaBas (La-Bahh) is featured in two of his most famous works The Last Days of Louisiana Red and Mumbo Jumbo Ishmael Reed
FTP identify this author whose satires include Flight to Canada. Ishmael Reed
Henry Ford met a force under Joachim de la Torre near Petaluma ranch Bear Flag Republic
Later, they defeated Jose Castro at Olompai Bear Flag Republic
The constitution signed at Mokelumne River created posts like chief justice which was held by John Nash Bear Flag Republic
Ezekiel Merrit captured General Vallejo and several family members in a pre-dawn raid at Sonoma Bear Flag Republic
Within a few weeks, its first leader, William Ide, was forced from power by John Fremont and it surrendered to Admiral Sloat Bear Flag Republic
For 10 points, name this nation that broke away from Mexico in 1846. Bear Flag Republic
Before this battle began Deaf Smith had been dispatched to destroy Vince's bridge: this cut off the enemy's supply lines, but also cut off all avenues of retreat San Jacinto
The stealthy advance of the "Twin Sisters," a pair of six pound cannons, up over the crest that hid one side's camp helped the fighting to be over in 18 minutes San Jacinto
According to Col San Jacinto
Delgado's eyewitness account, the close range of the American settlers' artillery coupled with cries echoing Sidney Sherman's command to "Remember the Alamo" was too much for Santa Anna's forces San Jacinto
FTP name this 1836 battle won by the forces of Sam Houston that secured Texan independence. San Jacinto
This organization took its current name in 1927 after the St Brookings Institution
Louis businessman who encouraged it to concentrate on economic research Brookings Institution
Its early work concluded that FDR's National Recovery Administration had done more harm than good; however, it was also involved in establishing Social Security's accounting system and organizing the Marshall Plan Brookings Institution
Established in 1916 as the "Institute for Government Research," in recent years it has come to be considered slightly left-of-center Brookings Institution
For 10 points - identify this nonpartisan public policy institution, the oldest of the "think tanks." Brookings Institution
He relieved Jackson at Harpers Ferry and organized the Army of the Shenandoah Joseph Eggleston Johnston
He fooled General Patterson in the Valley and moved back towards Richmond Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Later reinforcing John Magruder on the Peninsula, he was wounded at Fair Oaks Joseph Eggleston Johnston
He failed to relieve Pemberton at Vicksburg and prevented the capture of Atlanta for several months before he was replaces with Hood who eventually evacuated the city Joseph Eggleston Johnston
He again failed to defeat Sherman at Bentonville and was forced to surrender a month later at Durham Station Joseph Eggleston Johnston
For 10 points, name this Civil War general who commanded Confederate troops on the Peninsula before being replaced by Lee. Joseph Eggleston Johnston
Its namesake was known as "Radical Jack" and served as British ambassador to Russia from 1835 to 1837; however he is more famous for the six-month visit that produced this report Durham Report or Report on the Affairs of British North America
The report condemned the Family Compact, which it described as a "Tory Clique," and recommended reorganizing the government to counter American influence and to solve the problem of "two nations warring in the bosom of a single state." For 10 points - na Durham Report or Report on the Affairs of British North America
Many members of the losing side in this war ended up fighting the plains Indians and living in Bracketville, Texas where their rare dialect of Gullah survives today Second Seminole War
The war began when a force under Micanopy, Jumper and Alligator attacked an army moving from Fort Brooke to Fort King under the command of Major Dade Second Seminole War
Angry over the 1832 treaty of Payne's Landing, the war did not end until 1842, four years after the death of the insurgent's most important leader Second Seminole War
For 10 points, name this conflict between Native Americans under Osceola and U.S Second Seminole War
forces in Florida. Second Seminole War
As an aide to Curtis LeMay during World War II, he helped plan the fire-bombing of Tokyo Robert Strange McNamara
A San Francisco native, he joined Ford in 1946 after reading a Life magazine article about how few college educated managers there were in the company Robert Strange McNamara
Rising rapidly, he became the first President of Ford to come from outside of Henry Ford's family, named to that position in 1960 Robert Strange McNamara
Serving as President of the World Bank from 1968-1981, he is best known for his Cabinet tenure, discussed in his 1995 biography In Retrospect Robert Strange McNamara
For 10 points-name this subject of Errol Morris' documentary The Fog of War, Secretary of Defense under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. Robert Strange McNamara
Inspired by the elder brother's work with the SeeBees during World War II, the brothers' first design was a five-room Cape Cod with the bathroom sharing a common wall and common plumbing with the kitchen William and Arthur Levitt
Tight supplier control meant that the brother's product could be sold for under eight thousand dollars, meaning FHA-VA loans could acquire their new product for little in the way of a down payment William and Arthur Levitt
Making their name at first on Long Island, it soon became synonymous with suburbia William and Arthur Levitt
For 10 points-name these brothers, pioneers in pre-fabricated post-World War II housing. William and Arthur Levitt
The attackers came from the brigades of Trousdale and Pillow who attacked from in front of the Molina del Rey Chapultepec
The defending force contained the battalion of San Patricio and cadets from the military academy who were immortalized as "los Ninos Héroes" Chapultepec
As the U.S Chapultepec
forces reached the crest of the mountain fierce hand-to-hand combat erupted that saw the wounding of Robert E Chapultepec
Lee and P.G.T Chapultepec
Beauregard and the outnumbered Mexicans withdrew in the face of Winfield Scott's army Chapultepec
For 10 points, what September 1847 battle was followed two days later by the occupation of Mexico City? Chapultepec
Modeled on the Masonic order, it admitted women to full membership to help improve intellectual life and overcome rural isolation The National Grange or Grangers or Order of Patrons of Husbandry
Morrison Waite agreed with their view that private enterprise affects the public interest The National Grange or Grangers or Order of Patrons of Husbandry
Though the government ruled against their legislature in Wabash v The National Grange or Grangers or Order of Patrons of Husbandry
Illinois, the next year the Interstate Congress Act was passed The National Grange or Grangers or Order of Patrons of Husbandry
Their laws against railroad abused had been initially upheld in Munn v The National Grange or Grangers or Order of Patrons of Husbandry
Illinois The National Grange or Grangers or Order of Patrons of Husbandry
Officially opposed to monopolies and supporting a graduated income tax, for 10 points, this is what social and political organization organized by Oliver Kelly in 1867. The National Grange or Grangers or Order of Patrons of Husbandry
Early on the protagonist's brother becomes so incensed at family travails that he drives a horse in the streets, becoming "so sharp that he believed in nothing." A later scene describes the "forlorn" Hattie, who has been scorned by Pete Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
When a woman of "brilliance and audacity" named Nellie lures the heroine's love, Jimmie, away with promises of worldly sophistication, the title character turns to her mother, Mary, who spurns her, this leads to her death on a wharf following a life of pr Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
FTP, identify this novel describing the fall of "a girl of the streets" written by Stephen Crane. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
A group headed by Timothy Ruggles denounced it as a danger to English liberties, particularly to trial by jury and representative government, and William Pitt questioned its validity Stamp Act
In Boston a mob calling itself the "Loyal Nine" rioted against Andrew Oliver and attacked the house of Governor Thomas Hutchinson Stamp Act
Repealed in one of the first acts of Lord Rockingham's ministry, it was meant to pay for some of the costs of defense of the American colonies Stamp Act
For 10 points, George Grenville passed what 1765 act that imposed a tax on a wide range paper goods. Stamp Act
In 1770 he attempted to buy into George Croghan's new colony of Vandalia, but the Boston Tea Party interrupted the plan George Washington
He left his family estate at Pope's Creek after his father's death and became a surveyor, in which capacity he laid out the town of Belhaven, Virginia George Washington
His diary of service under Robert Dinwiddie established his literary reputation, but his early military career came to a dismal end at Fort Necessity George Washington
Although he had already led the Society of the Cincinnati he agreed to lead the army in 1798, having established his martial reputation at Trenton, Princeton, and Yorktown George Washington
For 10 points, name this first President. George Washington
The supposed murder of Oliver Miller was one of the events that precipitated it, inspiring the rise of the Mingo Creek Militia and the assault on John Neville's house Whiskey Rebellion
Its leader, David Bradford, claimed to have been blackmailed into joining the insurgents, and when Governor Thomas Mifflin refused to get involved, Harry Lee led 13,000 militiamen called by President Washington to restore order in Washington County, Penns Whiskey Rebellion
For 10 points -name this 1794 rebellion that protested a new tax on distilleries. Whiskey Rebellion
This owner of the Bellechasse sugar plantation once challenged Jefferson Davis to a duel Judah Philip Benjamin
Davis probably would have won if he'd accepted the challenge, since this man had nearly lost his eyesight through overwork at the law practice he shared with John Slidell Judah Philip Benjamin
In 1858 this Louisianan became the first professing Jew in the U.S Judah Philip Benjamin
Senate, and in 1861 he mended fences with Davis and joined his cabinet Judah Philip Benjamin
For 10 points - name this Confederate attorney general, secretary of war, and secretary of state. Judah Philip Benjamin
Its leader intended to make a flag with "death or liberty" written on it Prosser's Revolt or Gabriel's Revolt
Its namesake's brother, Solomon, was a blacksmith who fashioned swords and bayonets for the efforts Prosser's Revolt or Gabriel's Revolt
After Mosby Sheppard was alerted, authorities occupied the federal armory at Manchester, but the plot was undone when a violent storm that washed out the bridge across Brook Swamp on the road leading to Richmond Prosser's Revolt or Gabriel's Revolt
Aiming to massacre all whites, except for Methodists, Quakers, and Frenchmen, its leader would be named King of Virginia Prosser's Revolt or Gabriel's Revolt
For ten points, name this 1800 slave revolt, the first major slave rebellion in the United States. Prosser's Revolt or Gabriel's Revolt
The Anti-Chain-Store Act made its regulations on price and other forms of discrimination more easily enforced and section 7's prohibition on one firm acquiring another's stock when it would reduce competition was solidified by the Celler-Kefauver Act Clayton Antitrust Act
It legitimized boycotts and non-violent strikes and protests against companies and allowed unions and agricultural companies to have directorates worth more than $1,000,000, though such directorates were prohibited in other industries and forbade cutting Clayton Antitrust Act
For 10 points, name this antitrust act passed in 1914, which augmented the Sherman antitrust act. Clayton Antitrust Act
The opinion of Elkins v Mapp v. Ohio
U.S Mapp v. Ohio
is quoted in its majority opinion, which also noted that the standard set in Weeks v Mapp v. Ohio
U.S Mapp v. Ohio
did not hinder the activities of the FBI not deterred the administration of criminal justice Mapp v. Ohio
Justice Harlan's dissent saw no reason for the Court to rule any differently than it did in Wolf v Mapp v. Ohio
Colorado Mapp v. Ohio
Miller v Mapp v. Ohio
California also played a role as "obscene" material had been forcefully seized from a Cleveland apartment, forming the basis of, for 10 points, what Supreme Court case, which saw the establishment of the exclusionary rule to state law enforcement? Mapp v. Ohio
General Cleburne supervised the retreat from this battle after Union forces decoded signals sent by General Stevenson from the Craven house Battle of Chattanooga
Made possible by Hooker's formation of the "cracker line", George Thomas ordered Hooker into "the battle above the clouds," on Lookout Mountain Battle of Chattanooga
The next day Thomas' forces advanced on Missionary Ridge and the Confederate's poor artillery positioning allowed the Union forces to overrun their positions Battle of Chattanooga
On November 25th, 1863, Bragg ordered a retreat from - for 10 points - what rail hub in southeastern Tennessee? Battle of Chattanooga
Called an "eccentric exception" by Felix Frankfurter, he wrote the majority opinion in Adair v John Marshall Harlan
U.S., which invalidated a federal law forbidding yellow dog contracts; also, his dissent in Hurtado v John Marshall Harlan
California foreshadowed the 20th century "incorporation doctrine" John Marshall Harlan
Appointed to the Supreme Court by Hayes, who he had supported in the 1876 Republican convention as head of the Kentucky delegation, he is known for his strong dissents in the 1885 Civil Rights Cases and Plessy v John Marshall Harlan
Ferguson John Marshall Harlan
For 10 points - name this long-serving justice. John Marshall Harlan
His journal notes on his first trip with his companion Levi Pettibone discuss the custom of witchcraft among the Delawares of the Lower White River, but that trip is better associated with his A View of the Lead Mines of Missouri Henry Rowe Schoolcraft
Later adventures resulted in studies like Oneonta and The American Indian after documentation of legends like that of Manabojo and the language of the Anishinabe Ojibwa led to his most famous work Henry Rowe Schoolcraft
FTP, name this ethnologist who recorded the myth of Hiawatha in his Algic Researches, and who, in 1832, located the source of the Mississippi River at Lake Itasca. Henry Rowe Schoolcraft
Before setting up shop at the Godfrey and Gilman Warehouse, he was elected Moderator of St Elijah Parish Lovejoy
Louis, where he preached at the "Old Meeting House." His essays became especially virulent after observing the burning at the stake of Francis J Elijah Parish Lovejoy
McIntosh, and local resentment forced him to flee east, where he became pastor at the College Avenue Presbyterian Church Elijah Parish Lovejoy
Amos Roff is credited for saving this man's followers after his support of the Illinois Anti-Slavery Society led to unrest Elijah Parish Lovejoy
FTP, name this editor of the Alton Observer who was killed on November 7, 1837, while defending his printing press from an angry mob. Elijah Parish Lovejoy
This bill crippled the Welsh tin plate industry and led to election defeat for the chair of the House Ways and Means Committee who sponsored it McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
Benjamin Harrison was instrumental in conjuring up Republican support and it received votes from Western and Southern Democrats in exchange for Republican support of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
The first act of its kind to provide for reciprocity, the Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894 modified it McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
It set the average ad valorem tariff rate at 50%, the highest ever McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
For 10 points -identify this 1890 Tariff named for an Ohioan who became president. McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
Unlike Sweatt v Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Painter, in this case 'tangible' factors were irrelevant so the court relied on intangibles for their justification, as they had in McLaurin v Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Oklahoma State Regents Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Named for a man who was concerned about his daughter's long walk through a rail yard, the lawsuit was planned by McKinley Burnett, president of the NAACP chapter in Topeka Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Notably affecting the Monroe Street Elementary School, this is, for 10 points, what Supreme Court case that overturned the doctrine of "separate but equal". Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
One witness at this battle reported that the victorious general avoided a cannon ball by rising in his stirrups on his horse "Old Whitey" and letting it pass between his legs Battle of Buena Vista
A key to the victory was the holding of the center by John O'Brien, allowing time for reinforcements to arrive under Joseph Lane, Braxton Bragg, and Jefferson Davis Battle of Buena Vista
It saw the American forces entrenched in a mountain pass south of Saltillo hold off a Mexican force under Santa Anna Battle of Buena Vista
For 10 points - what was this battle of February 1847 that made a national hero of Zachary Taylor? Battle of Buena Vista
The one of 1875 was passed as a memorial to Charles Sumner, and was known as the Supplementary Civil Rights Act Force Acts or Force Bills
Earlier examples were limited by the Supreme Court in United States v Force Acts or Force Bills
Harris and United States v Force Acts or Force Bills
Reece Force Acts or Force Bills
The first one was passed at the same time as the Tariff of 1833, thus making it only a symbolic assertion of the power of the federal government, but the ones of 1870 and 1871 were vital in assuring the rights of freedmen in the south Force Acts or Force Bills
For 10 points - what were these acts named because they were intended to ensure compliance with the government? Force Acts or Force Bills
The author of this work was influenced by de Tocqueville, who is quoted extensively throughout it The Lonely Crowd
The preface to this work states that social improvement requires "patient work through incremental change." It posits that one natural catalyst for shifts in culture is population growth The Lonely Crowd
Ostensibly an analysis of the "new middle class", this work posited three character types, "inner directed", "outer directed" and "tradition directed", explaining how culture changes their relative prominence The Lonely Crowd
Co-written with Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denney, this is -- for 10 points -- what study of the changing American character, written by David Riesman? The Lonely Crowd
Made necessary following the collapse of an agreement reached between David Erksine and the President Macon's Bill No. 2
In response, the Duke de Cadore attempted to use the U.S Macon's Bill No. 2
to circumvent the Orders in Council by lying to John Armstrong Macon's Bill No. 2
Cadore said that the Berlin and Milan Decrees would be revoked, but he knew that Napolean's Decree of Trianon would strengthen France's anti-American position Macon's Bill No. 2
It hastened the onset of the War of 1812 while attempting to reverse the course prescribed by the Embargo and Non-Intercourse Acts Macon's Bill No. 2
For 10 points, identify this May, 1810 bill named for a congressman from North Carolina? Macon's Bill No. 2
In the 1844 "Hannegan letter" this New Hampshire native urged the annexation of Texas and in the "Nicholson letter" he annunciated a form of popular sovereignty Lewis Cass
As minister to France he wrote an influential pamphlet against European attempts to suppress the slave trade through the right of search and he resigned from the cabinet in 1842 over differences with Daniel Webster over the right to search Lewis Cass
His 1848 presidential campaign caused a split in the Democratic party as anti-slavery elements joined the Free Soil Party to protest his view on slavery Lewis Cass
For 10 points, name this veteran of the War of 1812 and Michigan senator. Lewis Cass
Two weeks after it took place, a group of rebels was forced to give up Navy Island the Caroline affair (accept equivalents, so long as they mention the Caroline)
Five months after it took place, the steamship Sir Robert Peel was burned the Caroline affair (accept equivalents, so long as they mention the Caroline)
It resulted in the death of Amos Durfee, for whose murder Alexander McLeod was arrested in late 1840 the Caroline affair (accept equivalents, so long as they mention the Caroline)
It was carried out by militia who were trying to prevent supplies from being brought to followers of William Mackenzie, who had led a rebellion in 1837 the Caroline affair (accept equivalents, so long as they mention the Caroline)
FTP, name this incident in which a group of Canadian troops crossed the Niagara river and burned an American steamboat, which almost set off a war with Great Britain. the Caroline affair (accept equivalents, so long as they mention the Caroline)
He experienced a string of early successes in overrunning such forts as Ouiatenon, Venango, and Le Boeuf, but Henry Gladwin held him off from his major objective Pontiac
He defeated Gladwin at Bloody Ridge, but Henry Bouquet's victory at Bushy Run rescued Pittsburgh from his troops, after which some of his allies signed a separate peace at Presque Isle Pontiac
He himself only agreed to peace three years later, in 1766's treaty of Oswego, and was murdered at Cahokia three years after that Pontiac
FTP, name this leader of the Ottawa Indians who in 1763 led a namesake rebellion against the English that aimed to capture Detroit. Pontiac
The majority opinion was delivered in a notoriously quiet voice derided as a sign of "shame" by opponents of this decision Dred Scott v. John F.A. Sandford [accept John F.A. Sandford v. Dred Scott]
In the aftermath of the case, Justice Curtis resigned angrily to protest attacks on his dissent by the Chief Justice Dred Scott v. John F.A. Sandford [accept John F.A. Sandford v. Dred Scott]
One party believed that his position had a strong precedent set in Rachel v Dred Scott v. John F.A. Sandford [accept John F.A. Sandford v. Dred Scott]
Walker, and thus the time spent in Fort Armstrong in Illinois entitled him to relief Dred Scott v. John F.A. Sandford [accept John F.A. Sandford v. Dred Scott]
Also encompassing the appellant's relatives Harriet, Lizzie, and Eliza, it declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional Dred Scott v. John F.A. Sandford [accept John F.A. Sandford v. Dred Scott]
FTP, name this case where Chief Justice Taney declared that the plaintiff, as a slave, had no rights as a citizen. Dred Scott v. John F.A. Sandford [accept John F.A. Sandford v. Dred Scott]
It presaged the Fourteenth Amendment by including a clause guaranteeing the "privileges and immunities" of all citizens The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolin
It also contains a provision allowing legislative appointment of all military officers below the rank of colonel The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolin
Its eleventh article pre-approves the membership of Canada, and it ends by thanking "the great Governor of the world." Allotting one vote per state, it was faulted for ambiguity regarding militias and the failure to allow Congress to collect taxes directl The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolin
FTP, name this document establishing a "firm league of friendship," but not a federal union, among the newly independent colonies of America. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolin
One of their more prominent actions was dubbed the "crowded hour," and they became newspaper darlings under Samuel Young at Las Guásimas Rough Riders [accept First Volunteer Cavalry before it is read]
After they returned to Montauk, their rank-and-file selected William S Rough Riders [accept First Volunteer Cavalry before it is read]
Murphy to present a statue to one of their officers Rough Riders [accept First Volunteer Cavalry before it is read]
Those officers included former White House physician Leonard Wood and the assistant secretary of the Navy, who led them in the battles of Santiago and San Juan Ridge Rough Riders [accept First Volunteer Cavalry before it is read]
For 10 points, name this group, formally designated the First Volunteer Cavalry, whose popularity during the Spanish-American War brought fame to Theodore Roosevelt. Rough Riders [accept First Volunteer Cavalry before it is read]
In 1991, his body was exhumed from a Louisville cemetery and tested for arsenic poisoning, with negative results Zachary Taylor
A former commander at Fort Harrison, he won his nickname at the Battle of Lake Okeechobee in the Second Seminole War Zachary Taylor
As a colonel in the Black Hawk War, he met Jefferson Davis, who married his daughter Sarah, and he later won at Monterrey and Buena Vista during the Mexican War Zachary Taylor
FTP, name this Whig general known as "Old Rough and Ready" whose presidency ended with his 1850 death and the succession of Millard Fillmore. Zachary Taylor
Among its staunchest opponents were Thomas Platt, and arguments for it comprise a full third of the Chicago Platform free silver [accept bimetallism before "substance" is read]
Swayed by a William H free silver [accept bimetallism before "substance" is read]
Harvey book, proponents of its use adopted the slogan "16 to 1" and convinced Henry Teller's namesake faction to leave the Republican Party free silver [accept bimetallism before "substance" is read]
Its use was ended in the "Crime of '73" and the Specie Resumption Act, restored by the Bland-Allison Act, and required by one of the two Sherman acts free silver [accept bimetallism before "substance" is read]
FTP, name this substance, believed by the 1896 Democrats to be the key to ending poverty, which William Jennings Bryan and the bimetallists wished to see coined "freely." free silver [accept bimetallism before "substance" is read]
It extended a doctrine first mandated in Weeks v Mapp v. Ohio [accept Ohio v. Mapp]
U.S Mapp v. Ohio [accept Ohio v. Mapp]
The woman at the center of this case had a proclivity for dating light-heavyweight boxing champions, being the ex-wife of Jimmy Bivins and former girlfriend of Archie Moore Mapp v. Ohio [accept Ohio v. Mapp]
Justice Harlan delivered the dissenting opinion in this case, arguing against overturning Wolf v Mapp v. Ohio [accept Ohio v. Mapp]
Colorado, which had incorporated the Fourth Amendment without providing for an enforcement mechanism Mapp v. Ohio [accept Ohio v. Mapp]
FTP, name this 1961 case which ruled that the Fourth Amendment protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures" required the use at state levels of the exclusionary rule. Mapp v. Ohio [accept Ohio v. Mapp]
It is blamed for triggering the "beggar-thy-neighbor" phenomenon and for creating the sugar crisis which brought Fulgencio Batista to power in Cuba Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act [or Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act; accept United States Tariff Act of 1930 before "1930" is read]
Sponsored by the Utah chair of the Senate Finance Committee and the Oregon chair of the House Ways and Means Committee, it raised the levels set by the Fordney-McCumber Act to an average of sixty percent and remained in force until the Reciprocal Trade Ag Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act [or Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act; accept United States Tariff Act of 1930 before "1930" is read]
FTP, a petition signed by a thousand economists failed to stop what 1930 tariff act, a major factor in worsening the Great Depression? Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act [or Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act; accept United States Tariff Act of 1930 before "1930" is read]
He used the pseudonym Shubel Morgan when he returned to the state where he had earlier commanded a company in the Wakarusa War John Brown
He was frequently assisted by Gerrit Smith, who donated land in North Elba, New York where this man settled his family John Brown
After his death, he was compared to Orsini in a famous speech delivered at Cooper Union John Brown
He was executed after Governor Wise refused to have him evaluated for insanity, though his actions in the 1850s which gave him the nickname "Old Osawatomie" following a massacre at Potawatomi Creek suggest that he may have been mad John Brown
FTP, name this man whose army was put down by a company led by Robert E John Brown
Lee after they seized the armory at Harper's Ferry. John Brown
It was the subject of a book entitled The Never-Ending Wrong, which appeared 50 years later the Sacco-Vanzetti case or the executions of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (accept equivalents)
It was also the subject of a "critical analysis for lawyers and laymen" by Felix Frankfurter, which concluded that members of the Joe Morelli gang along with Celestino Madeiros were responsible the Sacco-Vanzetti case or the executions of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (accept equivalents)
Frankfurter suggested that those men were responsible for the deaths of Frederick Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli, who were at a shoe factory in South Braintree that was robbed in 1920 the Sacco-Vanzetti case or the executions of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (accept equivalents)
Seven years later, a commission led by Harvard's President Lowell supported the court's finding, and two men were electrocuted the Sacco-Vanzetti case or the executions of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (accept equivalents)
FTP, name this case in which two Italian anarchists were executed even though they had alibis. the Sacco-Vanzetti case or the executions of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (accept equivalents)
In 1967, he was defeated in the special election that returned Adam Clayton Powell to congress James Meredith
Disobedience of an earlier ruling in his favor led to the case which determined that there is no right to a jury trial for the charge of refusing a federal court order James Meredith
William Faulkner's nephew pulled him away from a group of rioters led by disgraced former Major General Edwin Walker, who was supported Governor Ross Barnett's defiance of troops sent by John F James Meredith
Kennedy to escort him into he Lyceum Building James Meredith
FTP, name this first African-American to enroll at the University of Mississippi. James Meredith
Andrew Jackson dispatched him to South Carolina during the nullification crisis in case open hostilities broke out Winfield Scott
He was captured during the Battle of Queenston Heights and later led the Americna forces at Lundy's Lane, but he became embroiled in a discipline controversy after winning at Molino del Rey, Churubusco, Cerro Gordo, and Chapultepec Winfield Scott
He later became the first lieutenant general since Washington and joined Henry Clay as the only major-party nominees born in Virginia to lose a Presidential race Winfield Scott
FTP, name this officer called "Old Fuss and Feathers" who was defeated by Franklin Pierce in the 1852 election. Winfield Scott
The prohibition on hearsay testimony was ruled to arise out of this amendment in Hickory v Sixth Amendment
U.S and Bridges v Sixth Amendment
Wixon Sixth Amendment
The cases of Pointer v Sixth Amendment
Texas, Beavers v Sixth Amendment
Henkel, and Klopfer v Sixth Amendment
North Carolina respectively addressed its guarantees of confronting witnesses, being tried in the district where the crime was committed, and receiving a "speedy and public" trial, while perhaps the most adjudicated provision of this amendment was address Sixth Amendment
Alabama, Betts v Sixth Amendment
Brady, and Gideon v Sixth Amendment
Wainwright Sixth Amendment
FTP, name this amendment which guarantees the assistance of counsel in all criminal prosecutions. Sixth Amendment
On suspicion of consorting with Satan, he was attacked by Major Ridge's Lighthorse Patrol, who cut off his fingertips Sequoya [or Sikwayi; or George Gist; or George Guess]
He continued working on his controversial invention, demonstrated it in a debate about border placement in Chatooga, and later using it in collaboration with Elias Boudinot to create the Tsalagi Tsu lehisanunh (pronounced phonetically) Sequoya [or Sikwayi; or George Gist; or George Guess]
He got the idea from Charles Hicks and worked with his daughter Ayoka to develop the "Talking Leaves." FTP, name this originator of the syllabic alphabet for Cherokee, which became the first system of writing in a North American Indian language. Sequoya [or Sikwayi; or George Gist; or George Guess]
Decrying the "era of official evasion and posturing," its preamble declares that its intent is to "restore the bonds of trust between the people and their elected representatives." It pledges to accomplish eight items within a single day, including beginn Republican Contract With America
The next 100 days were to include the Family Reinforcement Act, Taking Back Our Streets Act, and Citizen Legislature Act, creating term limits Republican Contract With America
Introduced six weeks before the 1994 midterm elections, it is credited with changing control of the House of Representatives Republican Contract With America
FTP, name this list of Republican legislative priorities devised by Newt Gingrich. Republican Contract With America
This party's vice-presidential candidates included George Julian and Charles Francis Adams Free-Soil Party
Nearly a third of supporters in its best year came from New York State, which prevented that state from going Democratic Free-Soil Party
Many of its backers were New York Democrats who quarreled with the Hunkers and started this party at a convention in Buffalo Free-Soil Party
Its slogan combined its eponymous concept with "labor," "speech" and "men" under the same one-syllable adjective Free-Soil Party
It helped Zachary Taylor beat Lewis Cass in the 1848 election by swinging votes to Martin Van Buren under the banner of, FTP, what third party founded in 1848, the precursor to the Republicans, that favored excluding slavery from new states? Free-Soil Party
Most of John Tyler's cabinet resigned because of Tyler's opposition to Henry Clay's plan for reorganizing this The Second Bank of the United States [prompt on partial answer]
It was stabilized when William Jones was replaced by Langton Cleves, after the corruption of James Buchanan and the embezzler James McCulloch had jeopardized it The Second Bank of the United States [prompt on partial answer]
After dissolving, it became a private corporation chartered in Pennsylvania, but went insolvent five years later The Second Bank of the United States [prompt on partial answer]
Its evisceration in 1836 was symbolic of the anti-centralization ideologies and partly due to personal emnity for Nicholas Biddle The Second Bank of the United States [prompt on partial answer]
For 10 points, name this institution destroyed by Andrew Jackson. The Second Bank of the United States [prompt on partial answer]
He was ten when his father drowned in the Potomac in a sailing accident, leaving him in possession of a large plantation on which he built and designed his mansion, Gunston Hall George Mason
Along with Edmund Randolph and Elbridge Gerry, he was one of three delegates to the Constitutional Convention who refused to sign the final document, because it did not explicitly guarantee individual rights George Mason
He continued campaigning, however, and was vindicated on December 15, 1791 George Mason
FTP, name this Virginian, known as the Father of the Bill of Rights, and the namesake of a Fairfax County university in Northern Virginia. George Mason
It set the western border of Texas near the Rio del Norte and promised ten million dollars to the state if it relinquished claims to land west of that border Compromise of 1850
William H Compromise of 1850
Seward denounced it in the "higher law" speech, while James Mason was sent to read another speech on this measure by the sickly John C Compromise of 1850
Calhoun Compromise of 1850
Later enacted as five separate bills, this Fillmore administration bill also organized the territories of Utah and New Mexico under the popular sovereignty principle and established California as a free state Compromise of 1850
FTP, the Fugitive Slave Law was the most odious part of what omnibus compromise that staved off secession for another decade? Compromise of 1850
It invalidated 1927's Gong Lum v Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al
Rice and extended the ruling of four years earlier in Sweatt v Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al
Painter Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al
Among the plaintiffs were Sarah Bulah and Ethel Belton, who had won their suit in Delaware, and Harry and Eliza Briggs, whose suit in Clarendon County in South Carolina introduced the findings of Kenneth and Mamie Clark's experiments with dolls Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al
A year after this decision, another case clarifying it ordered that it be implemented "with all deliberate speed." FTP, name this unanimous Supreme Court decision which overturned Plessy v Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al
Ferguson and outlawed segregation of public schools. Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al
It was not applied to juveniles until 1995, in the case of Yarborough v Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
Alvarado Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
Decided in conjunction with Vignera v Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
New York and Westover v Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
U.S., it discusses the "Mutt and Jeff act" and other tricks that create an "inherently intimidating" atmosphere Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
2000's case of Dickerson v Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
U.S Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
reaffirmed this ruling, which extended the conclusions of Escobedo v Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
Illinois and overturned the earlier "voluntariness standard." FTP, name this 1966 case which found that the rights to consult an attorney and remain silent must be announced to criminal suspects. Miranda v. Arizona [accept Arizona v. Miranda]
Preparations included the construction of the Zoan Church earthworks, and it began with the decimation of the 11th Corps under Oliver Howard Battle of Chancellorsville
At the same time as the main action of this battle, Marye's Heights was taken from Jubal Early by John Sedgwick, but Sedgwick could not advance further than Salem Church to aid the Union effort here Battle of Chancellorsville
This battle occurred after Lee challenged the crossing of Kelly's Ford by Hooker and resulted in Hooker pulling back across the Rappahannock Battle of Chancellorsville
FTP, name this battle which featured the accidental death of Stonewall Jackson. Battle of Chancellorsville
One person by this surname wrote a history of American scientific knowledge called An Introductory Discourse and was the mayor of New York City who removed restrictions on voting by Catholics and proposed the Erie Canal Clinton
Another was a colonial governor of Newfoundland, whose son was Commander-in-Chief of the British forces during the Revolutionary War Clinton
Another person of this last name was the first governor of the independent State of New York and served as Vice-President under both Jefferson and Madison Clinton
A family by this name today includes pardoned half-brother Roger and daughter Chelsea Clinton
FTP, identify this name borne by the most recent Democratic president. Clinton
The Supreme Court declined to hear the case of Boehner v Twenty-Seventh Amendment [prompt on Congressional Compensation Amendment, Congressional Pay Amendment, or Madison Amendment]
Anderson, questioning the validity of the process by which this law was adopted, and leaving open the question of whether such questioning is even actionable by a court Twenty-Seventh Amendment [prompt on Congressional Compensation Amendment, Congressional Pay Amendment, or Madison Amendment]
The loophole allowing Congress to bypass it was upheld in Schaffer v Twenty-Seventh Amendment [prompt on Congressional Compensation Amendment, Congressional Pay Amendment, or Madison Amendment]
O'Neill Twenty-Seventh Amendment [prompt on Congressional Compensation Amendment, Congressional Pay Amendment, or Madison Amendment]
Proposed alongside the Congressional Apportionment Amendment by James Madison in 1789, it failed to pass, was ratified by Ohio in 1873, and was revived by University of Texas student Gregory Watson, who saw it pass in 1996 Twenty-Seventh Amendment [prompt on Congressional Compensation Amendment, Congressional Pay Amendment, or Madison Amendment]
FTP name this most recent constitutional amendment, preventing Congress from raising its own pay within a single election cycle. Twenty-Seventh Amendment [prompt on Congressional Compensation Amendment, Congressional Pay Amendment, or Madison Amendment]
Here, Samuel Tillman read about tender mercies and Ansel Bascom spoke about the property bill Seneca Falls convention
Initiated at Richard Hunt's tea-table at Waterloo, it took place in a Wesleyan church, and led to unanimous passage of all but the 9th resolution, which narrowly passed thanks in part to Frederick Douglass's insistence Seneca Falls convention
Organized by Mary Ann McClintock as well as two leaders excluded from the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840, it met to pass a document substituting "all men" for "King George," titled the Declaration of Sentiments Seneca Falls convention
FTP, Lucretia Coffin Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton launched what women's rights convention that took place in New York? Seneca Falls convention
Elbridge Durbrow filled in for the vacationing Thomas K Gulf of Tonkin incident
Finletter to summon NATO following this event Gulf of Tonkin incident
In an address a day afterwards, the president gave the "four simple propositions" of June 2nd and noted that retaliation "is being given as I speak to you." Wayne Morse and Ernest Gruening were the only ones to vote against its namesake bill, which was ju Gulf of Tonkin incident
Turner Joy Gulf of Tonkin incident
FTP, name this incident that led to a resolution authorizing Lyndon Johnson to begin air war against North Vietnam, named for the body of water in which it took place. Gulf of Tonkin incident
His administration created the National Weather Service and helped put down Dorr's Rebellion, and the first override of a presidential veto occurred during his presidency John Tyler
He lost his Secretary of the Navy, Secretary of State, and the father of his future wife during an explosion of the largest naval gun in the world, the Peacemaker John Tyler
His Secretary of State was one of the few to remain loyal to him, possibly because he was negotiating an end to the Aroostook War John Tyler
Sometime after the end of his term, this man known as "His Accidency," served in the Confederate House of Representatives John Tyler
FTP, name this afterthought to Tippecanoe in William Henry Harrison's campaign slogan. John Tyler
Nine days after this battle, Anthony Wayne's troops were slaughtered at night by Major General Charles Grey in the Paoli Massacre Battle of (the) Brandywine Creek
In this battle, General Cornwallis led the attack on General Sullivan's American right flank, while General Wilhelm Knyphausen feinted an attack on Maxwell and Greene's troops at Chadd's The Patriot side, which included the wounded Marquis de Lafayette, w Battle of (the) Brandywine Creek
FTP, name this September 11, 1777 victory by General William Howe over General George Washington, named for the small Pennsylvania waterway near the battle site. Battle of (the) Brandywine Creek
His daughter Kate Sprague was a notable socialite who attempted to win him the presidential nomination on several occasions Salmon Portland Chase
His uncle was first Episcopal bishop of Ohio, and he studied law under the most beloved man in America, William Wirt Salmon Portland Chase
At the 1860 convention, he conceded the nomination to Lincoln on the third ballot, and Lincoln reciprocated by naming him secretary of the Treasury, a position which earned him a spot on the ten thousand dollar bill Salmon Portland Chase
FTP, name this man who also replaced Roger Taney, was succeeded by Morrison Waite, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Salmon Portland Chase
This affair led to the Supreme Court's decision of McGrain v Teapot Dome
Daugherty, which upheld the ability of Congress to compel testimony Teapot Dome
Made possible by Edward Denby's transfer of responsibility, it was investigated by Robert La Follette and Thomas Walsh Teapot Dome
One facet centered on Edward Doheney's $100,000 interest free "loan" for the administration of land in Elk Hills, California Teapot Dome
The investigation uncovered that Harry Sinclair of Mammoth Company gave $300,000 to the Secretary of the Interior, Albert Fall Teapot Dome
FTP, name this scandal over Wyoming oil reserves that rocked the Harding administration. Teapot Dome
This event contributed to the excellent sales of Hannah Farnham Lee's Three Experiments in Living the Panic of 1837 (accept equivalents such as "recession" and "depression")
The Surplus Revenue Act of the previous year contributed to its severity, and it began on March 10, when cotton prices fell by almost one half in New Orleans the Panic of 1837 (accept equivalents such as "recession" and "depression")
Northeastern banks suspended specie payment and public land sales fell from 20 million acres to 3.5 million during this event, which was precipitated by Andrew Jackson's anti-inflationary Specie Circular the Panic of 1837 (accept equivalents such as "recession" and "depression")
President Van Buren's speech to Congress concerning it became the basis for the Independent Treasury Act of 1840 the Panic of 1837 (accept equivalents such as "recession" and "depression")
Occurring in the same year that saw Michigan's entry into the Union and the Charles River Bridge decision, FTP, identify this first major economic depression in American history. the Panic of 1837 (accept equivalents such as "recession" and "depression")
Vowing to "obstruct the operation of the law," its supporters formed committees of correspondence in Fayette, Westmoreland, Bedford, and Allegheny counties Whiskey Rebellion
When federal marshals and General John Neville attempted to enforce order, a mob burned Neville's house and tarred and feathered his subordinates Whiskey Rebellion
Although Alexander Dallas and Governor Thomas Mifflin suggested that judicial authority was enough to restore order, a force of fifteen thousand militia from Virginia, Maryland, and New Jersey gathered under the leadership of Harry Lee and Alexander Hamil Whiskey Rebellion
FTP, name this 1791-94 rebellion in western Pennsylvania caused by an excise tax on a certain spirit. Whiskey Rebellion
Argentine nationalist Manuel Ugarte considered its "painful weight" to be "a symbol of oppression in the New World," while opponents of President Gerardo Machado y Morales found that its guarantee of "life, property and individual liberty" applied in pra Platt Amendment
While two of its articles dealt with disease prevention and naval coaling stations, it didn't address the sugar trade, which rose to prominence after its passage was orchestrated by the Connecticut Republican who presented it to the Senate Platt Amendment
Its provisions were repealed under the Good Neighbor policy in 1934, more than three decades after its passage Platt Amendment
FTP, name this rider attached to the U.S Platt Amendment
Army appropriations bill of 1901, a document that defined U.S.-Cuban relations. Platt Amendment
Antonio de la Ascension, who kept a journal for Sebastian Vizcaino, claimed that it was an island with its very own Mediterranean Sea California
This image, perpetuated for over a century by mapmakers such as Briggs, Sanson, Blaeu, and Speed, may owe something to the literary origins of the name as an island inhabited by Amazons in a fifteenth-century romance by Garci Ordonez de Montalvo California
Father Eusebio Kino's travels confirmed that it was not, in fact, an island, but it was Juan Bautista de Anza who made the first overland journey here, a trek to resupply the missions founded by Junipero Serra California
FTP, give the geographic term now applied to the gulf also known as the Sea of Cortes and the peninsula of Baja. California
Clemenceau wrote that his fine troops were "not unusable, but merely unused" after a battle plan took seventeen days longer than expected to capture Montfaucon John J. Pershing
Though chosen over General Leonard Wood for his superior tact, he denounced his allies for their fifty years of defensive mindset and, along with Secretary of War Newton Baker, opposed their policy of amalgamation, allowing only limited experiments at Ca John J. Pershing
He commanded the Punitive Expedition against Pancho Villa in Mexico, though it was his service at San Juan Hill with the Tenth Cavalry that earned him his colorful nickname John J. Pershing
FTP, name this leader of the American Expeditionary Forces commonly known as "Black Jack." John J. Pershing
A month after he performed his most famous act, he challenged Anson Burlingame to a duel, but when the latter demanded that they fight in Canada he was forced to call it off Preston Brooks
He served as a captain in the Palmetto Regiment during the Mexican-American War, after which he entered politics and was elected to Congress in 1852 Preston Brooks
He resigned from the House four years later, but was unanimously reelected to his seat by constituents who were unmoved by a committee report that recommended his expulsion Preston Brooks
For John Brown his action was the "decisive touch" that called for the Pottawotamie Massacre Preston Brooks
He was moved to anger by abusive references to his cousin, Senator Andrew P Preston Brooks
Butler, in a speech titled "The Crime Against Kansas." FTP, name this South Carolina representative, who in 1856 beat Charles Sumner was a cane. Preston Brooks
Grover Cleveland promoted one of them, William C the Mugwumps
Endicott, to the post of Secretary of the Interior, alienating Irish voters who would have preferred Mayor Patrick Collins of Boston the Mugwumps
They first emerged when Carl Schurz and George William Curtis walked out of a national convention, and then proudly adopted the derisive term Charles Dana had used of them in the New York Sun, supposedly an Algonquian word meaning "big chief." Their supp the Mugwumps
FTP, name these progressive-minded Republicans who couldn't stomach the "continental liar" James G the Mugwumps
Blaine. the Mugwumps
As governor of Pennsylvania, he denounced striking coal miners for their "amoeba treatment" and broke them with arbitration after only one week off the job Gifford Pinchot
His 1914 Progressive Senate campaign foundered on the unpopularity of his support for women's suffrage, prohibition, and American entry into World War I Gifford Pinchot
After his experiments at the Vanderbilt estate in North Carolina, he founded the Yale School of Forestry and served as the first chief of the U Gifford Pinchot
S Gifford Pinchot
Forest Service under Theodore Roosevelt Gifford Pinchot
In the next administration, however, he would come into conflict with the Secretary of the Interior over the issue of Alaskan coal reserves Gifford Pinchot
FTP, name this co-founder of the Bull Moose Party, a pioneering conservationist best known for his association in scandal with Richard Ballinger. Gifford Pinchot
A representative from New York proposed mandatory emancipation at age 25 as a condition of the state constitution the Missouri Compromise
While his amendment passed the House easily, the deadlocked Senate would admit no such restriction the Missouri Compromise
Illinois Senator Jesse Thomas's amendment implemented the provisions that would last thirty-four years the Missouri Compromise
A "second" one the next year, necessary to deal with the subject of free blacks in the legislature, was pushed through by a certain Kentuckian, admitting the 24th and 25th states to the Union the Missouri Compromise
Thomas Jefferson spoke of it as a "firebell in the night" warning of the danger of disunion the Missouri Compromise
FTP, name this measure repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and declared unconstitutional under the Dred Scott decision, passed in March of 1820 under the leadership of Henry Clay. the Missouri Compromise
Dan Sickles's attack towards Catherine Furnace almost prevented the losing side's disaster in this battle Chancellorsville
John Sedgwick showed no such aggression: he was soundly beaten by Lafayette McLaws at Salem Church, even though his Sixth Corps had swept Jubal Early's outnumbered men off the old battlefield of Fredericksburg Chancellorsville
J Chancellorsville
E Chancellorsville
B Chancellorsville
Stuart held off the rest of the Union army after his bloody frontal attack on the morning of May 3rd had swept the Army of the Potomac out of its positions at Hazel Grove and Fairview Chancellorsville
A more subtle attack the previous evening had shattered Oliver O Chancellorsville
Howard's Eleventh Corps, though the victors lost their commander to friendly fire in the dense forests of the Wilderness Chancellorsville
FTP, name this May 1863 defeat of Joseph Hooker by Robert E Chancellorsville
Lee, the last battle of Stonewall Jackson. Chancellorsville
When the Continental Congress passed the Declaration of Independence this man, hoping for a reconciliation with Great Britain, resigned and joined the militia first of one state then another, where he served with distinction and was offered the rank of Br John Dickinson
After the war he wrote the first draft of the Articles of Confederation, served as a delegate to the Constitutional convention, and became governor first of Delaware and then of his home state, but he is best known for two pieces of pre-war writing which John Dickinson
FTP, name this American statesman, best known for drafting the Olive Branch Petition and writing some Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer. John Dickinson
He was imprisoned for two days in 1855 after beating a sculptor at the World's Exposition in Paris, but was himself caned the following year by Albert Rust on the steps of the Capitol over his support for Nathaniel Banks Horace Greeley
His books include the travelogue Glances at Europe, the autobiographical Recollections of a Busy Life, and a history of the Civil War, The American Conflict, which he finished writing in 1866 Horace Greeley
Lincoln wrote a letter to this man identifying northern war aims as the presevation of the Union rather than "to save or destroy slavery," and was subsequently opposed by this longtime abolitionist Horace Greeley
Although his masthead urged Union armies "forward to Richmond" in 1861, he co-signed the bail bond for Jefferson Davis Horace Greeley
He was fired from his best-known position by Whitelaw Reid and died before the meeting of the electoral college, where his electors split among minor candidates to oppose Ulysses S Horace Greeley
Grant Horace Greeley
FTP, name this Democratic presidential candidate in 1872, the longtime editor of the New York Tribune. Horace Greeley
He introduced lime sulphate fertilizer and the merino sheep to America, and later administered the oath of office to George Washington Robert R. Livingston
Along with Jay and Morris, he helped draft the New York state constitution, though he would later denounce Jay's Treaty in his letters from "Cato." It was his home, Clermont, that was memorialized by his partner Robert Fulton in the name of the first stea Robert R. Livingston
His brother Edward would later hold the same position that made him famous, minister plenipotentiary to France, and lived on the land that his brother helped acquire when he settled in New Orleans Robert R. Livingston
FTP identify this colonial politician who helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. Robert R. Livingston
A vindictive manifesto published one month later called its failure "a studied outrage on the legislative authority of the people." Its supporters, alarmed by Nathaniel Banks's labor system that catered to former planters, proposed to ensure loyal governm Wade-Davis Bill
FTP, identify this bill pocket vetoed by Lincoln in July 1864, a Radical Republican attempt to set Reconstruction policy. Wade-Davis Bill
His chosen lawyers, William Smith and James Alexander, were debarred by Chief Justice James De Lancey before his trial John Peter Zenger
He got in trouble for siding with Lewis Morris, who had been dismissed as Chief Justice after the governor accorded equity jurisdiction to the supreme court to facilitate his suit against Rip Van Dam John Peter Zenger
When a grand jury refused to indict him, he was tried on information supplied by Richard Bradley, and on the day of the trial Andrew Hamilton showed up to defend him successfully John Peter Zenger
A year later, the man who caused the ruckus, William Cosby, died John Peter Zenger
FTP, name this German printer who was famously tried for libel in New York in 1735. John Peter Zenger
Their language, Michif, is a pidgin using European nouns, with verbs and syntax from the language of the Cree Metis
Implicated in the Seven Oaks massacre as agents of the Northwest Company, they resented the foundation of Fort Garry and captured it in 1870, crying out for the freedom of trade against the monopoly practiced by the Hudson's Bay Company Metis
The battle of Batoche fifteen years later ended their campaign of resistance under Louis Riel and provided one reason for the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway Metis
FTP, name this ethnic group of the prairie provinces, descendants of intermarriage between fur traders and Native Americans. Metis
On the Niagara front in the War of 1812, he captured Fort George and Queenston, won the battle of Chippewa, and was wounded at Lundy's Lane Winfield Scott
He became the first man since George Washington to obtain the title of lieutenant general Winfield Scott
After supervising the removal of the Cherokee from Georgia via the Trail of Tears, he became a national hero for his series of victories at Molino del Rey, Churubusco, and Chapultepec Winfield Scott
Though he lost the 1852 Presidential election to Franklin Pierce, he retained enough energy in his last years of service to devise the "Anaconda Plan" for the destruction of the Confederacy Winfield Scott
FTP, identify this general, whose insistence on military formality earned him the nickname "Old Fuss and Feathers." Winfield Scott
The older man of this name was an admiral, who failed to capture Hispaniola from Spain in 1655 William Penn
The younger, one of the earliest members of the Whig Party, supported Algernon Sidney and was acquitted in "Bushell's Case" after the closure of the meetinghouse in Gracechurch Street William Penn
His theological tracts include The Sandy Foundation Shaken and No Cross, No Crown, the latter written during his stay in the Tower of London William Penn
After purchasing proprietor's rights to East Jersey from John Carteret's estate, he outlined the First Frame of Government to preside over the planting of his "holy experiment." FTP, name this colonist, who proposed tolerance for Quakers in the forests of William Penn
This man first entered Congress after Mark Cooper resigned, and he won subsequent election with the Whig party Alexander Hamilton Stephens
During his sixteen years in the House, this diminutive man earned the nickname "The Great Commoner." Though he and his colleagues Howell Cobb and Robert Toombs strongly opposed Southern secession until after the election of 1860, he later justified it in Alexander Hamilton Stephens
A Georgia native and the leading representative of the Confederate delegation at the Hampton Roads Conference, this is, FTP, which man who served as the Confederacy's only vice president? Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Commander-in-chief John Logan's General Order #11 designated May 30th as "Decoration Day." Under former Wisconsin governor Lucius Fairchild, it led the opposition to Grover Cleveland, angered by his close scrutiny of pension records and proposal to retur the Grand Army of the Republic
Its refusal to admit the sons of members ensured that it would disappear with the death of the last eligible man, Albert Woolson of the Minnesota Heavy Artillery, in 1956 the Grand Army of the Republic
The habit of "waving the bloody shirt" made some Democrats wonder if "Generally All Republicans" would be a more suitable designation the Grand Army of the Republic
FTP, name this fraternal organization composed of Union army veterans. the Grand Army of the Republic
Among its accomplishments was the settlement of the Susquehanna Company land dispute in the Wyoming Valley and the proposal for a centralized Royal Superintendant of Indian Affairs the Albany Congress
Leading figures included Lieutenant Governor James DeLancey and former provincial agent Sir William Johnson, while Hendrick, the Mohawk leader, was more concerned to re-establish the Covenant Chain the Albany Congress
Five of the colonies who received copies of its plan ignored it, while the other six rejected it outright the Albany Congress
A print showing the American colonies as segments of a snake with the legend "Join Or Die" was produced by the most famous attendee, Benjamin Franklin the Albany Congress
FTP, name this June 1754 meeting at the former Fort Orange, the capital of colonial New York. the Albany Congress
His letters to America, written on a trip to Europe in the 1880s, were published in the newspaper The Word Carrier Nicholas Black Elk (or: Hehaka Sapa)
After experiencing a vision of Thunder Beings as a child, he became a respected figure, but after being accused of devil-worship by Father Joseph Lindebner he broke with the religion of his youth and converted to Catholicism Nicholas Black Elk (or: Hehaka Sapa)
In 1908, the Jesuits sent him and Joseph Redwillow on a mission to the Arapaho, but the life of this "sixth grandfather" would change for good when he met a man he named Flaming Rainbow Nicholas Black Elk (or: Hehaka Sapa)
A year after his death in 1950, a book called When the Tree Flowered appeared about him, but it's not as well known as an earlier book which told the story of this man's life up to the Wounded Knee massacre Nicholas Black Elk (or: Hehaka Sapa)
FTP, name this holy man of the Oglala Sioux whose life was the subject of a book by John G Nicholas Black Elk (or: Hehaka Sapa)
Neihardt. Nicholas Black Elk (or: Hehaka Sapa)
She is at the center of Anne Parish's novel Clouded Star, while Sarah Hopkins Bradford wrote one of the first books about her Harriet Tubman
She suffered narcolepsy throughout her life as a result of a blow to the head she suffered at the age of 12 Harriet Tubman
Until her death in 1913, she ran a shelter in Auburn, New York, where she lived down the road from her friend William Seward Harriet Tubman
During the Civil War she worked as a nurse at Fortress Monroe, where Jefferson Davis would later be imprisoned, having ceased to perform a task that required her to go from Maryland to Ontario Harriet Tubman
FTP, name this African-American woman, who helped hundreds of slaves escape to freedom as a conductor on the underground railroad. Harriet Tubman
A case involving it led to the production of a set of seven rules which specify when the Supreme Court should make decisions about the constitutionality of legislation Tennessee Valley Authority
Those "Ashwander" rules were drawn up by Louis Brandeis in an opinion which concurred with the ruling that Article 4, section 3 of the Constitution authorized a certain practice Tennessee Valley Authority
It originated with a scheme to end dependance on Chilean nitrate imports during the First World War, and one of its chief opponents was John Lewis, who feared for the economic health of the coal mines Tennessee Valley Authority
Nevertheless, its increase in aluminum production earned it greater popularity in the 1940s, when power for the nuclear facility at Oak Ridge was provided by its hydroelectric plants at Hales Bar, Fort Loudoun, and Muscle Shoals Tennessee Valley Authority
FTP, name this government body responsible for the "economic and social well being" of a certain southeastern river system. Tennessee Valley Authority
Its provision involving the islands in Passamaquoddy Bay was administered by one of its signers, John Holmes the Treaty of Ghent
Another man associated with it got the nation's first bankruptcy act passed while serving as a congressman from Delaware the Treaty of Ghent
Yet another man associated with it took time away from his work Anglicizing the legal system of Trinidad to work on it the Treaty of Ghent
That man, Henry Goulburn, achieved notoriety three years prior to it when he confronted John Bellingham following the latter's assassination of Spencer Perceval the Treaty of Ghent
It was also signed by Albert Gallatin and Henry Clay, though several weeks after it was signed Edward Pakenham was killed in the unnecessary battle of New Orleans the Treaty of Ghent
FTP, name this treaty signed in December 1814 which ended the War of 1812. the Treaty of Ghent
Article 12 reaffirmed the Treaty of Limits and Navigations signed between the two parties 24 years earlier and the sixteenth and final article confirmed the signatures of the two negotiators of this Treaty of Amity, Settlement and Limits Adams-Onis Treaty (accept Transcontinental Treaty before it is mentioned)
The territory in question was demarcated using Melishe's Map and one measure guaranteed that one side had not been compensated for the actions of French privateers to avoid double reparations Adams-Onis Treaty (accept Transcontinental Treaty before it is mentioned)
The central goal was the establishment of a boundary that would begin at the western bank of the Sabine River and which also incorporated the banks of the Red and Arkansas Rivers Adams-Onis Treaty (accept Transcontinental Treaty before it is mentioned)
Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, FTP, name this agreement in which the U.S Adams-Onis Treaty (accept Transcontinental Treaty before it is mentioned)
paid $5 million to gain Florida, an agreement reached with the Spanish Foreign Minister in 1819. Adams-Onis Treaty (accept Transcontinental Treaty before it is mentioned)
He was once sued for monopolizing his town's news media, as he was the owner of both dailies in Lynchburg Carter Glass
He was elected to Congress twice to fill seats left vacant by death, first that of Peter Otey and then Thomas Martin Carter Glass
In his sole Cabinet post he was appointed to replace William McAdoo and his most notable achievement in that office was the floating of a five billion dollar Victory Loan to liquidate World War I expenses Carter Glass
Twenty-five years later, he refused FDR's offer to serve again as Secretary of the Treasury Carter Glass
In his time as a Congressman and Senator from Virginia he co-authored two major pieces of legislation, in 1913 and 1933 Carter Glass
FTP, name this politician who co-authored the Federal Reserve Act with Robert Owen and the Banking Reform Act with Henry Steagall. Carter Glass
The earlier one was spread among the Paviosto by Frank Spencer, who was a disciple of its originator Wodziwob the Ghost Dance
One offshoot of that version was the Bole-Maru movement founded by Lame Bill, while another offshoot was the Big Head movement which flourished among the Yuki, Wailaki, and Kato the Ghost Dance
The later version gave rise to a "hand game" which took four days to complete and was introduced by Joseph Carrion the Ghost Dance
That later version was founded by the son of Tavibo, who during a solar eclipse on New Year's Day was taken to the other world and given five songs that would control the weather, as well as invulnerability to weapons the Ghost Dance
During it, shirts that were thought to be bullet-proof were worn, though the Lakota Indians who wore them discovered that they were ineffective at Wounded Knee the Ghost Dance
FTP, name this Native American religious movement whose 1890 version was led by Wovoka. the Ghost Dance
The argument made in the dissent in this case would be taken up again 23 years later in a dissent to Wallace v Engel v. Vitale
Jaffree Engel v. Vitale
Ten years earlier, the court had considered a similar case involving a program in New York in Zorach v Engel v. Vitale
Clauson Engel v. Vitale
That case reached a similar conclusion as was reached in a case involving a New Jersey man named Arch Everson, in which Hugo Black's majority opinion relied on an argument advanced in the "Memorial and Remonstrance" of James Madison Engel v. Vitale
In this case, Hugo Black again wrote the majority opinion, though he offered no precedent for his conclusion that a certain practice was inconsistent with the Establishment Clause Engel v. Vitale
In his dissent, Potter Srewart countered that the Free Exercise Clause was most important, and the Constitution only forbade the government to establish a church Engel v. Vitale
FTP, name this 1962 decision in which the Supreme Court asserted that public schools could not sponsor prayers. Engel v. Vitale
This man lost a campaign for re-election as governor by a single vote to Marcus Morton Edward Everett
He was compelled to resign from his Senate seat after only serving 15 months of his term, having outraged his constituents by being absent during the vote on the Kansas-Nebraska Act Edward Everett
After the Hungarian uprising against the Austrians, he wrote the Hulsemann letter at the invitation of Daniel Webster Edward Everett
He allowed black students to take the entrance exams during his time as President of Harvard, and before going into politics he served as Harvard's first Eliot professor of Greek literature, a position which he qualified for by going to Gottingen and rece Edward Everett
D Edward Everett
ever awarded to an American Edward Everett
A long-time Whig leader, he ran for his best-known office in 1860 when he was the Vice Presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union ticket with John Bell Edward Everett
FTP, name this American who rallied support for the Union cause with his many orations, including a lengthy one on November 19, 1863 at Gettysburg. Edward Everett
His mother wrote several novels, including The Nereid and Antethusia William McAdoo
He served as president of one of the nation's first electrified city railways, the Knoxville Street Railway Company, but after it collapsed he relocated to New York City William McAdoo
While working there, he became dissatisfied with the ferries on the Hudson River and established a campaign to build his namesake "tunnels" under it William McAdoo
His ambitions were dashed later in life when the public learned that he had done legal work for Edward Doheny, after which he deadlocked with Al Smith and lost a Presidential nomination to John W William McAdoo
Davis William McAdoo
Twelve years earlier, this man had taken charge of the 1912 Democratic convention for his future father-in-law, who rewarded his service by giving him a cabinet post William McAdoo
FTP, name this man who implemented the New Freedom program as Secretary of the Treasury under Woodrow Wilson. William McAdoo
This concept is the subject of a 1975 book by Larry Berkson cruel and unusual punishment
It was first used to strike down a state law in a case involving drug addiction, Robinson v cruel and unusual punishment
California, but the rule established in that case was not followed six years later in a case involving chronic alcoholism, Powell v cruel and unusual punishment
Texas cruel and unusual punishment
In one of the first important cases to invoke this concept, Joseph McKenna invalidated a Phillipine statute involving the "cadena temporal." Prior to Weems v cruel and unusual punishment
United States it was only occasionally mentioned, as in a case involving crucifixion, Wilkerson v cruel and unusual punishment
Utah, but it has appeared more recently in regard to expatriation in Trop v cruel and unusual punishment
Dulles and in a number of cases involving the state of Georgia, including Eberheart, Gregg, and Coker cruel and unusual punishment
Most famously, it was invoked in 1972 to compel 39 states to stop employing the death penalty following Furman v cruel and unusual punishment
Georgia cruel and unusual punishment
FTP, give this four-word term for something which is prohibited by the Eighth Amendment. cruel and unusual punishment
He found time to write books on both Greek and Latin prosody while serving as deputy advocate general of the vice admiralty court, a position he received through the assistance of Thomas Pownall and William Shirley James Otis
After Shirley promised this man's father a vacancy on the state Supreme Court, this man became furious when the state's lieutenant govenor, Thomas Hutchinson, took the position instead James Otis
This man went on to resign his own place on the vice admiralty court in order to collaborate with Oxenbridge Thacher on a case involving Charles Paxson, who was issuing Writs of Assistance James Otis
He survived the battle of Bunker Hill, only to be killed at Isaac Osgood's farm when he was struck by lightning James Otis
FTP, name this author of A Vindication of the British Colonies, who in the 1760s influentially argued against England's power to tax America. James Otis
Fletcher Pratt has argued that this man should be seen as the "Father of American Cavalry" because of his pioneering use of mounted riflemen Richard Mentor Johnson
This man put forward a measure to have members of Congress receive an annual salary rather than a $6 per diem, but when the public opposed the measure he vowed to fight for its repeal Richard Mentor Johnson
He offended religious groups by arguing that the separation of church and state prohibited the closing of post offices on Sundays, and further scandalized the nation through his open relationship with a mulatto he had inherited, Julia Chinn Richard Mentor Johnson
When he was elected to the House in 1807, he became the first native Kentuckian to enter Congress Richard Mentor Johnson
When he ran for his highest office many Democratic electors refused to vote for him, which led to his becoming the first Vice President chosen by the Senate Richard Mentor Johnson
FTP, name this man who claimed to have killed Tecumseh and who definitely served as Vice President under Martin Van Buren. Richard Mentor Johnson
Infuriated by the bad press given to him after a campaign, this man had reporter Edward Crapsey lashed to the back of a mule and paraded through the ranks, leading to a silent agreement by the press never to mention his name unless he had suffered a rever George Gordon Meade
A stern discipinarian, he insisted that each corps have its own gallows for "Friday executions." After the war he prevented a Fenian invasion of Canada, though he was still irked at having been passed over for promotion in favor of Philip Sheridan George Gordon Meade
During his feud with Daniel Sickles, who nearly cost him his most famous victory, this man was accused of inactivity similar to that he showed at Mine Run George Gordon Meade
After his subordinates, like John Reynolds and Winfield Scott Hancock, managed to get his best-known enemy on the ropes, this man let him get away George Gordon Meade
FTP name this general, famous for defeating but not destroying Robert E George Gordon Meade
Lee as commander of the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg. George Gordon Meade
This man and Galusha Grow spearheaded tax reforms during his time as chairman of the Ways and Means committee Thaddeus Stevens
Known as the "old Commoner," he was born with a club-foot, a trait which may have influenced his desire to become a lawyer Thaddeus Stevens
His defense of the suspects in the "Christiana Riot" and his willingness to help fugitive slaves made him many enemies, and Lee was unable to prevent his men from destroying this man's ironworks near Chambersburg Thaddeus Stevens
He would later gain his revenge by promulgating the "conquered provinces" policy that came to dominate early Reconstruction efforts Thaddeus Stevens
However, this man is best known for being the most vocal supporter of Andrew Johnson's impeachment Thaddeus Stevens
FTP, name this politician from Pennsylvania, a leader of the Radical faction of the Republican party during the Civil War. Thaddeus Stevens
During this battle a number of officers on the losing side decided to attend a shad-bake hosted by General Rosser, which created understandable confusion for the army Battle of Five Forks
This battle resulted in the deaths of Frederick Winthrop and the lovable artillery officer Willie Pegram Battle of Five Forks
The supply line of the South Side Railroad was threatened when forces led by Kemble Warren attacked the Confederate left flank Battle of Five Forks
Although Pickett had been ordered to hold this place "at all hazards," his fortification of "the Angle" was overrun by Sheridan's men Battle of Five Forks
In the aftermath of this battle, Lee informed Jefferson Davis that Petersburg and Richmond must be evacuated Battle of Five Forks
FTP, name this final Union offensive of the Civil War, which was fought at a crossroads in Dinwiddie, Virginia on April 1, 1865. Battle of Five Forks
It attracted notice following a shooting by Johnnie Edgecombe, a Jamaican jazz musician who had earlier been involved in a knife fight with Aloysius Gordon the Profumo Affair
It was called to national attention by George Wigg, who slipped a mention of it into a debate about a homosexual clerk named William Vassall the Profumo Affair
Nicknamed "Bowtie" by the FBI, it was investigated by Alfred Denning the Profumo Affair
After it became public, osteopath Stephen Ward decided to commit suicide rather than face charges of living on "immoral earnings" for introducing the teenage lover of Eugene Ivanov to the incident's namesake, a man who was replaced in the cabinet by James the Profumo Affair
FTP, name this scandal that involved a romantic liaison with Christine Keeler and brought down Harold MacMillan's Secretary of War. the Profumo Affair
It was signed in Aix-la-Chapelle ten days after a conference began in another city the Ostend Manifesto
It was addressed to a former leader of the Albany Regency who had signed the first reciprocity treaty entered into by the United States the Ostend Manifesto
One of the men who signed it was a longtime rival of John Slidell, while another had served as Tyler's secretary of the navy and as Polk's attorney general the Ostend Manifesto
It claims that the actions it describes could lead to the extension of railroads to Cadiz, Malaga, and northern Portugal the Ostend Manifesto
However, it was blasted in the Republican Party platform as a "highwayman's plea that 'might makes right.'" It condemned the seizure of the Black Warrior and warned that America should not permit the establishment of another "Africanized" Santo Domingo the Ostend Manifesto
Its repudiation by William Marcy brought about the resignation of one of its writers, Pierre Soulé the Ostend Manifesto
FTP, name the 1854 document that called on the U.S the Ostend Manifesto
to invade Cuba if Spain refused to sell it, which is named for the city in Belgium where it was written. the Ostend Manifesto
They nominated a man who went by the pseudonym "Henry Homespun" for a major office, and Solomon Southwick later published the National Observer to expound their views the Anti-Masonic Party
One of their leaders gained support for his Chenango Canal Bill, but that wasn't enough to get Francis Granger elected governor the Anti-Masonic Party
One of them, William A the Anti-Masonic Party
Palmer, was elected governor of Vermont the Anti-Masonic Party
They were concerned about a man who may have collaborated with David A the Anti-Masonic Party
Miller on the republication of Jachin and Boaz, and who was last seen in the Canandaigua jail in 1826 the Anti-Masonic Party
Their views were set forth in an Enquirer published by Thurlow Weed, and their leaders included William H the Anti-Masonic Party
Seward the Anti-Masonic Party
In 1831, they nominated former Attorney General William Wirt to run against Andrew Jackson the Anti-Masonic Party
FTP, name this first American third party, which was opposed to secret societies. the Anti-Masonic Party
He appeared in court for the last time in 1806, when he participated in the trial of William Smith and Samuel Ogden for aiding the South American revolutionary Miranda William Paterson
That same year, he died in the home of his son-in-law, Stephen van Rensselaer William Paterson
One of his earliest writings was the Glimpses of Colonial Society and the Life of Princeton College, which described his time there as a founder of the Cliosophic Society William Paterson
As a member of the Senate, he wrote much of the Judiciary Act of 1789, but he resigned the following year to replace William Livingston as his state's governor William Paterson
He also served on the Supreme Court, but is best remembered for suggesting a unicameral federal legislature in which states would have equal votes, regardless of population William Paterson
FTP, name this man who responded to a plan favoring large states at the Constitutional Convention by proposing the so-called "New Jersey Plan," and who lent his name to a town located at the falls of the Passaic River. William Paterson
Yvor Winters disapproved of this poet's lines about "the graduate opacities of evening" which take numbers of people away to somewhere "Virginal perhaps, less fragmentary, cool." This poet wondered what it would be like to drink the sun as did and does X Hart Crane
FTP, name this American poet of The Bridge. Hart Crane
He resigned from the Senate to become minister to France, but lost to Dixon Lewis when he wanted to resume his office William Rufus de Vane King
However, when Arthur Bagby resigned Reuben Chapman returned him to the Senate, where he served on the Committee of Thirteen that drafted the Compromise of 1850 and became president pro tem after the death of Zachary Taylor William Rufus de Vane King
He proposed a rule that would require a two-thirds vote to nominate a candidate at the Democratic Convention of 1832, which reflected his sympathy for the north William Rufus de Vane King
He also served on the Committee of Fifteen that drafted his state's constitution, and in 1819 became one of the first senators from Alabama William Rufus de Vane King
William Sharkey administered a notable oath to him while he was living on a plantation in Havana, though he died of tuberculosis the following month William Rufus de Vane King
Famous for living with James Buchanan, FTP, name this Vice President, who served briefly under Franklin Pierce. William Rufus de Vane King
He received his highest position after Clement Haynsworth and G Harold Andrew Blackmun
Harrold Carswell were deemed unfit Harold Andrew Blackmun
He changed his mind about the interpretation of the 10th Amendment in his opinion for Garcia v Harold Andrew Blackmun
San Antonio Metro Transit Authority, which reversed his key vote in an earlier case which extended minimum wage protection to state employees, National League of Cities v Harold Andrew Blackmun
Usery Harold Andrew Blackmun
Though he was originally considered a Republican he opposed the death penalty, as he argued in his dissent in Callins v Harold Andrew Blackmun
Collins Harold Andrew Blackmun
He delivered the majority opinion in Doe v Harold Andrew Blackmun
Bolton, which helped him to distinguish himself from the Chief Justice, his friend and fellow "Minnesota Twin" Harold Andrew Blackmun
He had a cameo role as Joseph Story in the film Amistad, which appeared three years after he was replaced by Stephen Breyer Harold Andrew Blackmun
FTP, name this Supreme Court Justice, who wrote the majority opinion in Roe v Harold Andrew Blackmun
Wade. Harold Andrew Blackmun
A remonstrance submitted to Congress accused this man of ordering his opponents "circumcised across the throat." In a somewhat less violent episode, he defeated Sidney Rigdon for a leadership position before being jailed under the Poland Act Brigham Young
He founded a Cooperative Mercantile Institution to maintain economic control after his "Sebastopol policy" failed to forestall the installation of Alfred Cumming as governor by the army of A Brigham Young
S Brigham Young
Johnston Brigham Young
The federal government spent twenty years trying to prove that this President of the Quorum of Twelve Apostles ordered the Mountain Meadows massacre after leading the move to Winter Quarters from Nauvoo and eventually founding the State of Deseret Brigham Young
FTP, name this successor of Joseph Smith as leader of the Mormons. Brigham Young
Lawmakers like Timothy Pilsbury and Thomas Jefferson Rusk promulgated the Kaufman Doctrine in response to this legislation's widest interpretation by Preston King Wilmot Proviso
Its author circulated it with instructions that the first person to catch the eye of speaker John W Wilmot Proviso
Davis should introduce it, which a member of the Committee of Seven accomplished Wilmot Proviso
The reading of its first draft, which was written by Jacob Brinkerhoff, led to the formulation of the Alabama Platform of William Yancey, while those in favor of it included John P Wilmot Proviso
Hale, who organized the Free Soil Party around its chief stipulation Wilmot Proviso
FTP, name this amendment named for a Pennsylvania legislator which would have barred slavery from territories won by the United States in the recent Mexican War. Wilmot Proviso
In his first position, he attempted to use the Tidelands oil scandal and the unpopularity of Ezra Benson to prop up Kenneth Holson's senate bid, but the incumbent from Minnehaha County won out George Stanley McGovern
His own loss to that incumbent, Karl Mundt, in a bid for the Senate two years later gave him the time to direct the Food for Peace Program, and he later initiated proportional vote allocation as chairman of the Commission on Party Structure and Delegate S George Stanley McGovern
In his time away from politics, he has written such books as The Great Coalfield War and Terry, in which he discusses his daughter's "life-and-death struggle with alcoholism." Due to support from Gary Hart he triumphed at his party's convention in Miami, George Stanley McGovern
FTP, name this South Dakotan who saw his anti-Vietnam platform rejected by every state but Massachusetts, the Democrat defeated by Richard Nixon in 1972. George Stanley McGovern
His early career included working as an army scout during the Battle of Monmouth and as the adjutant general to William Alexander, Lord Stirling James Monroe
His treatise A View of the Conduct of the Executive defended his conduct as minister to France and viciously attacked Washington, who never forgave him James Monroe
His diplomatic career continued as he assisted Robert Livingston in negotiating the Louisiana Purchase and argued against impressment in Britain James Monroe
He supported the founding of the Liberia colony and was known as the "Last-Cocked Hat" for being the last of his generation to be President, but his best-known contribution was actually written by John Quincy Adams James Monroe
FTP, name this man whose isolationist stance is now known as his "Doctrine," the fifth President of the United States. James Monroe
Nehemiah Abbot's March twenty-second speech regarding this article was a key point in the debate about it and the proposer of a namesake compromise regarding it later ran with Winfield Scott Hancock on 1880's Hancock/English ticket the Lecompton Constitution
Robert Walker resigned over the legitimacy of this document, the first Section of the seventh Article of which states that "the right of property is.. the Lecompton Constitution
higher than.. the Lecompton Constitution
any sanction." It was defeated in two referenda largely due to that Seventh article, which is entitled after the controversial issue that it addresses, "Slavery." Predecessor to the Wyandotte and Topeka documents of the same type, it drew the ire of Steph the Lecompton Constitution
Douglass the Lecompton Constitution
FTP, name this pro-slavery constitution drafted in 1857 for Kansas. the Lecompton Constitution
Passed three years after the Moro Rebellion, this bill attempted to appease Filipinos by loosening restrictions on the importation of hemp and sugar Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Referred to as "the best bill the Republican Party ever passed," it would ironically lead to the election of a Democrat after a party split Payne-Aldrich Tariff
The bill's Senatorial sponsor won support by pandering to anti-trust sentiment through a hike in rates on urban products, including those from his home state of Rhode Island Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Signed into law against the wishes of Robert Lafollette by William Howard Taft, this is, FTP, what 1909 Tariff that lowered Dingley rates and the rates of which were later lowered by the Underwood Tariff? Payne-Aldrich Tariff
In the year prior to this agreement, Alexandre Pétion and Jean-Jacques Dessalines defected from army posts and England broke a promise made in the Peace of Amiens to evacuate Malta the Louisiana Purchase
The negotiations for it occurred in the wake of the Treaty of San Ildefonso, the exact provisions of which were in dispute until the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819 the Louisiana Purchase
Lacking sufficient military force to secure his foreign territories, the emperor looked to extend the right of deposit established by Treaty of Madrid the Louisiana Purchase
Completed by ambassadors Robert Livingston and James Monroe, this is, FTP, what Franco-American agreement of 1803 which facilitated the transfer of more than five hundred million acres? the Louisiana Purchase
In the speech that announced this program, the speaker gave reference to revolution as igniting "a spark never to be extinguished." By contrast, Noam Chomsky derided this program as increasing beef production while citizens starved Alliance for Progress (accept AFP before it's mentioned)
It was formulated as a Ten Year Plan, with provisions to examine commodity market problems, to expand the Peace Corps, and to fulfill the Act of Bogota Alliance for Progress (accept AFP before it's mentioned)
The charter was formed at a conference in Punta del Este, Uruguay in 1961, and created a council to initiate social planning Alliance for Progress (accept AFP before it's mentioned)
Despite this, America contributed less than they had promised and it was dissolved in 1973 Alliance for Progress (accept AFP before it's mentioned)
FTP, identify this American program which was announced by John Kennedy to aid Latin American economic development, abbreviated AFP. Alliance for Progress (accept AFP before it's mentioned)
At a break in this battle, fortifications were built at Great Redoubt, Balcarres Redoubt, and Breymann Redoubt the Battle of Saratoga
This battle would have been an even more complete victory had John Paterson's brigade supported the final charge the Battle of Saratoga
The main assault was commanded by a former Colonel at Wolfenbuttel, Friederich von Riedesel the Battle of Saratoga
In the final stage, a sniper mortally wounded Simon Fraser on the order of Daniel Morgan the Battle of Saratoga
This battle was fought in two areas, on Bemis Heights and in Freeman's Farm, and the rebel victory might be credited to the tactics of a wounded Benedict Arnold the Battle of Saratoga
FTP, identify this Revolutionary War battle fought in September and October 1777; a victory for Gates over Burgoyne in upstate New York. the Battle of Saratoga
An attempt to take advantage of it led to the death of Edward Gorsuch and the Christiana riots that erupted in the aftermath Fugitive Slave Acts or (or Fugitive Slave Laws)
State legislation attempting to counteract it was held to be unconstitutional in Prigg v Fugitive Slave Acts or (or Fugitive Slave Laws)
Pennsylvania Fugitive Slave Acts or (or Fugitive Slave Laws)
One provision of a piece of legislation with this name stipulated a payment of ten dollars when a certificate was granted but only five dollars when it was refused and Abraham Lincoln supported a version of this legislation in his 1854 Peoria speech Fugitive Slave Acts or (or Fugitive Slave Laws)
A later law with this name was one component of the Compromise of 1850, but the first law with this name was created in 1793 in response to the kidnapping of John Davis Fugitive Slave Acts or (or Fugitive Slave Laws)
FTP, identify the common name of these two laws which stipulated penalties for aiding escaped slaves. Fugitive Slave Acts or (or Fugitive Slave Laws)
The site of a minor 1862 victory by Ambrose Bierce and of a Civil War-era colony for freedmen, it was first explored in the sixteenth century by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe Roanoke
Among its first residents were the third man to circumnavigate the globe, Thomas Cavendish; the scientist Thomas Hariot; and the friendly native Americans Granganimeo and Wingina Roanoke
Its early leaders included Richard Grenville, the captain of the Tyger, and John White, a surveyor whose granddaughter Virginia was the first English child born in the Americas Roanoke
White returned to England in 1587 to get more settlers but on his return found only a tree-carving of the word "Croatoan." FTP, name this "Lost Colony" located in the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Roanoke
His books include a thriller called The Canfield Decision, in which a radical Jewish group teams up with the Iranians to destroy détente, and a 1980 memoir entitled Go Quietly.. Spiro Theodore Agnew
or Else Spiro Theodore Agnew
His political career began through the connections of Judge Herbert Moser, a supermarket executive, and another judge, E Spiro Theodore Agnew
Lester Barrett, influenced his decision to turn Republican Spiro Theodore Agnew
He defeated a segregationist named George Mahoney in his state's 1966 gubernatorial race Spiro Theodore Agnew
Well-known for quotes like "if you've seen one city slum, you've seen them all" and for his William Safire-written attack on reporters as "an effete corps of impudent snobs" and "nattering nabobs of negativism," he was fined ten thousand dollars for takin Spiro Theodore Agnew
FTP, name the man who resigned as Richard Nixon's vice president in 1973. Spiro Theodore Agnew
He used the pseudonym Achates in writing a pamphlet in response to the slave rebellion led by Denmark Vesey Thomas Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
In the War of 1812 he was appointed Major General and given command of the southern district, and later commanded military forces during the Creek War, as well as negotiating the treaty that ended it Thomas Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
He was the Federalist choice for Vice President in 1796, having been selected as their candidate while he was in Europe negotiating a treaty with the so-called "Prince of Peace," Godoy, which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River Thomas Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
FTP, name this politician from South Carolina who negotiated the 1795 Treaty of San Lorenzo with Spain; a treaty also known by his name. Thomas Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
His autobiography, Thirty Years View, is one of the best of the period and Teddy Roosevelt wrote a later biography on him Thomas Hart Benton
He noted that the West must "share in the destinies of the Republic" while serving as editor of the St Thomas Hart Benton
Louis Enquirer and ran on a platform of redistributing public lands to settlers Thomas Hart Benton
His distrust of wildcat banks led to his nickname of "Old Bullion" and his recanting of his previous pro-slavery stance cost him his seat in the Senate in 1851 Thomas Hart Benton
Despite the fact that the candidate was his son-in-law, he opposed Republican nominee John C Thomas Hart Benton
Fremont in 1856 Thomas Hart Benton
FTP, name this longtime Missouri Senator known for his support of Andrew Jackson; the namesake and ancestor of a famous American muralist. Thomas Hart Benton
Early in his career, he was an ally of a faction founded by Gulian Verplanck and was nicknamed "King Coody" as a result Roger Brooke Taney
As a lawyer, he defended the abolitionist Jacob Gruber and succeeded William Wirt as attorney general of his state Roger Brooke Taney
After replacing William Duane, he ordered the end of federal deposits into the Second Bank of the United States as Secretary of the Treasury, but Jackson's bid to replace Gabriel Duvall with this man was a failure Roger Brooke Taney
In his most famous role, this man dealt with the power of state courts in Ableman v Roger Brooke Taney
Booth, the sanctity of state contracts in the Charles River Bridge case and with habeas corpus in ex parte Merryman Roger Brooke Taney
FTP, identify this fifth Chief Justice of the U.S Roger Brooke Taney
Supreme Court who presided over the Dred Scott case. Roger Brooke Taney
The 2005 Supreme Court case Sherrill, New York v Non-Intercourse Act (accept Indian Non-Intercourse Act before San Pedro)
Oneida Nation of New York involved interpretation of the 1790 Act that shares its name with this better-known one, which the San Pedro was accused of violating in an 1817 Supreme Court case Non-Intercourse Act (accept Indian Non-Intercourse Act before San Pedro)
Sections 3 and 4 of that Act set the date at which it went into effect as May 20, while Section 2 gave the penalty for violating it as a fine of between one hundred and ten thousand dollars and a jail sentence of between one month and one year Non-Intercourse Act (accept Indian Non-Intercourse Act before San Pedro)
The second of three Acts passed in response to the Berlin and Milan decrees and the Orders of Council, it was designed to alleviate economic problems caused by the passage of the Embargo Act Non-Intercourse Act (accept Indian Non-Intercourse Act before San Pedro)
FTP, identify this law succeeded by Macon's Bill No Non-Intercourse Act (accept Indian Non-Intercourse Act before San Pedro)
2; an 1809 act that restricted trade with Britain and France. Non-Intercourse Act (accept Indian Non-Intercourse Act before San Pedro)
The precursor to this legislation, Resolution 44, employed John Carmody and Edwin Smith, who also served in the later incarnation of the organization that this Act created the Wagner Act (or the National Labor Relations Act)
It was called unconstitutional by the American Liberty League and, in a Supreme Court case, Jones and Laughlin Steel claimed that it was not consistent with the commerce clause, but Chief Justice Hughes sided with the government the Wagner Act (or the National Labor Relations Act)
Passed after the failure of the NRA, it applied to all employers except those in agriculture, airlines, railroads, and government, but many of its powers were nullified by the Landrum-Griffin and Taft-Hartley Acts the Wagner Act (or the National Labor Relations Act)
FTP name this legislation sponsored by a senator from New York; a 1935 Act that established workers' right to collective bargaining and created a namesake board of labor. the Wagner Act (or the National Labor Relations Act)
Combatants established blockhouses at the mouth of the Fish River and Soldier Pond, where one of its chroniclers, Jean Michaud, was taken prisoner Aroostook War
It was preceded by the declaration of the Republic of Madawaska by Sophie Rice and John Baker, whose arrest led to a failed arbitration by the King of the Netherlands Aroostook War
Governor Edward Kent set up a garrison of ten thousand men at Hancock Barracks, but they never left the compound due to the intervention of General Winfield Scott Aroostook War
FTP name this conflict over lumber rights, a boundary dispute between the United States and Canada that was ended by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, named for the river in Maine near which it occurred. Aroostook War
Dice v right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
Akron held that it must be preserved when a state enforces a "federally created right," an exception to the Minneapolis v right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
Bombolis decision which found that no such right exists in state-level civil actions right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
Strauder v right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
West Virginia applied the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to this right's providence in ruling that race may not be a factor in its execution right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
Salinger v right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
Loisel addressed the requirement that the central body be locally drawn and numerous cases clarified their impartiality, a requirement typically addressed via voir dire testimony right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
FTP, name this right protected by the Sixth and Seventh Amendments which entitles a defendant to receive a verdict from a group of ordinary citizens. right to trial by jury (accept anything reasonable that mentions a jury or juries)
Near the end of his life, he defended himself in a confrontation with Samuel Untermeyer at the Pujo committee hearings and he had earlier been lambasted for allegedly supplying defective guns to Union troops in the Hall Carbine Affair John Pierpont Morgan
His successful mediation of the rate war between the New York Central and Pennsylvania railroads convinced the Southern, Erie, and Northern Pacific railroads to let him reorganize those companies John Pierpont Morgan
That action, along with his arranging the transfer of sixty-two million dollars in gold to the U.S John Pierpont Morgan
Treasury, allowed him to calm the Panic of 1893 John Pierpont Morgan
FTP, name this consolidator of International Harvester, General Electric, and U.S John Pierpont Morgan
Steel; the leading financier at the turn of the twentieth century. John Pierpont Morgan
Legend has it that his strict adherence to regulations once caused him to have a written dispute with himself in his dual roles of company commander and post quartermaster Braxton Bragg
Zachary Taylor ordered him to "double-shot your guns and give them hell" at Buena Vista, as his artillery battery held off Santa Anna's charge Braxton Bragg
At Shiloh, he commanded the II Corps and he replaced P Braxton Bragg
G Braxton Bragg
T Braxton Bragg
Beauregard in June 1862 Braxton Bragg
Foiled in his invasion of Kentucky by Buell at Perryville, he fought a bloody but indecisive battle at Murfreesboro Braxton Bragg
He defeated Rosecrans at Chickamauga, but failed to follow up and was later defeated at Chattanooga Braxton Bragg
FTP name this Confederate general, namesake of a North Carolina army base. Braxton Bragg
Signed by President Hoover on his last day in office, one disgruntled Congressman called it "a long march in the direction of Moscow" Norris-LaGuardia Act (accept Anti-Injunction Act before last sentence)
The Supreme Court case Duplex Printing Press v Norris-LaGuardia Act (accept Anti-Injunction Act before last sentence)
Deering thwarted an earlier attempt to accomplish the same goal, the 1914 Clayton Act Norris-LaGuardia Act (accept Anti-Injunction Act before last sentence)
The Senate Report on the bill stated "A man must work in order to live Norris-LaGuardia Act (accept Anti-Injunction Act before last sentence)
If he can express no control over his conditions of employment, he is subject to involuntary servitude" in justifying the bill's prohibition of "yellow-dog" contracts Norris-LaGuardia Act (accept Anti-Injunction Act before last sentence)
For ten points, what was this 1932 act which prohibited federal courts from issuing injunctions against nonviolent strikers? Norris-LaGuardia Act (accept Anti-Injunction Act before last sentence)
Felix Frankfurter's concurrence concluded with the line "that is their business, not ours", but Justice Frank Murphy's dissent cited House Report no Fred Korematsu v. United States
2124 Fred Korematsu v. United States
Justice Roberts also dissented, noting that the petitioner had been faced with contradictory orders, while Hugo Black's majority opinion cited Blockburger v Fred Korematsu v. United States
US in support of treating the refusal to obey the orders in question, including Order no Fred Korematsu v. United States
34, as separate offences.However, Black justified the decision on the basis of "pressing public necessity" and military prudence, rather than racism Fred Korematsu v. United States
Arising from Executive Order no Fred Korematsu v. United States
9066, for ten points, identify this 1944 Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of Japanese internment during World War II. Fred Korematsu v. United States
Vice presidential candidates in this election included Mississippi governor Fielding Wright and Ohio senator Glen Taylor U.S. Presidential Election of 1948
Prior to this election, Harold Stassen won several key primaries but he lost the nomination bid to a former New York special prosecutor U.S. Presidential Election of 1948
While the eventual losing candidate avoided controversy which such phrases as, "You know that your future is still ahead of you," the Democratic nominee challenged the "Do-Nothing" Congress to pass its own laws on "Turnip Day," spurring him to a victory t U.S. Presidential Election of 1948
For ten points, identify this election, notorious for a false newspaper announcement that Thomas Dewey had defeated Harry Truman's bid for a second term. U.S. Presidential Election of 1948
Much of this battle was fought for control of a brick house, and in its aftermath John Coffin's cavalry was unable to pursue the retreating attackers Battle of Eutaw Springs
Isaac Allen's New Jersey volunteers and John Cruger's battalion of DeLancey's Brigade faded in the initial attack Battle of Eutaw Springs
When the attackers paused to loot the camp, they were picked off by Henry Sheridan's New York volunteers and routed by a battalion led by John Marjoribanks Battle of Eutaw Springs
Following the loss of Fort Ninety-Six, Alexander Stewart had stopped his army to gather provisions, at which point they were attacked on September 8th, 1781, by a force under Nathanael Greene Battle of Eutaw Springs
Technically a loss for Continental forces, FTP name this battle of the American Revolution which took place outside of Charleston, South Carolina. Battle of Eutaw Springs
One concurring justice in this case draws on Rochin v Mapp v. Ohio
United States and his previous dissent in Adamson v Mapp v. Ohio
California, while the majority opinion often cites the cases of Boyd v Mapp v. Ohio
United States and Weeks v Mapp v. Ohio
United States as historical precedents on the central constitutional issue Mapp v. Ohio
Dissenters included Justices Whittaker and Frankfurter who joined with Harlan in lambasting the court for forgetting its sense of judicial restraint in overruling Wolf v Mapp v. Ohio
Colorado Mapp v. Ohio
The wake of this decision produced a doctrine known as the "fruit of the poisonous tree." FTP, name this 1961 Supreme Court decision in which seizure of lascivious material in a Cleveland woman's apartment was deemed unconstitutional. Mapp v. Ohio
This legislation was enacted partly on the recommendations of the McClellan commission, and its section 504 was invalidated in U.S Landrum-Griffin Act or Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
v Landrum-Griffin Act or Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
Brown as a bill of attainder Landrum-Griffin Act or Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
Its section 211 was added by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act in 1974 Landrum-Griffin Act or Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
People covered by this legislation included those covered by the Railway Labor Act and the Wagner Act Landrum-Griffin Act or Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
The portions of this legislation requiring free election of officials were authored by then-Senator John F Landrum-Griffin Act or Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
Kennedy, and its section 602 provided for a $10,000 fine for extortionary picketing Landrum-Griffin Act or Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
Prompted in part by corruption investigations of the Teamsters and the Laundry Workers' Union, FTP, identify this doubly-eponymous 1959 labor bill which banned Communists from holding union offices. Landrum-Griffin Act or Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
One of this man's appointees was demoted to serve under this man's assistant Charles Dan after the successful capture of Belle Boyd Edwin McMasters Stanton
This man was appointed to handle California land-title claims by Jeremiah Black, whom he would later succeed as Attorney General Edwin McMasters Stanton
In his most famous position, this man fought with the U.S Edwin McMasters Stanton
Sanitary Commission and delivered a stern rebuke following a surrender at Bennett Place Edwin McMasters Stanton
The appointment of Simon Cameron as Minister to Russia created an opening that led to his taking the vacated position, one that he refused to relinquish despite attempts to replace him by Lorenzo Thomas and U.S Edwin McMasters Stanton
Grant, who as President would appoint him to serve on the Supreme Court Edwin McMasters Stanton
FTP identify this Secretary of War who claimed that his dismissal by Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act. Edwin McMasters Stanton
Its cause was advanced when a vote was taken the day after several of its members marched in Edward Eslick's funeral procession Bonus Army or Bonus Expeditionary Force
It was supported by such notables as Evelyn McLean and General Glassford, who provided food and money, and a second group of this name was met by Louis Howe one year after the first group of this name made its appearance Bonus Army or Bonus Expeditionary Force
Led by Walter Waters, this group was incited by word of a Congressional vote on a bill proposed by Wright Patman, which eventually passed in 1936 over Roosevelt's veto, and they camped out on Anacostia Flats until driven out with artillery and tear gas by Bonus Army or Bonus Expeditionary Force
For ten points, name this group of impoverished veterans who proved problematic for President Hoover when they traveled to Washington to demand payment of their compensation certificates. Bonus Army or Bonus Expeditionary Force
Roger Storms wrote a definitive 1972 history of this organization entitled Partisan Prophets, and in 1977 it changed its name to the National Statesman Party Prohibition Party or Prohibitionist Party (accept reasonable equivalents)
Susanna Salter became the first woman mayor in the United States on this party's ticket in 1887, and it also elected Sidney Catts as Florida governor in 1916 Prohibition Party or Prohibitionist Party (accept reasonable equivalents)
This party nominated Earl Dodge five times for the Presidency, and one of its notable campaigns included renting a train known as their namesake "special" in which John Wooley and Henry Metcalf traveled over 23,000 miles while running on the "canteen" iss Prohibition Party or Prohibitionist Party (accept reasonable equivalents)
Its greatest success was followed shortly thereafter by the Volstead Act, which authorized the enforcement of a 1919 piece of legislation Prohibition Party or Prohibitionist Party (accept reasonable equivalents)
For ten points, identify this American third party whose main platform involved forbidding alcohol production. Prohibition Party or Prohibitionist Party (accept reasonable equivalents)
This man is described as "a being darkly wise and rudely great" in the subtitle of a book about him by Ralph Korngold Thaddeus Stevens
First elected on an anti-Masonic platform in 1833, he derived most of his influence from chairmanship of both the Ways and Means Committee and the Appropriations Committee Thaddeus Stevens
A strong supporter of the Morill Tariff, he helped push through the first Confiscation Act and was one of only four representatives to vote against the Crittenden-Johnson resolution Thaddeus Stevens
He is more famous for beginning the impeachment proceedings against Andrew Johnson, as well as for helping to draft both the 14th Amendment and the Reconstruction Act Thaddeus Stevens
FTP, identify this Radical Republican, a representative from Pennsylvania. Thaddeus Stevens
A dissent by Justice Swayne denied the authority of the court to "interpolate a limitation," while the majority opinion claimed that a piece of legislation passed five years earlier had only "one pervading purpose." Former Justice John Campbell argued for Slaughterhouse Cases (accept The Butcher's Benevolent Association of New Orleans v. The Crescent City Live-Stock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company)
Justice Field acknowledged the validity of the legislation but dissented from the majority opinion by Samuel Miller, since incorporation of the Crescent City Company was not necessary to achieve the purpose Slaughterhouse Cases (accept The Butcher's Benevolent Association of New Orleans v. The Crescent City Live-Stock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company)
Holding that the Fourteenth Amendment was limited to protecting blacks, FTP, identify this group of cases brought by a butchers' association. Slaughterhouse Cases (accept The Butcher's Benevolent Association of New Orleans v. The Crescent City Live-Stock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company)
This event inspired the Frank Zappa song "Trouble Every Day," and was the subject of an essay published in the 10th volume of the Situationist International, "The Decline and Fall of the Spectacle-Commodity Economy." The McCone commission was later appoin Watts riots
Its immediate trigger was the arrest of Marquette Frye, who was pulled over for drunk driving on August 11th, which sparked tensions already in place due to a law that counteracted the fair housing portion of the 1964 Civil Rights Act Watts riots
For ten points, identify this 1965 riot in a black neighborhood of Los Angeles. Watts riots
Pierre de Smet was a key figure in the negotiation of the first treaty of this name, during which Mitchell and Fitzpatrick offered $50,000 in goods was offered to one side, though Congress later reneged on that promise Treaty of Fort Laramie
Another agreement of this name required one of the agreeing parties to send their children to school, and marked the area north of the North Platte as being off limits to settlers Treaty of Fort Laramie
Crazy Horse refused to honor the provisions of the second treaty of this name, which had resulted in the abandonment of the fortifications of the Bozeman trail, but the discovery of gold in the Black Hills led to its repeated violation Treaty of Fort Laramie
Named for the Wyoming town in which they were signed, for ten points, identify these two treaties of 1851 and 1868, the second of which confined Red Cloud and the Oglala Sioux to a Nebraskan reservation. Treaty of Fort Laramie
In his inaugural address, this man noted that "the great scheme of our constitutional liberty rests upon a proper distribution of power between the State and Federal authorities." He made Caleb Cushing his attorney general, and appointed only one Supreme Franklin Pierce
His administration's foreign policy mistakes included recognizing William Walker's filibuster government in Nicaragua as well as having his Secretary of State William Marcy wind up on the receiving end of the Ostend Manifesto Franklin Pierce
This man's nomination was the result of deadlock between Lewis Cass, Stephen Douglas, and James Buchanan, and his cabinet included Jefferson Davis as Secretary of War Franklin Pierce
For ten points, identify this man, nicknamed "Young Hickory" for his ardent Jacksonianism, a Democrat who was elected President in 1852. Franklin Pierce
This man tapped the head of the American Relief Administration to be his Commerce Secretary, and his Supreme Court appointments included Edward Sanford and the first Justice from Minnesota, Pierce Butler Warren Gamaliel Harding
The first Senator to be elected president, he was grouped with Charles Forbes, Will Hays and Harry Daugherty in the Ohio Gang Warren Gamaliel Harding
Thomas Walsh exposed the corruption of this man's administration, documented in Samuel Hopkins Adams' 1939 book Incredible Era Warren Gamaliel Harding
Elected on a platform of a "return to normalcy" over James Cox, for ten points, identify this president who was succeeded upon his 1923 death by Calvin Coolidge. Warren Gamaliel Harding
One of the men responsible for negotiating this agreement had earlier published evidence in Le Matin which exonerated Alfred Dreyfus Hay-Bunau-varilla treaty
Among the smaller islands addressed by this agreement were Perico, Naos, Culebro, and Flamenco, while damage resulting to private parties from construction was to be appraised by a joint commission from both countries party to it Hay-Bunau-varilla treaty
It also provided for sanitation and water distribution in the city of Colon, while providing for an initial payment of $10 million and yearly payments of $250,000, and was repealed by the Torrijos-Carter agreement Hay-Bunau-varilla treaty
Superseding a treaty bearing the name of one of its namesakes and that of Herran, for ten points, identify this 1903 agreement which gave the United States exclusive control of the Panama Canal. Hay-Bunau-varilla treaty
In order to find that the plaintiffs had standing, the majority opinion distinguished this case from Tiletson v Griswold v. Connecticut
Ullman Griswold v. Connecticut
The majority also "declined the invitation" that Lochner "be our guide," while Justice Brennan joined a concurring opinion that favorably cited Harlan's dissent in Poe v Griswold v. Connecticut
Ullman Griswold v. Connecticut
That concurrence was written by Justice Goldberg, who noted that "the concept of liberty protects those personal right that are fundamental," and rested his argument on the 9th Griswold v. Connecticut
Representing the first use of William Douglas' "penumbral" reasoning, the principles established in this case were later extended by Eisenstadt v Griswold v. Connecticut
Baird, and this case is famous for Justice Stewart's dissent, in which called the law in question "uncommonly silly." FTP, identify this 1965 case concerning contraceptive distribution to married couples. Griswold v. Connecticut
The namesake location of this idea is today home to a statue by Leonard Crunelle, and this idea's formulator inquired whether another man would side with Mr Freeport Doctrine
Trumbull Freeport Doctrine
The man whose questions prompted this idea's formulation mentioned in his speech the voting-down of Chase's amendment, and asked whether this was done to prevent a clash between Congress and the Supreme Court Freeport Doctrine
Formulated in an attempt to reconcile popular sovereignty with the Dred Scot decision during the second of a series of famous debates, its formulator replied to Lincoln that "the people of a Territory can, by lawful means, exclude slavery from their limit Freeport Doctrine
One battle of this name saw the division of Francis Barlow fight off a counter-attack from Breckinridge that was launched after Hancock's corps captured several trenches The Second Battle of Cold Harbor
Another battle of this name was preceded by fighting at Mechanicsville and Beaver Dam Creek, after which George McClellan ordered his troops to high ground near Gaines' Mill, which gives that battle its alternate name The Second Battle of Cold Harbor
One battle of this name began on June 3rd after Grant had advanced towards Richmond, and ended when Meade launched a disastrous assault on Lee's forces, entrenched at the titular location on Boatswain's Creek The Second Battle of Cold Harbor
Occurring towards the end of the Overland Campaign, for ten points, identify this last Confederate victory of the Civil War, which cost the Union about 13,000 casualties, but did not stop Grant from marching on Petersburg. The Second Battle of Cold Harbor
This man drew on his experiences as Secretary of State to write such gripping fare as Foreign Relations and Pan-American Peace Plans Charles Evans Hughes
This man fought with Congress for intruding on his territory with the Knox-Porter resolution, and his diplomatic achievements included the negotiation of the Treaty of Berlin with Germany and chairing the Washington Naval Conference Charles Evans Hughes
More famously, this man cast the deciding vote and wrote the majority opinion in NLRB vs Charles Evans Hughes
Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp Charles Evans Hughes
which upheld the constitutionality of the Wagner Act, a move that helped to diffuse the court-packing controversy sparked by the invalidation of the NIRA in the Schechter case while this man was Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Losing in 1916 to Woodrow Wilson by only 23 electoral votes, for ten points, identify this American politician, the only man ever to resign from and return to the Supreme Court. Charles Evans Hughes
A "conference" by this name published the magazine The Truth and sponsored the preaching of Dwight Moody and the International Prophetic Conferences Niagara
That conference followed the Second-Coming theology of William Miller and was founded by James Inglis Niagara
Another organization with this name was co-founded at Mary Talbert's house by William Trotter and lasted until the Springfield riots made a new, integrated organization necessary Niagara
Organized as a response to the overly compromising Atlanta Compromise of Booker T Niagara
Washington by W.E.B Niagara
DuBois and became the precursor to the NAACP Niagara
For 10 points, identify this "movement" named for the Northern New York landmark near which it was organized. Niagara
Its first public meeting was held at Storer College, and it was formed at the Erie Beach Hotel Niagra Movement [accept reasonable equivalents that mention Niagra]
Its Declaration of Principles listed seven duties for its members to follow Niagra Movement [accept reasonable equivalents that mention Niagra]
Its charter members included Monroe Trotter, the founder of the Boston Guardian, and John Hope, the first president of Spellman College Niagra Movement [accept reasonable equivalents that mention Niagra]
Following the 1908 Springfield race riot and the publication of William English Walling's article "Race War in the North," white liberals merged with this organization to found the NAACP Niagra Movement [accept reasonable equivalents that mention Niagra]
A reaction against Booker T Niagra Movement [accept reasonable equivalents that mention Niagra]
Washington and the Atlanta Compromise, for 10 points, name this movement led by W.E.B Niagra Movement [accept reasonable equivalents that mention Niagra]
DuBois that called for full equality for African-Americans. Niagra Movement [accept reasonable equivalents that mention Niagra]
The last speaker here was Samuel Fielden Haymarket Square Riot
Carter Harrison joined the crowd for the time and left before it started Haymarket Square Riot
Following a trial which Joseph Gary presided over, Albert Parsons, George Engel, and others were hanged, and Louis Lingg committed suicide Haymarket Square Riot
The day before this event, one person was killed outside the McCormick Harvesting Compnay Plant Haymarket Square Riot
Governor John Peter Altgeld pardoned three of the men convicted in this event, and later continued a pro-union stance during the Pullman Strike Haymarket Square Riot
For 10 points, identify this incident of May 4, 1886 where someone threw a bomb into the crowd at a Chicago marketplace. Haymarket Square Riot
An important study on the economic role of this product was written by David Christy cotton
A national quota for it was set by the 1934 Bankhead Act, and in 1814, Francis Lowell created the first factory for processing it, which helped take dominance of it away from Manchester and Birmingham cotton
Samuel Slater memorized the blueprints for the first mill for it in America cotton
The long staple length of the Mexican kind soon made this product the "King" of the American South cotton
Its ascendancy was helped by the invention of a machine that separated its fiber from seedpods cotton
For 10 points, name this crop, for which Eli Whitney made a namesake gin. cotton
One document submitted to this body predicted that "the torrent of panegyrists will roll our reputations" and promised to"disarm the parricide which points the dagger to our bosoms." The views of radical Bostonians were introduced to this meeting via the First Continental Congress
At this event, Joseph Galloway submitted the "Plan of Union," and it was led by Peyton Randolph First Continental Congress
The delegates here also decided to meet again on May 10, 1775 if the colonists' protest was not dealt with properly First Continental Congress
For 10 points, name this 1774 meeting, which comprised the first legislative body of the Thirteen Colonies. First Continental Congress
This event is represented by the second star on the flag of the area where it occurred, and Roswell Mason declared martial law and placed Philip Sheridan in charge in its aftermath Great Chicago Fire [accept reasonable equivalents]
A deathbed confession by Louis Cohn indicated that a craps game may have been behind it, while a theory involving a comet is supported by a similar event occurring the same day in Peshtigo, Wisconsin Great Chicago Fire [accept reasonable equivalents]
Michael Ahern admitted fabricating the cause of this event, which began on DeKoven Street and notably spared the Water Tower but destroyed the Palmer House Great Chicago Fire [accept reasonable equivalents]
For 10 points, name this 1871 disaster that started at the O'Leary's place, a big conflagration in a Midwestern city. Great Chicago Fire [accept reasonable equivalents]
One senator from this state led the Branchhead Boys, a faction which opposed the Shelby Dynasty North Carolina
Earlier, groups led by Thomas Eastchurch and John Jenkins were the forces in one rebellion in what is now this state North Carolina
In 1960, Franklin McCain and Ezell Blair were among the group in this state who went to a Woolworth's to conduct the first sit-in, and two hundred years earlier, an uprising in this state was defeated by the forces of Governor William Tyron at the Battle North Carolina
For 10 points, name this home to Culpeper's Rebellion and the Regulators, which was also bedeviled by Blackbeard and saw the Wright Brothers make their first powered flight. North Carolina
After resigning from the army, he served as minister to Mexico, and then as a member of the House from California until 1885 William S. Rosecrans
He first campaigned under George B William S. Rosecrans
McClellan, chasing Robert E William S. Rosecrans
Lee from West Virginia William S. Rosecrans
Further victories under Grant at Iuka and Corinth earned him an independent command in Tennessee William S. Rosecrans
He lost his sense of aggression after leading the Army of the Cumberland to a bloody stalemate at Stones River William S. Rosecrans
Goaded by Lincoln, he advanced, only to be routed and become the only Union commander ever besieged William S. Rosecrans
For 10 points, name this man who was replaced after losing to Bragg at Chickamauga and being chased back into Chattanooga. William S. Rosecrans
In 1828, after serving for one year as U.S John Jordan Crittenden
District Attorney, this man was nominated as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court, but never confirmed; his opposition to Jackson's financial policies led to his ouster John Jordan Crittenden
He served as Millard Fillmore's Attorney General after previously resigning the position upon the death of William Henry Harrison John Jordan Crittenden
This chairman of the Frankfort Convention pushed an 1861 resolution through Congress that stated that the Civil War's purpose was to "preserve the Union"; the six amendments he had proposed the year before were less successful John Jordan Crittenden
For 10 points, name this statesman from Kentucky, the namesake of a failed 1860 compromise. John Jordan Crittenden
This politician attempted to sink the confirmation of Abe Fortas to the Supreme Court by accusing him of promoting pornography, and he derided the Court in his book The Faith We Have Not Kept James Strom Thurmond
Early in his career, he lost to Olin Johnston, while after his death it was revealed that he had sired Essie Mae Washington-Williams with Turch Butler James Strom Thurmond
He was the first person elected to the Senate via write-in and is notable for his marathon efforts to block the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 James Strom Thurmond
For 10 points, name this deceased South Carolinian, a one-time presidential candidate of the State's Rights Democratic Party known for his long filibusters and incredible oldness. James Strom Thurmond
This commissioner of Kiplin Hall was opposed in one venture by William Claiborne George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore [accept either underlined part]
His efforts to secure the Spanish Match were thwarted by the idiotic usurpations of the Duke of Buckingham, which, combined with George Cottington's report on his personal life, cost this politician his post as Secretary of State George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore [accept either underlined part]
He had earlier employed Edward Wynne to scout out a grant in Newfoundland he dubbed Avalon, and he died shortly before his long-time goal was realized, due to negotiations with sugar plantation investors George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore [accept either underlined part]
Thus, his son Caecilius took over George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore [accept either underlined part]
For 10 points, identify this Catholic who established the colony of Maryland, a state whose largest city now bears his name. George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore [accept either underlined part]
One legend says that in his first battle, he threw his own gun to the unarmed enemy Sitting Bull [or Tatanka Iyotake]
A member of the Strong Heart society, he fought the Battle of Killdeer Mountain, and also participated in the siege of Fort Rice Sitting Bull [or Tatanka Iyotake]
In 1877 he led his men to Canada, but he surrendered four years later and was sent to Standing Rock Reservation Sitting Bull [or Tatanka Iyotake]
It was after the Fort Laramie Treaty that he became famous, though prospectors continued swarming onto the Black Hills Sitting Bull [or Tatanka Iyotake]
This man's Oglala partner, Crazy Horse, won the Battle of the Rosebud after this Lakota man held a Sun Dance and forsaw soldiers falling from the sky Sitting Bull [or Tatanka Iyotake]
For 10 points, name this chief who defeated Custer at the Little Big Horn. Sitting Bull [or Tatanka Iyotake]
According to Milton Borden's arrangement, one titled, "We Have Been Told of Phantoms," was excerpted from a speech by William Grayson The Anti-Federalist Papers
Another suggests that foreign wars, civil wars, and Indian wars are "three bugbears" while another suggests "Rhode Island was Right!" Montezuma sagaciously notes that we must fear "a president at our head who is captain." It was authored by the likes of R The Anti-Federalist Papers
Constitution. The Anti-Federalist Papers
The case was reargued before the court before a clear decision was attained, and Justice Charles Wittaker recused himself from it Baker v. Carr [either or both party names in any order]
The dissenting opinion upheld a prior decision in Colegrove vs Baker v. Carr [either or both party names in any order]
Green and suggested, "Courts ought not to enter" a "thicket." However, in a 6-2 decision with a concurring opinion from Douglas, Justice Brennan agreed with the plaintiff, a resident of Shelby County, that the issue violated the equal protection clause in Baker v. Carr [either or both party names in any order]
Shifting the court's prior "political question" doctrine, and supplemented by Reynolds v Baker v. Carr [either or both party names in any order]
Sims, for 10 points, name this Warren court case which dealt with reapportionment of districts in Tennessee. Baker v. Carr [either or both party names in any order]
As an academic, this man published an American history entitled Division and Reunion and argued for a parliamentary system in his book, Congressional Government Thomas Woodrow Wilson
He prevented a railroad strike by proposing the Adamson Act, and he also pushed the Clayton Antitrust Act through Congress Thomas Woodrow Wilson
While governor of New Jersey, he established state primaries, reducing the influence of party bosses Thomas Woodrow Wilson
He secretly provided money to the White Army in Russia, and suffered a partial stroke while seeking public support for the Treaty of Versailles Thomas Woodrow Wilson
For 10 points, name this American president who served during World War I and advocated a League of Nations in his Fourteen Points. Thomas Woodrow Wilson
Article XI of this treaty described the proper use of telegraph and telephone lines, and Article XIV required annual payments to start nine years after ratification Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty
Article I stated the U.S Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty
would maintain and guarantee sovereignty of a certain country, which caused trouble when students had their national flag torn down Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty
No representatives of the country in question negotiated this treaty; rather, a French engineer who had previously campaigned against construction in Nicaragua signed it with the U.S Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty
Secretary of State Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty
For 10 points, name this 1903 treaty, which sold the rights to the U.S Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty
for the construction of the Panama Canal Zone. Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty
One argument in this case cited Valentine v The New York Times Co. v. L. B. Sullivan [accept reverse order]
Chrestensen to say that there was no freedom of speech argument to be mad The New York Times Co. v. L. B. Sullivan [accept reverse order]
The phrase "they have bombed his home, assaulted his person, [ The New York Times Co. v. L. B. Sullivan [accept reverse order]
and] arrested him seven times" helped give rise to this case, whose main cause arose from the claim that a collegiate dining hall was padlocked "in an attempt to starve them into submission." The Supervisor of the Montgomery Police Department brought suit The New York Times Co. v. L. B. Sullivan [accept reverse order]
For 10 points, name this 1964 case between that man and a major newspaper, which established the "actual malice" condition required for a libel lawsuit. The New York Times Co. v. L. B. Sullivan [accept reverse order]
One of his biographies was written by Charles Gallaudet Trumbull and entitled Fighter: Some Impressions of a Lifetime Anthony Comstock
He was financially backed his entire life by Morris Jesup and married Maggie Hamilton, a meek woman who did not allow her photograph to be taken Anthony Comstock
He once boasted that he'd caused fifteen suicides, and shortly after that Ira Craddock made it sixteen Anthony Comstock
He also wrote some books such as Frauds Exposed, but he's more famous for his battle with Tennessee Claflin and Victoria Woodhull Anthony Comstock
For 10 points, name this New York postal inspector who lobbied for a namesake 1873 act forbidding transportation of obscene, lewd, and lascivious material in the mail. Anthony Comstock
As a law clerk in 1952, William Rehnquist wrote a memo detailing his support of the decision in this earlier case Plessy v. Ferguson [accept Ferguson v. Plessy]
It was argued on behalf of the Citizens Committe by Albion Tourgée Plessy v. Ferguson [accept Ferguson v. Plessy]
Justice David Brewer did not participate, and Justice Henry Billings Brown wrote the majority in this decision, arguing that the "badge of inferiority" assumed by the plaintiff was one he placed onto himself Plessy v. Ferguson [accept Ferguson v. Plessy]
It was a 7-1 decision, with John Marshall Harlan's lone dissent saying that the "Constitution is color-blind" on behalf of its one-eighth black plaintiff from Louisiana Plessy v. Ferguson [accept Ferguson v. Plessy]
For 10 points, identify this 1896 Supreme Court case that upheld the "separate but equal" doctrine. Plessy v. Ferguson [accept Ferguson v. Plessy]
The two regiments involved in this event, the 14th West Yorkshire Fusiliers and the 29th Worcestershire, were immediately removed to Castle William, but governor Thomas Hutchinson delayed the trial of the participants for seven months until October Boston Massacre
Following Robert Treat Paine's prosecution, privates Hugh Montgomery and Matthew Kilroy were branded on the thumb for manslaughter, but the leading officer in this incident, Captain Thomas Preston, was acquitted Boston Massacre
It occurred on the day the Townshend Acts were repealed and saw the deaths of Samuel Grey, James Caldwell, and Crispus Attucks, FTP, what was this 1770 event where British troops fired on an American mob in the namesake city? Boston Massacre
He proudly labeled the territorial acquisitions he engineered the "epocha," and he proposed a compromise solution to the slavery question, which would allow Florida to enter the union as a slave state but free all children born after 1842 John Quincy Adams [prompt on Adams]
He received the only electoral vote not to go to James Monroe in 1820, and he later nominated his Treasury Secretary Richard Rush as his new Vice-Presidential candidate in his re-election campaign after his former understudy bolted to his opponent's ticke John Quincy Adams [prompt on Adams]
Later, he presented up to twenty antislavery petitions a year in Congress in defiance of the gag rules John Quincy Adams [prompt on Adams]
He was the chief U.S John Quincy Adams [prompt on Adams]
negotiator for the Treaty of Ghent, the defender of the Amistad slaves, and the formulator of the Monroe Doctrine as Secretary of State, but he may be best known for the backroom dealing which defeated Andrew Jackson for this man's one successful national John Quincy Adams [prompt on Adams]
FTP, name this man who won the White House under the "corrupt bargain." John Quincy Adams [prompt on Adams]
This Roman Catholic signed the Port Elliot treaty and had a daughter nicknamed "Princess Angeline" who inspired Edward S Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
Curtis to become a photographer of native Americans Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
This man's loyalty to Doc Maynard prompted a tax to be levied on the settlers of a new city, creating a fund to pre-emptively compensate him for disturbing him by mentioning his name after death Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
Under those conditions, he allowed the city to be named for him Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
He may be best known for lamenting that "Day and night cannot dwell together" and that his race will soon be extinct, though he notes that "the dead are not powerless" and "there is no death, only a change of worlds." Dr Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
Henry A Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
Smith, who did not speak this man's Salish tongue, promulgated those questionably authentic words thirty years after the fact Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
FTP, name this Suquamish chief from the Puget Sound region. Chief Noah Seattle [or Seeatla]
At the urging of John Greenleaf Whittier, this man attempted to pay the fine that would release William Lloyd Garrison from prison, but Arthur Tappan rushed to pre-empt him from doing so Henry Clay
The first attempt to indict Aaron Burr for treason failed due to the efforts of this defense attorney, who gained further prominence in the Burr fallout when he won a special election to replace Burr associate John Adair in the Senate Henry Clay
He was allowed to take his seat despite being only twenty-nine years old and thus Constitutionally ineligible Henry Clay
In 1809 he journeyed to Indiana, where dueling was legal, to face off against Humphrey Marshall, and he fought another duel in 1826 with John Randolph, who opposed this man's efforts to pass the Missouri Compromise Henry Clay
His supporters, known as the "Infant School," followed him to the new National Republican party, which collapsed after his 1832 defeat in a presidential run against Andrew Jackson Henry Clay
FTP, name this Kentucky Senator and three-time presidential loser whose conciliatory efforts such as the 1833 Compromise Tarriff led him to be dubbed the Great Compromiser. Henry Clay
Its first casualties occurred when William Shepherd fired upon it, and Benjamin Lincoln led the force which succeeded in putting it down Shays's Rebellion
Many of its members were recruited at a meeting at Conkey's Tavern, and it fought its first battle at Springfield, successfully closing the Supreme Court Shays's Rebellion
It was defeated at Petersham, allowing James Bowdoin to reassert control; less than a year later, its participants returned from exile in Vermont after new governor John Hancock pardoned those responsible for this event Shays's Rebellion
Further conciliation occurred when its aims of closing debtors' prisons and shifting power to farmers were adopted by the legislature Shays's Rebellion
FTP, name this western Massachusetts revolt against taxes and lenders, which took place in 1786 and exposed the shortcomings of America under the Articles of Confederation. Shays's Rebellion
The nations involved in this rhubarb patched things up with the Treaty of Mortefontaine and the new diplomatic team of Murray, Davie, and Ellsworth XYZ affair
It arose from an attempt to reconcile the seizure of 316 ships and the relentless campaigning against Florida and British vessels by Edmond Genet as well as other issues emanating from the Quasi War XYZ affair
Elbridge Gerry remained in the capital after this event, which had caused the negotiations with Hottinguer, Hauterval, and Bellamy to break off, while John Marshall and Charles Pinckney left, the latter muttering "No, no, not a sixpence!" Certainly, the t XYZ affair
FTP, name this scandal that takes its name from the pseudonyms used to hide the identities of the French negotiators. XYZ affair
It contains direct quotes from Psalms 19:9 and Matthew 18:7 Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address [prompt on partial answer]
Its strongest language comes when its speaker intones that "every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword" in revenge for "the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil." It justified the contemporar Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address [prompt on partial answer]
In 2005, this state's elected treasurer, Mike Coffman, resigned his post to join the Marines and spent several months in Iraq before returning to run for secretary of state in 2006 Colorado
Next week, voters in this state will decide on Amendment 36, which proposes to split the state's nine electoral votes proportionally according to its popular vote in future presidential elections Colorado
Opponents argue that the amendment will backfire due to the close party divisions indicated by Republican Wayne Allard and Democrat Ken Salazar splitting this state's Senatorial delegation, and by the neck-and-neck race between Republican Bob Beauprez and Colorado
FTP, name this state whose other recent politicians include the party-switching Ben Nighthorse Campbell, anti-immigration zealot Tom Tancredo, and Salazar's 2004 Senate opponent, Pete Coors. Colorado
Vinnie Ream sculpted a bronze statue of this man, for his namesake square in Washington, out of a propellor David Glasgow Farragut
At age twelve, he participated in the capture of Nuku Hiva under David Porter aboard the Essex David Glasgow Farragut
Later, he cut off the Port Hudson works in support of land troops and sent the Tecumseh and Brooklyn skirting past Fort Morgan and the Tennessee from his flagship, the Hartford David Glasgow Farragut
He took Dauphin Island and New Orleans with his Gulf of Mexico-based squadron and later strapped himself to the rigging during the Battle of Mobile Bay, yelling "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" FTP, name this admiral of the Union army. David Glasgow Farragut
Common black and white photos of this man obscure the fact that he had red hair, which he attributed to his maternal grandfather, a white man who never knew his family Malcolm X [accept Malcolm Little; accept El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz]
He attempted to dispatch "self-defense units" to Florida and delivered a speech reflecting his mature views entitled The Ballot or the Bullet after forming the Organization of Afro-American Unity Malcolm X [accept Malcolm Little; accept El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz]
Earlier, he agreed to stop speaking for ninety days after fallout from his comment that he "never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon" in reference to John F Malcolm X [accept Malcolm Little; accept El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz]
Kennedy's assassination Malcolm X [accept Malcolm Little; accept El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz]
Twenty years after his initial conversion by Elijah Muhammed, his move to orthodox Sunnism led to his replacement as mosque leader by Louis Farrakhan and eventually his assassination Malcolm X [accept Malcolm Little; accept El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz]
FTP, name this leader of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X [accept Malcolm Little; accept El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz]
Outside of the official proceedings of this meeting, two of the delegates, John Lydius and Conrad Weiser, both bought land in the Wyoming Valley, eventually leading to the Pennamite Wars Albany Congress
James DeLancey served as host, and Hendrick served as the spokesman for the group that the British Board of Trade hoped to gain as an ally against France: the Iroquois League Albany Congress
It also put forth a namesake plan whereby a President-General and Grand Council would create a more centralized government of the colonies Albany Congress
The plan, as written by Thomas Hutchinson and Benjamin Franklin, was never put in effect but did influence the Articles of Confederation Albany Congress
FTP name this 1754 meeting held in the namesake city in New York. Albany Congress
During it, stolen mail was stored at Blackhorse Tavern the Whiskey Rebellion
It began after a meeting at Redstone Fort, included an attack on the slaves of John Neville, and continued after a failed attempt at mediation by Hugh Henry Brackenridge the Whiskey Rebellion
Its halfhearted leader fled to Louisiana after it was put down by the Watermelon Army, and David Bradford was not convincted for his essentially coerced role in this event the Whiskey Rebellion
Meriwether Lewis fought in the Virginia militia led by Daniel Morgan which helped end it the Whiskey Rebellion
FTP, name this uprising put down by Lighthorse Harry Lee and sitting president George Washington, a 1794 protest against Alexander Hamilton's excise tax on spirits. the Whiskey Rebellion
Early Methodists including John Wesley founded Bethesda orphanage in this city, which is home to the Ralph Mark Gilbert Civil Rights Museum Savannah, Georgia
It is the seat of Chatham county and was both the namesake and point of departure for the first steamboat that crossed the Atlantic Savannah, Georgia
The hometown of Girl Scouts founder Juliette Low, its harbor is guarded by Cockspur Island, while the river which shares this city's name begins at Hartwell Dam where the Seneca meets the Tugaloo Savannah, Georgia
Founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe, it was the capital of Georgia until 1786 Savannah, Georgia
Name this city on the Atlantic coast, known for its profuse Regency and Victorian architecture. Savannah, Georgia
The "Higher Law" speech was issued against this by William Seward, and Henry Foote almost shot Thomas Hart Benton during the debate over it Compromise of 1850 [or the Omnibus Bill; don't accept or prompt on Fugitive Slave Law or any other components since the first sentence applies only to the whole thing]
It set the eastern boundary of New Mexico and awarded ten million dollars for debt payment to Texas Compromise of 1850 [or the Omnibus Bill; don't accept or prompt on Fugitive Slave Law or any other components since the first sentence applies only to the whole thing]
James Mason had to deliver the speech written by the ailing John Calhoun against this bill, whose passage was clinched by the support of Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas Compromise of 1850 [or the Omnibus Bill; don't accept or prompt on Fugitive Slave Law or any other components since the first sentence applies only to the whole thing]
Henry Clay introduced its five component bills that, among other things, organized four Western territories as neutral to slavery and ended the slave trade in the District of Columbia Compromise of 1850 [or the Omnibus Bill; don't accept or prompt on Fugitive Slave Law or any other components since the first sentence applies only to the whole thing]
FTP, name this unsuccessful attempt to settle sectional disputes, which included the Fugitive Slave Act. Compromise of 1850 [or the Omnibus Bill; don't accept or prompt on Fugitive Slave Law or any other components since the first sentence applies only to the whole thing]
Republican National Committee chairman John Hamilton warned that workers would be forced to wear dog tags after the passage of this act, whose goal was similar to the Ham and Eggs movement and the Bigelow plan Social Security Act
Its constitutionality was upheld by Steward Machine Co Social Security Act
v Davis in 1937 Social Security Act
Amended in 1972 to include automatic cost-of-living adjustments, it was partially inspired by the Townsend Plan, which proposed a national two percent sales tax to pay for guaranteed monthly pensions Social Security Act
FTP, name this 1935 act which established national retirement benefits to people over the age of 65.s Social Security Act
Freeman Cleaves used this battle to title a biography of the victorious commander, and the spot where it took place is now part of the appropriately named town of Battle Ground Battle of Tippecanoe
The attackers became paranoid about guerilla harrassment and slept in their clothing the night before this battle after leaving Vincennes with a force of a thousand men Battle of Tippecanoe
This battle led to the flight of Laulewasikau to Canada and the eventual death of that commander's brother at the Battle of the Thames Battle of Tippecanoe
Fought in 1811, it destroyed the Shawnee alliance which the Prophet and Tecumseh were building Battle of Tippecanoe
FTP, name this battle used by victorious general William Henry Harrison in a campaign slogan that paired this name with that of Tyler, too. Battle of Tippecanoe
After one of his victories, the King of France awarded him a gold-hilted sword, although he had gone to Paris for the purpose of seeking funds for continued raiding John Paul Jones
He entered his chosen profession by way of the slave trade in Jamaica, but found his first command by accident, when he was a passanger on a ship that lost both its captain and first mate en route to Scotland John Paul Jones
Despite being accused of murdering Mungo Maxwell, he went on to command the Alfred, the Providence and the Ranger, though he would not captain the ship he made famous until 1779 John Paul Jones
When taking a British convoy defended by the Countess of Scarborough and more famously, the Serapis, he delivered a famous line John Paul Jones
FTP, name the "father of the American navy" and captain of the Bonhomme Richard, who declared "I have not yet begun to fight." John Paul Jones
The first precursor to this amendment was passed in 1861, but rescinded in 1872, though the Supreme Court found that anticipatory law valid in Springer v Sixteenth Amendment
U.S Sixteenth Amendment
A committee under Louisiana Congressman Arsene Pujo supported its creation, and its provisions were broadly interpreted in Brushaber v Sixteenth Amendment
Union Pacific Railroad, reasoning that Article I of the constitution had already empowered Congress to take the action in question Sixteenth Amendment
It was introduced by Sereno Payne in order to fulfill a debate promise, and when it unexpectedly passed the Senate, Payne began lobbying against its ratification Sixteenth Amendment
This amendment was required because of the Supreme Court's ruling in Pollock v Sixteenth Amendment
Farmers' Loan and Trust Sixteenth Amendment
FTP, name this constitutional amendment, which authorized Congress to levy income taxes without regard to apportionment. Sixteenth Amendment
This event occurred once townspeople assembled at Joseph Sabin's tavern, after Captain Lindsey of the Hannah arrived at Namquid Point Gaspee Affair [or Gaspee incident, burning of the Gaspee, etc]
Ephraim Bowen, the last survivor of it, wrote of the ordeal in 1839, naming a Mr Gaspee Affair [or Gaspee incident, burning of the Gaspee, etc]
John Brown among those responsible Gaspee Affair [or Gaspee incident, burning of the Gaspee, etc]
Restaurant owner Joseph Bucklin shot Captain William Dudingston and Abraham Whipple led a party of arsonists after being warned to stay away from a grounded schooner Gaspee Affair [or Gaspee incident, burning of the Gaspee, etc]
FTP, name this incident in which Rhode Islanders burned a vessel sent to enforce the Stamp Act. Gaspee Affair [or Gaspee incident, burning of the Gaspee, etc]
The naval engagement at Cape Esperance was fought in support of this battle, in which the aggressor immediately achieved the secondary objective of capturing the harbour of Tulagi the Battle of Guadalcanal
It was the initial phase of a plan designed to culminate with the capture of Rabaul, and its third month saw the Wasp sunk by submarines the Battle of Guadalcanal
The naval battle sharing its name took place from November 13 to 15, 1942 and saw Halsey's forces prevent a Japanese force from landing on this battle's namesake island the Battle of Guadalcanal
FTP, name this infamously long and difficult battle centering on Henderson Field, which was the first major Allied offensive in the Pacific and named for the largest of the Solomon Islands. the Battle of Guadalcanal
The Motor Carrier Act and Guffey Acts are sometimes called its "little" versions, and Mussolini yelled out "Behold, a dictator!" when informed of its passage National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 [or National Recovery Administration; or N(I)RA]
Its activities were overseen by a namesake Review Board, led by Clarence Darrow, while a major player in its execution was General Hugh S National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 [or National Recovery Administration; or N(I)RA]
Johnson National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 [or National Recovery Administration; or N(I)RA]
It encouraged the use of a blue eagle clutching a cogwheel and three lightning bolts to symbolize compliance, and it facilitated collective bargaining, set maximum hours and minimum wages, and barred child labor National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 [or National Recovery Administration; or N(I)RA]
FTP, identify this act of Franklin Roosevelt's first 100 Days, declared unconstitutional in 1935's Schechter v National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 [or National Recovery Administration; or N(I)RA]
U.S., the "sick chicken case." National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 [or National Recovery Administration; or N(I)RA]
Joe Vogler, leader of a movement in favor of this, disappeared among conspiracy theories in May 1993 secession (accept word forms and synonyms, accept Alaskan Secession before "Siskiyou" is read]
Another movement for it in 1941 had the full support of the Siskiyou County Board of Supervisors secession (accept word forms and synonyms, accept Alaskan Secession before "Siskiyou" is read]
Norman Mailer ran for mayor of New York City with this as a major point in his platform secession (accept word forms and synonyms, accept Alaskan Secession before "Siskiyou" is read]
Texas v secession (accept word forms and synonyms, accept Alaskan Secession before "Siskiyou" is read]
White ruled that it was illegal in the United States, a few years after it was proposed at both the 1850 Nashville Convention and the 1814 Hartford Convention secession (accept word forms and synonyms, accept Alaskan Secession before "Siskiyou" is read]
Despite being threatened during the nullification crisis, it was not until 1860 that South Carolina became the first state to actually do this secession (accept word forms and synonyms, accept Alaskan Secession before "Siskiyou" is read]
For 10 points, what is this act unsuccessfully attempted by the Confederacy? secession (accept word forms and synonyms, accept Alaskan Secession before "Siskiyou" is read]
One leader of this organization went into two retirements in England and owned the Epsom Derby-winning horse Orby Tammany Hall
That man was a bitter enemy of Charles Parkhurst's Society for the Prevention of Crime and eventually lost an election to Seith Low Tammany Hall
Fernando Wood formed the Mozart organization to compete with this group after a falling-out, and its leader Charles Murphy won a similar factional dispute by engineering the impeachment of William Sulzer Tammany Hall
John Kelly introduced its block-by-block regimentation at the same time that "King" Richard Croker became its leader Tammany Hall
Thomas Nast's cartoon helped break the power of a man with a namesake "ring" who was another notoriously corrupt member of this group Tammany Hall
FTP, William "Boss" Tweed was a leader of what Democratic Party social association that ran New York politics for decades? Tammany Hall
It occurred as a result of demands made by agent Thomas Forsyth, who was backed up by superintendent William Clark the Black Hawk War
After Governor John Reynolds demanded that the militia be called out, General Edmund Gaines promised to send forces from St the Black Hawk War
Louis to the Saukenuk area the Black Hawk War
After a long retreat through the Rock River Valley, the final engagement of this war was fought at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin the Black Hawk War
FTP, name this conflict between the United States and the Sauk and Fox Indians which was fought in Illinois in 1832 and named for a rival to Chief Keokuk. the Black Hawk War
In this city, the David Walker pamphlet Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World was written, and the Charles Chauncy sermon "Enthusiasm Described and Cautioned Against" was first given Boston
Mary Dyer was hanged for being a Quaker in this city, where John Phillips and Harrison Gray Otis served as mayor Boston
William Blackstone was its first European settler, and a bridge between this city and Charleston was the topic of the Supreme Court case Charles River Bridge v Boston
Warren Bridge Boston
A protest here in 1773 involved the Sons of Liberty being dressed as Mohawks Boston
FTP, name this New England city home to a famous tea party. Boston
Larry Kane was the first U.S Bay of Pigs or Playa Girón
news correspondent to report on this event, the idea for which came from a policy paper written by Richard Bissell code-named JMARC Bay of Pigs or Playa Girón
General Maxwell Taylor chaired the commission to examine its failure, which was partly caused by the premature ending of air strikes, a part of Operation Puma Bay of Pigs or Playa Girón
Grayston Lynch commanded Brigade 2506, which was a group of 1500 CIA-trained exiles who were captured during it, leading to the forced resignation of Allen Dulles Bay of Pigs or Playa Girón
FTP, name this April 1961 botched invasion of Cuba, which failed to overthrow Fidel Castro. Bay of Pigs or Playa Girón
During the War of 1812, he was captured at the Battle of Queenston Heights Winfield Scott
He negotiated a peaceful settlement with Britain in the San Juan Island dispute after commanding the implementation of Andrew Jackson's Cherokee removal campaign in 1838 Winfield Scott
He won only Kentucky, Massachussetts, Tennessee, and Vermont after choosing sitting Naval Secretary Alexander Graham as his running mate for a presidenital campaign managed by New York political intriguer Thurlow Weed, which disparaged the courage of his Winfield Scott
The victorious commander at Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Cerro Gordo, and Chapultepec, he later developd a plan to occupy coastal ports in Mississippi as well as the Anaconda Plan as the senior officer of the Union army at the outbreak of the Ci Winfield Scott
FTP, name this general who captured Mexico City in 1847 and was nicknamed "Old Fuss and Feathers," who went on to lose the 1852 presidential election to Franklin Pierce. Winfield Scott
In response to this, Noah Webster composed a letter to the man who delivered it which advocated an "aristocratic branch independent of popular suffrage." It encourages those present to bear in mind the "sacred principle" that the will of the majority, "to Thomas Jefferson's (First) Inaugural Address (accept obvious equivalents)
Positing that "every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle," this speech claims that "we are all Republicans; we are all Federalists." Noting that "sometimes it is said that man can not be trusted with the government of himself," it asks Thomas Jefferson's (First) Inaugural Address (accept obvious equivalents)
It was delivered only days after a 30-hour special session of the House, on March 4, 1801 Thomas Jefferson's (First) Inaugural Address (accept obvious equivalents)
FTP, name this speech given by the third president of the United States. Thomas Jefferson's (First) Inaugural Address (accept obvious equivalents)
Eleven years before this act was passed, the Supreme Court in Katz vs Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
United States explicitly declined to extend its ruling to cases covered by it Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
The constitutionality of this law was addressed in the case U.S Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
vs Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Nicholson and U.S Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
vs Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Duggan, the latter of which involved members of the IRA Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Chapter 36 of title 50, its third subchapter addresses "pen registers and trap-and-trace devices" and includes provisions for authorization in times of emergency and of war Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Section 206 of the PATRIOT Act updated this legislation to provide for a "roaming" version of its most famous application, while Section 218 loosened the requirements for a warrant, which is granted by a secret court Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Passed as the result of the Church Committee's investigation into Operations Minaret and Shamrock, FTP, name this 1978 law, which may have been violated recently by the NSA. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
His novels include the political thrillers The Company and The China Card, but he is better known for his memoir, Witness to Power John D(aniel) Ehrlichman
A winner of the Distinguished Flying Cross in World War II who joined a Seattle firm after graduating from Stanford law school, he named his friend Bud Krogh to head a "Special Investigation Unit" within the White House John D(aniel) Ehrlichman
His ties to "the Plumbers" were one factor in his April 1973 resignation, and he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for obstruction of justice and perjury in 1975, along with John N John D(aniel) Ehrlichman
Mitchell and H.R John D(aniel) Ehrlichman
Haldeman John D(aniel) Ehrlichman
FTP, name this Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs implicated in the Watergate scandal. John D(aniel) Ehrlichman
The majority opinion in this case cites a 1774 letter of the Continental Congress to the inhabitants of Quebec, as well as the court's earlier judgment in Chaplinsky v Roth v U.S.
New Hampshire Roth v U.S.
The defendant argued that the federal statute in question violated the powers reserved by the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, but the court affirmed the relevant exercise of postal power delegated by Article One, Section 8 of the Constitution Roth v U.S.
The majority opinion also overturned an 1868 test resulting from Hicklin v Roth v U.S.
Regina in this decision, which was combined with Alberts v Roth v U.S.
California Roth v U.S.
Hugo Black and William Douglas dissented, while Justice Brennan wrote the majority opinion which upheld the conviction of the proprietor of American Aphrodite, A Quarterly for the Fancy Free Roth v U.S.
FTP, name this 1957 case which ruled that obscene material was not protected by the First Amendment. Roth v U.S.
Three years after it took place Fort Buchanan was built, though that fort was abandoned after only five years following the Bascom Affair the Gadsden Purchase
It provided for two commissioners to meet at Paso del Norte and conduct a survey, which was needed because the Disturnell map turned out to be erroneous the Gadsden Purchase
Its namesake served under Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812 before becoming president of the South Carolina Railroad Company the Gadsden Purchase
It allowed for the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, though the possibility of building a southern transcontinental railroad was more exciting to the men who conceived of it the Gadsden Purchase
FTP, name this event of 1853 by which $10 million was paid to Mexico in return for land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico. the Gadsden Purchase
A year after it was created Senator Lyman Trumbull introduced a bill to expand its powers, which eventually passed over two presidential vetoes the Freedmen's Bureau (or the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands)
Four years later it was the subject of an investigation led by Fernando Wood, and two years after that it was put under the control of the Secretary of War the Freedmen's Bureau (or the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands)
It grew out of Edward Pierce's "Port Royal experiment," which had begun near Fortress Monroe, and it was brought to an end in 1872, only four years after it was established the Freedmen's Bureau (or the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands)
FTP, name this Federal agency run by Oliver Howard, which in practice spent most of its time getting African-Americans to vote for the Republican party. the Freedmen's Bureau (or the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands)
Its second vice presidential candidate went on to propose a constitutional amendment providing for women's suffrage and delivered a notable speech, "The Gospel of Reform," in support of Samuel Tilden the Free Soil party
Its first vice presidential candidate wrote Conservatism and Reform and Struggle for Neutrality in America, and served as ambassador to Great Britain during the Civil War the Free Soil party
Its second presidential candidate was recalled from his post as minister to Spain in 1869 after being accused of sleeping with the Queen, having earlier served as a senator from New Hampshire the Free Soil party
In addition to George Julian, Charles Francis Adams, and John Hale, its notable members included Charles Sumner and Martin van Buren the Free Soil party
FTP, name this political party active in the late 1840s and early 1850s, an abolitionist group opposed to the extension of slavery. the Free Soil party
His best-known book ends with a chapter on the "Bullitt Affair" after discussing the Cecil Plan Robert Lansing
This man's father-in-law served as secretary of state, which led him to take an interest in international law Robert Lansing
In fact, he was so interested in it that he served as counsel for the U.S Robert Lansing
in the Alaskan boundary dispute and helped to found the American Journal of International Law Robert Lansing
During his time in another position, he reached an agreement with Ishii that recognized special Japanese interests in China, but he was asked to resign three years later after he convened cabinet meetings while the president was incapacitated Robert Lansing
He had assumed that position after his predecessor resigned over a disagreement about the protest notes issued in response to the Lusitania incident Robert Lansing
FTP, name this man who in 1915 succeeded William Jennings Bryan as secretary of state for Woodrow Wilson. Robert Lansing
It provided for the Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to be paid according to appraisals made by George Vashon, Abraham Redfield, and A the Treaty of New Echota
P the Treaty of New Echota
Chouteau the Treaty of New Echota
It followed an earlier council at Red Clay, after which William Carroll and John Schmerhorn were appointed commissioners the Treaty of New Echota
It was steadfastly opposed by John Ross, and the group that was involved in it, known as the "Ridge Party," was in violation of the law the Treaty of New Echota
Along with two of the Ridges, Elias Boudinot was assassinated for his part in it, and this agreement to pay a sum of $5 million was only ratified by one vote in the Senate the Treaty of New Echota
FTP, name this treaty signed in Georgia on December 29, 1835, which provided for the removal of the Cherokees to Oklahoma and led to the Trail of Tears. the Treaty of New Echota
The first man to hold this position had earlier served as a representative from the 4th district of Illinois before becoming a delegate to the UN in the early 1970s Secretary of Veterans Affairs
The first man to hold this position under George W Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Bush had been president of QTC Medical Services prior to holding it, and after resigning went to work for Pfizer Secretary of Veterans Affairs
When that man resigned, he was succeeded in this position by a man who had served as ambassador to the Vatican and as chairman of the Republican National Committee Secretary of Veterans Affairs
In 2006, the holder of this position was chosen to skip out on the State of the Union address Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Held by such men as Jesse Brown, Togo West, and Ed Derwinski, FTP, name this position currently occupied by Jim Nicholson, a member of the cabinet who oversees a department which deals with former soldiers. Secretary of Veterans Affairs
He was a founder of the so-called Whipping Post Club, and wrote for its newspaper, the Independent Advertiser Samuel Adams
One of his best-known acts was carried out after a series of so-called Body Meetings, and was planned with William Molineux Samuel Adams
Another of his major projects was extended by Dabney Carr, and was planned with Joseph Warren Samuel Adams
The Non-Importation Organization which this man helped to create was a major cause of the Boston Massacre, the name of which he coined, and his other efforts included supporting the Suffolk Resolves and coming up with the idea for Committees of Correspond Samuel Adams
FTP, name this leader of the Sons of Liberty who organized the Boston Tea Party when he wasn't running his family's brewery. Samuel Adams
After the departure of General Franz Sigel, morale became a regular problem for this military unit XI Corps (accept German Corps; also accept the Flying Dutchmen before it's mentioned)
It had been formed from three divisions remaining after the dissolution of General John Pope's Army of Virginia following the defeat at the second Battle of Bull Run XI Corps (accept German Corps; also accept the Flying Dutchmen before it's mentioned)
In 1863, it was transferred to General Rosecrans's Army of the Tennessee alongside a corps commanded by General Slocum XI Corps (accept German Corps; also accept the Flying Dutchmen before it's mentioned)
This transfer came after General Howard led the corps through an uninspiring retreat through the streets of Gettysburg on the first day of that battle XI Corps (accept German Corps; also accept the Flying Dutchmen before it's mentioned)
FTP, identify this Union army corps whose largely German membership earned it the nickname "The Flying Dutchmen" after retreating under Jackson's attack at Chancellorsville. XI Corps (accept German Corps; also accept the Flying Dutchmen before it's mentioned)
He trained his friend Saxton Pope in archery, leading to the latter's publication of a seminal work on Bowhunting with a Bow and Arrow Ishi
He was jailed by Sherriff J Ishi
B Ishi
Webber, and gained fame after Sam Batwi had an unsatisfactory conversation with him Ishi
A number of his relatives died in the Three Knolls Massacre, and he himself died while visiting Thomas Waterman Ishi
His "brain" is the subject of a recent book by Orin Starn, while two men named Clifford and Karl and a woman named Theodora also wrote books about him, which describe him "in three centuries" and "in two worlds." FTP, name this member of the Yahi Indians Ishi
One man with this surname served as quartermaster-general of the state troops during the Dorr Rebellion, and went on to become chief justice of the supreme court of Rhode Island in 1856 Ames
Another man of this surname wrote the "Camillus" essays in support of a federal convention in 1787, and delivered a notable speech in support of Jay's Treaty as a member of the House of Representatives from New England Ames
Yet another man of this surname served three terms as governor of Massachusetts in the 1880s after having spent a fortune to settle his father's debts Ames
In addition to Samuel, Fisher, and Oliver, a man of this surname was investigated by Congressional committees led by Luke Poland and Jeremiah Wilson after Colonel McComb accused him of misuing stock to bribe members of Congress Ames
FTP, give this surname shared by a man implicated in the Crédit Mobilier scandal whose first name was Oakes. Ames
It was set in motion when Governor John Reynolds called for troops Black Hawk War of 1832
The initial skirmish at Stillman's Run followed from discontent over the Treaty of Fort Crawford signed two years earlier, and the U.S Black Hawk War of 1832
command was eventually given over to General Henry Atkinson Black Hawk War of 1832
Figures on the other side who failed to provide much assistance include the so-called "Rock-prophet" White Cloud, the speckled chief Neopope, and the U.S.-friendly Keokuk, a rival to this conflict's namesake Black Hawk War of 1832
FTP, name this war which ended with the Bad Axe Massacre, which was fought against a Sauk chieftain in 1832 and which saw a young Abraham Lincoln captain the Illinois militia. Black Hawk War of 1832
The two documents it quotes are an Elmo Conley-signed summary of a report done by Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher in conjunction with Price Waterhouse, and a letter from an unnamed 19-year-old wife of a marine offering a $10 check to be left uncashed "Checkers" Speech
It also calls out Stephen Mitchell, who is said to have remarked that only rich men should run for office, and accuses John Sparkman of having kept his wife on his payroll "Checkers" Speech
Composed in response to a controversy over an $18,000 campaign contribution, this September 23 address asserts the importance of fighting Communism, but most famously contains a quip about a gift an anonymous Texas supporter gave to the speaker's family "Checkers" Speech
FTP, identify this 1952 televised speech named for Senator Richard Nixon's mention of his black and white cocker spaniel. "Checkers" Speech
Georgia gave him a plantation for negotiating with the Creek and Cherokee at the end of the American Revolution "Mad" Anthony Wayne
He was elected to the House in 1789 after defeating James Jackson, but he became the first representative to be thrown out after election anomalies were discovered "Mad" Anthony Wayne
During the Revolution he led the army which captured the garrison at Stony Point and led the advance attack on Monmouth, but he was shamed after making a tactical error which resulted in the Paoli massacre "Mad" Anthony Wayne
Known for his exploits on the Maumee River, FTP, name this general who negotiated the Treaty of Greenville after winning a decisive 1794 battle against several Native American tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. "Mad" Anthony Wayne
His namesake "plan" was developed with Paul Warburg at the secret Jekyll Island Conference Nelson Aldrich
He was accused along with Arthur Gorman of taking corporate kickbacks in David Graham Phillip's Treason of the Senate Nelson Aldrich
Though he earlier declared it communistic, he later introduced an amendment for a national income tax and served as the first chairman of the National Monetary Commission Nelson Aldrich
The father-in-law of John D Nelson Aldrich
Rockefeller, Jr, he was elected to the Senate to replace the deceased Ambrose Burnside Nelson Aldrich
FTP, name this senator from Rhode Island who sponsored an act with Vreeland which led to the formation of the Federal Reserve, and also sponsored a tariff bill with Representative Sereno Payne. Nelson Aldrich
Lord Dorchester prematurely reported its acceptance in a letter to Lord Sydney Virginia Plan
Its 8th article called for a "council of revision" which could examine the authority of the legislature, and the 7th allowed only one term for the executive officer for an indeterminate number of years Virginia Plan
This was later amended to a three-member executive council of geographical diversity, but its main proposal was the most controversial Virginia Plan
That proposal called for one legislative house to be directly elected by the government, while a second house would be elected by the first house Virginia Plan
FTP, name this constitutional plan proposed by Edmund Randolph, which proposed a stronger national government than the rival New Jersey Plan and was named for the state of its formulator, James Madison. Virginia Plan
He died during a commencement speech at Washington & Lee University, and his autobiography, That Reminds Me, appeared posthumously Alben Barkley
In his last campaign he defeated John Sherman Cooper in 1954, nearly 50 years after he won his first election as prosecuting attorney in Kentucky, his home state Alben Barkley
A disciple of Woodrow Wilson, he became Senate majority leader after the death of Joseph Robinson in 1937, serving for ten years Alben Barkley
In the 1938 Senate election he nearly lost to Happy Chandler after evidence of illegal donations from the WPA, and he only attained his most famous post because of the refusal of William O Alben Barkley
Douglas in 1948 Alben Barkley
The first man to be called "Veep," FTP, name this oldest vice-president in history, who served under Harry S Truman. Alben Barkley
A Sicilian navigator, Salvatore Catalano, was employed by Edward Preble in a mission targeting it USS Philadelphia
That mission used the ketch Intrepid and enlisted the skill of the commanding officer from the schooner Enterprise USS Philadelphia
Its construction was funded by its namesake during the Quasi-War and it made eleven captures in the West Indies during that conflict USS Philadelphia
Later its companion, the Vixen, was sent away on a scouting mission, leaving it to pursue an enemy corsair, which led to it running aground and the imprisonment of its captain, William Bainbridge USS Philadelphia
FTP, name this ship captured during the Barbary War, which was then burned in Tripoli harbor by Stephen Decatur. USS Philadelphia
The 1892 Republican Party platform claimed a belief in "the broadest sense" of this doctrine in a sentence also reaffirming the Monroe Doctrine Manifest Destiny
One article arguing for this doctrine denounced "idle French talk of balances of power" and predicted a population of between 250 and 300 million Americans by 1945 Manifest Destiny
This name was first used in the Young America publication United States Magazine and Democratic Review, in an article about "The Great Nation of Futurity," but it appeared more influentially in an article title "Annexation," which described "a continent a Manifest Destiny
A footnote in Plyer v the 14th Amendment
Doe states that no distinction between legal and illegal aliens governs its application the 14th Amendment
It has five sections, the fourth of which states that the validity of the public debt shall not be questioned the 14th Amendment
The process of attributing rights to one of its clauses is called "incorporation doctrine" and was first laid out in Gitlow v the 14th Amendment
New York the 14th Amendment
The first decision based on this amendment narrowly interpreted its privileges or immunities clause as applying only at the federal level in ruling against a group of butchers in the Slaughter-House cases the 14th Amendment
FTP, name this constitutional amendment with notable Due Process and Equal Protection clauses passed in 1868 to give rights to former slaves. the 14th Amendment
The Prohibition Party's candidate in this election was the first man to fly his own airplane on a presidential campaign, Claude Watson, while thirty-nine electoral votes went to a ticket that included Fielding Wright Presidential election of 1948
Another candidate in this election was the author of Sixty Million Jobs who resigned as editor of The New Republic in order to run, but no electoral votes went to Henry Wallace's Progressive Party Presidential election of 1948
Four states did vote for the States Rights Democratic Party of Strom Thurmond Presidential election of 1948
FTP, name this election which produced a photo of the sitting Vice-President holding up a Chicago Daily Tribune with an erroneous headline, ending with Thomas Dewey losing to Harry Truman. Presidential election of 1948
Later interpreted using the "rule of reason," it was applied to labor unions in in re Debs after its scope was limited in 1893's E.C Sherman Antitrust Act [prompt on Sherman Act so you know it's not the Silver Purchase Act]
Knight decision, which found that sugar refining was not subject to this law Sherman Antitrust Act [prompt on Sherman Act so you know it's not the Silver Purchase Act]
It was expanded by a law regulating interlocking directorates and price discrimination called the "Magna Carta of labor" by Samuel Gompers, and was used against Northern Securities by Theodore Roosevelt Sherman Antitrust Act [prompt on Sherman Act so you know it's not the Silver Purchase Act]
It wasn't until 1911, however, when it finally attained its ostensible goal by securing the breakup of Standard Oil Sherman Antitrust Act [prompt on Sherman Act so you know it's not the Silver Purchase Act]
FTP, name this law against monopolies and cartels named for an Ohio Senator and former Secretary of the Treasury. Sherman Antitrust Act [prompt on Sherman Act so you know it's not the Silver Purchase Act]
In a way, this piece of legislation overturned the 1896 Supreme Court case Adair v Norris-LaGuardia Act
United States Norris-LaGuardia Act
Additionally, it was upheld in New Negro Alliance vs Norris-LaGuardia Act
Sanitary Grocery Company Norris-LaGuardia Act
Also known as the Anti-Injunction Act, it was a key point in the government's sanctioning various methods of striking, as well as barring the government from preventing publicizing labor disputes Norris-LaGuardia Act
Most notably, it banned "yellow dog" contracts, which allowed employers to forbid employees from joining unions Norris-LaGuardia Act
FTP, name this 1932 piece of legislation named for Nebraska Senator George and New York City mayor Fiorello. Norris-LaGuardia Act
One of its member's sons, Montgomery, would later go on to serve as Postmaster-General under Abraham Lincoln "The Bitchin'" Kitchen Cabinet
Its name was first made public in an article written by Senator George Poindexter, and members included its leader's adopted son, Andrew Donelson, and the editor of the Washington Globe, Francis Blair "The Bitchin'" Kitchen Cabinet
It first came to prominence after a purge in the wake of the Peggy Eaton scandal, and provided a counterpart to such officially titled dissenters as John Calhoun "The Bitchin'" Kitchen Cabinet
FTP, name this group of informal advisors to Andrew Jackson. "The Bitchin'" Kitchen Cabinet
Anger over them led to Culpeper's Rebellion and to the appointment of Edmond Andros as governor of the new Dominion of New England Navigation Acts
Repealed officially in 1849, they were accompanied by the Staple Act and targeted items subject to "enumeration." They included the Iron Act and an act making French molasses prohibitively expensive Navigation Acts
FTP, name this series of acts, first passed in 1660 and a prime example of British mercantilism, which made the American colonies pay extra for non-British goods. Navigation Acts
This agreement breached a term of Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed three years before, and a secondary term in it involved the assumption of one side's claims by that side the Louisiana Purchase
Important circumstances around this agreement include a yellow fever epidemic in Saint-Domingue and abrogation of the Peace of Amiens when the British kept Malta the Louisiana Purchase
Negotiations for it were led by Livingston and Barbe-Marbois, although James Monroe had an active role the Louisiana Purchase
Obtained when Napoleon decided to abandon his plans for an American empire, FTP, name this 1803 agreement that greatly expanded the size of the United States. the Louisiana Purchase
The winning lawyer in Jennings v Chester Alan Arthur
Third Avenue Railway Company, this person re-organized his state's militia in his role as state quartermaster during the Civil War, a position which helped get him the patronage of his most famous mentor and a post from which he would be ousted in 1878 Chester Alan Arthur
That mentor, Roscoe Conkling, got this man a job as head of the New York customhouse and made him a Stalwart running mate in 1880 Chester Alan Arthur
He assumed his most famous post due to the actions of Charles Guiteau Chester Alan Arthur
FTP, name this man who became the 21st President of the United States after succeeding the assassinated James Garfield. Chester Alan Arthur
His death, called providential by Charles Sumner, fell on the same day his home state abolished slavery Roger Brooke Taney
After both Louis McLane and William Duane refused to pull the government's funds out of the Second Bank of the United States, the duty fell to this man in his role as Jackson's Secretary of the Treasury Roger Brooke Taney
He had earlier been Attorney General, and afterwards was appointed to his most famous position, from which he issued opinions in such cases as Charles River Bridge v Roger Brooke Taney
Warren Bridge and Ex parte Merryman Roger Brooke Taney
FTP, name this Supreme Court Chief Justice who most famously presided over Dred Scott. Roger Brooke Taney
Discontent among participants in one of these resulted in the Eureka Stockade incident gold rushes [accept clear-knowledge equivalents]
Ones named for Cayoosh and Tulameen occurred within ten years of one another in British Columbia gold rushes [accept clear-knowledge equivalents]
Perhaps the first in American history happened in Lumpkin County, Georgia in the 1820's, creating a like-named "belt." One of these caused the abrogation of the Treaty of Laramie, when whites emigrated to the Black Hills of Dakota gold rushes [accept clear-knowledge equivalents]
Almost certainly the most famous of these events began in 1848 at Sutter's Mill in California gold rushes [accept clear-knowledge equivalents]
FTP, name these sudden influxes to an area of a large number of miners looking for a certain precious metal. gold rushes [accept clear-knowledge equivalents]
Charles Dickinson scored two broken ribs by successfully doing this over a horse wager in 1806 but was killed immediately after doing it shooting Andrew Jackson [accept obvious equivalents; do not accept "killing or assassinating Andrew Jackson" since Charles Dickinson and Thomas Hart Benton did not do that]
Charles Sevier failed in an attempt to do this just after shouting, "I know of no great service you have rendered the country, except taking a trip to Natchez with another man's wife." Thomas Hart Benton did this during a tavern brawl in Nashville, and an shooting Andrew Jackson [accept obvious equivalents; do not accept "killing or assassinating Andrew Jackson" since Charles Dickinson and Thomas Hart Benton did not do that]
Richard Lawrence was beaten with a cane for his troubles after both of his weapons jammed, thwarting his attempt to engage in it shooting Andrew Jackson [accept obvious equivalents; do not accept "killing or assassinating Andrew Jackson" since Charles Dickinson and Thomas Hart Benton did not do that]
FTP, name this popular activity involving pistols and the man who twice ran against John Quincy Adams for President. shooting Andrew Jackson [accept obvious equivalents; do not accept "killing or assassinating Andrew Jackson" since Charles Dickinson and Thomas Hart Benton did not do that]
Doe versus this entity struck down its speech code, partly enacted in reaction to a flier claiming "open season" on blacks The University of Michigan [prompt on Michigan; do not accept with "Law School"]
The ruling of another case involving this entity cited the precedent of NE Florida Chapter of Associated General Contractors of America v The University of Michigan [prompt on Michigan; do not accept with "Law School"]
Jacksonville in granting the plaintiffs standing to bring suit The University of Michigan [prompt on Michigan; do not accept with "Law School"]
In that case, Patrick Hamacher was a co-petitioner against its president, James Duderstadt The University of Michigan [prompt on Michigan; do not accept with "Law School"]
Gratz versus its later president struck down its points-based system and Grutter versus that president, Lee Bollinger, affirmed the constitutionality of affirmative action in its law school's admissions policy The University of Michigan [prompt on Michigan; do not accept with "Law School"]
FTP, name this educational institution located in Ann Arbor. The University of Michigan [prompt on Michigan; do not accept with "Law School"]
A Judge magazine cartoon shows a snake with this statesman's head swallowing a donkey William Jennings Bryan
Architect of a scheme of 31 agreements promoting a one-year "cooling-off period," this politician's debating so impressed Charles Crisp that he was placed on the Ways and Means Committee as a freshman Representative William Jennings Bryan
He later led a national campaign to pass the Eighteenth Amendment William Jennings Bryan
He served as Secretary of State from 1913-15, though he is for prosecuting the Scopes Monkey Trial William Jennings Bryan
FTP, name this "Boy Orator of the Platte" who won the first of many Presidential nominations in 1896 by delivering the "Cross of Gold" speech. William Jennings Bryan
One of the casualties from this conflict, Robert MacDonald, was given a massive funeral procession of up to 4000 mourners at Market Square the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
One of the antagonists pursued the other from Lynnhaven Roads the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
The impetus for this incident involved four men from the Melampus and Halifax the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
This incident also featured Stephen Decatur's assailant, James Barron, as one of the commanding officers the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
Prompting the ill-fated Embargo Act, this is, FTP, what 1807 incident in which a British ship fired on and boarded an American one in search of deserted sailors? the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
The valedictorian of this man's Amherst class of 1895 was Dwight Morrow, later his Ambassador to Mexico Calvin Coolidge
He appointed Harlan Stone to the Supreme Court, and he also saw the passage of the Air Commerce Act, the Veterans Bonus Act, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact Calvin Coolidge
During his nomination campaign, his first two picks for the Vice-Presidency declined before Charles Dawes ran with him to a victory over John W Calvin Coolidge
Davis and Bob LaFollette Calvin Coolidge
The only President of the United States to be sworn in to office by his father was, FTP, this famously tight-lipped Massachusian, successor to Warren Harding, who served from 1923 to 1928. Calvin Coolidge
William Cushing and Alfred Moore did not hear the oral arguments or factor in this case's decision William Marbury v. James Madison [accept in either order]
The majority opinion hinged on the court's lack of legitimate original jurisdiction over writs of mandamus, and the unanimous majority opinion invalidated Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 William Marbury v. James Madison [accept in either order]
The conflict in this case arose from the defendant's failure to deliver the appointment of one of the "Midnight Judges." FTP, name this case in which John Marshall denied the plaintiff's right to become a Justice of the Peace, establishing Judicial Review William Marbury v. James Madison [accept in either order]
Impetus for this event was provided by an extension of state property tax passed just months before and a slight eight years prior at the World Anti-Slavery Convention the Seneca Falls Convention
It was planned in nearby Waterloo and was held in the home of Jane Hunt the Seneca Falls Convention
Its most famous product was only signed by a third of the delegates and famously borrowed language of the Declaration of Independence; that was the Declaration of Sentiments the Seneca Falls Convention
Organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, FTP, name this meeting in upstate New York, a major germinal event in the American women's rights movement. the Seneca Falls Convention
After becoming concerned about unemployment near her vacation home, she founded the nonprofit furniture factory Val-Kill Industries Eleanor Roosevelt [prompt on Roosevelt]
She taught at the Todhunter School for Girls in the 1920's and took a prominent role in the labor movement by founding the Women's Trade Union League Eleanor Roosevelt [prompt on Roosevelt]
Also active as a journalist, she produced a syndicated newspaper column until 1962 entitled "My Day" Eleanor Roosevelt [prompt on Roosevelt]
This first head of the UN Civil Rights Commission intervened to allow Marian Anderson to perform at the Lincoln Memorial Eleanor Roosevelt [prompt on Roosevelt]
FTP, name this First Lady of the United States from 1932 to 1945. Eleanor Roosevelt [prompt on Roosevelt]
During this engagement, one general toasted the opponent's artillery, only to be splattered with mud soon after, prompting him to order the emplacement captured Battle of Chattanooga
Prior to the battle, the invading forces prepared by creating what has commonly been called the "Cracker Line," a brainchild of George Thomas Battle of Chattanooga
William Sherman was stalled in his attempts to take Tunnel Hill, and one portion of this battle is often called the "Battle Above the Clouds." Additionally featuring assaults on Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, this is, FTP, which Civil War battle i Battle of Chattanooga
A 1957 attempt to do this in Alabama, Act 140, was found to violate the 15th Amendment in Gomillon v congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
Lightfoot congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
In the 5-4 Miller v congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
Johnson decision, the same five justices upheld their previous ruling regarding this practice and Justice O'Connor called a result of this practice "bizarre" in that North Carolina case, Shaw v congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
Reno congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
Cracking and packing are two methods of unfairly carrying out this practice, which was notably ruled upon in Reynolds v congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
Sims congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
In that case as well as Baker v congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
Carr, the court delineated the "one man, one vote" doctrine regarding it congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
FTP, identify this practice carried out after a census, the unfair application of which is often dubbed Gerrymandering. congressional district reapportionment [or congressional redistricting; accept Gerrymandering before it's mentioned]
A new federal agency that was created by this bill was first chaired by a rabbi who sold a synagogue to Jim Jones, Maurice Davis The Civil Rights Act of 1964
In the House, this bill was almost stalled in the Rules Committee by Chairman Howard Smith The Civil Rights Act of 1964
One of its opponents in the Senate remarked about it "You can't legislate morality." It was deemed constitutional under the Commerce Clause in Heart of Atlanta Motel v The Civil Rights Act of 1964
US after it was signed into law by the still fairly new President Lyndon Johnson The Civil Rights Act of 1964
FTP, identify this law, followed the next year by a Voting Rights Act, that prohibited all sorts of discrimination based on race, sex, religion, and other things. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
The legions of Americans named after this man include a confidante of Andrew Carnegie who was stabbed and shot by Alexander Berkman Henry Clay
First coming to prominence drumming up support for the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions and joining the War Hawks, he later lost the electoral votes of New York due to the Liberty Party, leading to James K Henry Clay
Polk defeating this man Henry Clay
An earlier attempt at the Presidency ended when he settled for Secretary of State after throwing his electoral votes to John Quincy Adams in the "Corrupt Bargain." FTP, name this drafter of both the Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850. Henry Clay
A 2004 amendment to this legislation expanded its scope to cover so-called "lone wolves." The eleven member regulatory body established by it is appointed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and three of that court's members must live within 20 mil Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978
in part to be able to issue rulings within 72 hours Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978
Its provisions are divided between U.S Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978
and non-U.S Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978
persons, and the recent Protect America Act largely followed Bush's request to make it less restrictive on overseas surveillance Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978
FTP, name this 1978 act of Congress that provides guidelines on physical and electronic surveillance. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978
This former State Comptroller lost an election to Silas Wright for governor in 1844 Millard Fillmore
His Cabinet included a Secretary of the Interior who served for just 11 days, Thomas McKennan, failed compromiser John Crittenden as Attorney General, and notorious windbag Edward Everett as Secretary of State Millard Fillmore
In foreign policy, his only accomplishment of note was the deployment of Commodore Peary Millard Fillmore
On the domestic front, he oversaw the passage of the Compromise of 1850 Millard Fillmore
He only carried Maryland as the Know-Nothing presidential candidate after serving as the last Whig in the White House Millard Fillmore
FTP, name this man who succeeded to the presidency on the death of Zachary Taylor. Millard Fillmore
The act at the center of this event was later ruled invalid in Myers v United States the impeachment of Andrew Johnson [accept equivalents; I guess you can accept "the firing of Edwin Stanton" before "Thaddeus Stevens" is read; and you can also accept "removing Andrew Johnson from office" or things like that since there are hypothetical c
One of the figures at its center was acquitted of criminal charges by David Carter and later proved to be a rather unexciting witness when questioned by Benjamin Butler the impeachment of Andrew Johnson [accept equivalents; I guess you can accept "the firing of Edwin Stanton" before "Thaddeus Stevens" is read; and you can also accept "removing Andrew Johnson from office" or things like that since there are hypothetical c
That man, Lorenzo Thomas, was an Adjutant General appointed to a position declined by William Sherman the impeachment of Andrew Johnson [accept equivalents; I guess you can accept "the firing of Edwin Stanton" before "Thaddeus Stevens" is read; and you can also accept "removing Andrew Johnson from office" or things like that since there are hypothetical c
Edmond Ross's vote alone prevented this process from succeeding, and the resolution calling for this event was introduced by Thaddeus Stevens the impeachment of Andrew Johnson [accept equivalents; I guess you can accept "the firing of Edwin Stanton" before "Thaddeus Stevens" is read; and you can also accept "removing Andrew Johnson from office" or things like that since there are hypothetical c
Sparked by the removal of Edwin Stanton in violation of the Tenure of Office Act, for 10 points, name this event which almost saw the removal from office of Abraham Lincoln's successor. the impeachment of Andrew Johnson [accept equivalents; I guess you can accept "the firing of Edwin Stanton" before "Thaddeus Stevens" is read; and you can also accept "removing Andrew Johnson from office" or things like that since there are hypothetical c
Among its participants were a Captain O'Connor, who tried to plunder for himself, George Hewes, an area shoemaker who was commanded by Leonard Pitt, and David Kinnison, a farmer from Lebanon, Maine who lived to be 115 years old Boston Tea Party
It was preceded by such events as the seizure of the Liberty and the inflammatory Hutchinson letters, and resulted in the Intolerable Acts Boston Tea Party
Featuring the Sons of Liberty dressed as Native Americans, for 10 points, name this 1773 event in which a commodity was dumped into a Massachusetts harbor. Boston Tea Party
One of the units involved in this battle was a company of mounted riflemen nicknamed the Yellow Jackets Battle of Tippecanoe
The attacking army left from Vincennes and found an apparent white flag of surrender at the Indian encampment Battle of Tippecanoe
The flag turned out to be a ruse, but the Indian army was so small, it scattered in the face of the much larger American force Battle of Tippecanoe
Precipitating the downfall of the Prophet and the dissolution of Tecumseh's Indian confederation, this is, FTP, what 1811 battle which made a hero of William Henry Harrison and figured prominently into his campaign slogan? Battle of Tippecanoe
Prior to his political career, he taught at the Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind James Gillespie Blaine
His famous nickname was given to him by Robert Ingersoll, and he served several terms in the House, including three as Speaker James Gillespie Blaine
His namesake proposed amendments would have canceled all federal funding to parochial schools, and his presidential campaign was derailed in part due to the infamous phrase "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion." Also forming the Pan-American Congress during his James Gillespie Blaine
The second man to hold this position, Edward Coles, spent most of his term fighting a proposed convention which would have legalized slavery Governor of Illinois
This position was held at the end of the 19th century by John Tanner, who defeated an incumbent who might have been the Democratic presidential candidate in 1896 had he not been born in Germany Governor of Illinois
In the 1930s, Henry Horner became the first Jew to hold this position, which has more recently been occupied by Daniel Walker and Jim Edgar Governor of Illinois
Also held by John Reynolds, John Peter Altgeld, and Adlai Stevenson, FTP, name this governmental position whose most recent holders include the criminal George Ryan and Rod Blagojevich. Governor of Illinois
This man's son Henry was the first United States commissioner of patents Oliver Ellsworth
Though this man did not sign the Constitution, he promoted its ratification in his Letters of a Landholder Oliver Ellsworth
He reluctantly agreed to be appointed commisioner to France in 1799, three years after he took a position which had been declined by William Cushing Oliver Ellsworth
He proposed the use of the phrase "United States" as a member of the five-man committee which drafted the Constitution; that committee was chaired by the man who preceded him in his most prominent position, John Rutledge Oliver Ellsworth
He also joined with Roger Sherman to create the Connecticut Compromise Oliver Ellsworth
FTP, name this politician who was the third Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Oliver Ellsworth
Its creation was supported by Robert Treat and John Allyn, who were rewarded by being named to its Council Dominion of New England (prompt on partial answer)
It was opposed by a group of magistrates in the Lower House led by James Fitch, whose attempt to take over the government following its demise was blocked by Fitz-John Winthrop Dominion of New England (prompt on partial answer)
Its first president later became chief justice of New York, and sentenced Jacob Leisler to death for treason Dominion of New England (prompt on partial answer)
In addition to Joseph Dudley, it was led by a man who became governor of Virginia in 1692, two years after he was sent to England to be put on trial Dominion of New England (prompt on partial answer)
FTP, name this political entity which was created to enforce the Navigation Acts, a polity which in the late 1680s was ruled by Sir Edmund Andros and controlled most of the northeastern American colonies. Dominion of New England (prompt on partial answer)
This term was originally given to followers of Andrew Beaumont in Pennsylvania Copperheads
A presidential letter written to Matthew Birchard concerned a leader of this group who headed the Knights of the Golden Circle and was defended by George Pugh for violating General Order number 38 Copperheads
Another prominent member of this group conspired with William Bowles, Joshua Bullitt, and others to seize Johnson's Island and Camp Chase and was condemned to death Copperheads
That man took his case to the Supreme Court in a decision that undermined the authority of military tribunals Copperheads
FTP, identify this moniker given to such men as vice-presidential candidate George Pendleton, Lambdin Milligan, and Clement Vallandigham, a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War. Copperheads
The work in which it was introduced discusses the view of Achille Loria that understanding it would be useful for economics in the same way that studying mountains is useful to geology the Frontier Thesis (accept The Significance of the Frontier in American History or The Frontier in American History or even the Turner Thesis early)
It also discusses a monograph on salt by Victor Hehn, and suggests that a similar study of salt springs in another country might be helpful the Frontier Thesis (accept The Significance of the Frontier in American History or The Frontier in American History or even the Turner Thesis early)
When it originally appeared, a footnote thanked the author of Division and Reunion, Woodrow Wilson, for his support of the author's views the Frontier Thesis (accept The Significance of the Frontier in American History or The Frontier in American History or even the Turner Thesis early)
Its title object was compared to "the Mediterranean Sea for Greeks" in an address given to the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 the Frontier Thesis (accept The Significance of the Frontier in American History or The Frontier in American History or even the Turner Thesis early)
FTP, name this concept whose "significance" in "American history" was explained by Frederick Jackson Turner. the Frontier Thesis (accept The Significance of the Frontier in American History or The Frontier in American History or even the Turner Thesis early)
One faction of this group which was led by Francis Granger supported the former editor of the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, who had been earlier defeated in a governor's race by Silas Wright, against his intra-party rival, a future Secretary of State and the Whig Party
Its leaders in Georgia included Robert Toombs and John Berrien, as well as Alexander Stephens the Whig Party
Benjamin Curtis, the only man to be appointed to the Supreme Court as a member of this group, resigned after dissenting from the Dred Scott decision the Whig Party
It took many early members, such as William Seward, from the Anti-Masons the Whig Party
Including notables such as Theodore Frelinghuysen and standing for a high tariff, internal improvements, and a national bank, FTP, name this American political party which included Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. the Whig Party
After a treaty involving it was withdrawn from the Senate, the president appointed James Blount to investigate the situation Hawaii
Blount determined that the behavior of Minister John L Hawaii
Stevens, who had ordered marines to be landed from the cruiser Boston, was unacceptable Hawaii
Later Albert Willis was sent as the new minister, and instructed to maintain the liberal constitution of 1887 Hawaii
When a republic was proclaimed in 1894, Lorrin Thurston declined the presidency in favor of Sanford Dole Hawaii
FTP, name this territory which was annexed by the U.S Hawaii
after a power struggle was lost by Queen Liliuokalani. Hawaii
He lost power after sending a letter to the President threatening to take action against Valentine McGillycuddy Red Cloud (or Makhpyla-luta)
He befriended Yale paleontologist Othniel Marsh, whose outrage over the treatment of this man's people led to the resignation of Secretary of the Interior Christopher Delano Red Cloud (or Makhpyla-luta)
His best-known venture was a response to the work of Henry Carrington, and included such episodes as the Wagon Box fight and the Fetterman massacre Red Cloud (or Makhpyla-luta)
That venture ended when he compelled the forts on the Powder River to be abandoned, after which he signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868 Red Cloud (or Makhpyla-luta)
FTP, name this leader of the Oglala Sioux who was the only Native American to win a significant war against the United States. Red Cloud (or Makhpyla-luta)
This election had its share of oddities, such as the Vice-Presidential electoral votes which went to two men who were apparently not even running, with William Wilkins receiving 30 votes from Pennsylvania and economist Henry Lee receiving 11 from South Ca Election of 1832
South Carolina had given these votes to Lee just as they would give their presidential votes to non-candidate John Floyd due to his opposition to tariffs, but most of the rest of the south went Democratic save for the Florida and Arkansas territories whic Election of 1832
In the end these could not prevent the re-election of the incumbent any more than could the electoral votes of Vermont, which went to the third-party candidate selected in the very first nominating caucus held by the Anti-Masonic party Election of 1832
FTP, name this election in which William Wirt and Henry Clay were roundly defeated by Andrew Jackson. Election of 1832
Scandal engulfed this leader's administration when Bert Lance was accused of financial improprieties, but Lance, the director of the Office of Management and Budget, was later acquitted James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
Shortly after election, this man abolished the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and created the Commission on Mental Health, but also courted controversy with Order 11967, which forgave violations to the SSA James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
He negotiated the treaties that gave control of the Panama Canal to Panama but, after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, he removed SALT II from Senate consideration James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
FTP, name this one-term President who was unable to resolve the Iran hostage crisis. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
Warren Austin resigned from his Vermont Senate seat to take this position Ambassador to the United Nations (or the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations)
Arthur Goldberg resigned from the Supreme Court to take this position in hopes of settling an end to the Vietnam War Ambassador to the United Nations (or the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations)
Edward Stettinius resigned as Secretary of State to serve as the first one Ambassador to the United Nations (or the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations)
Daniel Patrick Moynihan prevented action being taken against Indonesia's 1975 invasion of East Timor in his time in this office, which was held by Henry Cabot Lodge Jr Ambassador to the United Nations (or the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations)
from 1953 to 1960 Ambassador to the United Nations (or the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations)
Currently occupied by Alejandro Wolff, and previously held by Andrew Young, Adlai Stevenson, and John Negroponte, FTP, name this diplomatic position recently held by John Bolton, an envoy to an international body located in New York City. Ambassador to the United Nations (or the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations)
David Kendall wrote the official response to this document, whose tenth section, "Growing Frustration," describes the Zedillo visit The Starr Report
A later section of its "Narrative" portion, "The Affidavit," discusses the "Perelman call" and the "Francis Carter meeting." Another section discusses the role of Betty Currie as an intermediary, while its last section includes the testimony of John Pode The Starr Report
It begins by discussing a decision of Judge Susan Wright, and one person mentioned in it tried to use Vernon Jordan to get a job after being transferred to the Pentagon from the White House The Starr Report
It argues for charges of obstruction of justice and lying under oath, and drew criticism for its explicit description of sexual encounters The Starr Report
FTP, name this document released by the Office of the Independent Counsel which argued for the impeachment of Bill Clinton. The Starr Report
His book What I Know of Farming described his work in swamp reclamation on his Chappaqua estate Horace Greeley
Earlier in his career, he founded an unprofitable journal called the New Yorker before moving on to edit a Whig campaign journal called The Jeffersonian Horace Greeley
He failed to get Seward's Senate seat in 1861, and two years later was unable to win his state's other Senate seat thanks to the opposition of Thurlow Weed, though over the next decade he became a leader of the Liberal Republicans Horace Greeley
Sales of his collection The American Conflict took a nosedive after he signed a bond for the release of Jefferson Davis Horace Greeley
FTP, name this founder of the New York Tribune who unsuccessfully ran for President in 1872. Horace Greeley
During this event, Abraham Whipple led a group of 50 civilians which included Joseph Bucklin, who fired the only shot Gaspée Affair (accept the burning of the Gaspée or other clear-knowledge equivalents)
The party's chief complaint was seizure of personal property by Lieutenant Dudingston, who had been in pursuit of the packet boat Hannah when he beached his craft Gaspée Affair (accept the burning of the Gaspée or other clear-knowledge equivalents)
Taking place three years after a similar event involving the Liberty, it was organized by John Brown Gaspée Affair (accept the burning of the Gaspée or other clear-knowledge equivalents)
In its aftermath, the Virginia House of Burgesses established the first permanent committee of correspondence between the colonies Gaspée Affair (accept the burning of the Gaspée or other clear-knowledge equivalents)
FTP, name this event of 1772 in which a ship was destroyed by Rhode Islanders in protest of British trade policies. Gaspée Affair (accept the burning of the Gaspée or other clear-knowledge equivalents)
After the death of Alexander Hamilton, he became the third president of the Society of the Cincinnati, a post he held until his death in 1825 Charles Coatsworth Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
At the Constitutional Convention, he suggested 1808 as the year when the foreign slave trade could be halted, but unsuccessfully proposed that senators should serve without pay Charles Coatsworth Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
He declined the command of the army, which instead went to Arthur St Charles Coatsworth Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
Clair, and also declined the position of Secretary of State in 1795, though he did agree to succeed James Monroe as minister to France in 1796 Charles Coatsworth Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
He ran for president in 1804 and 1808 as the Federalist candidate Charles Coatsworth Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
FTP, name this South Carolinian who along with Elbridge Gerry and John Marshall was involved in the XYZ affair. Charles Coatsworth Pinckney (prompt on Pinckney)
He defeated Charles Lindbergh's father in the primary to win a Senate seat from Minnesota, twelve years after Theodore Roosevelt read this man's newspaper editorial asserting that the General Paper Company was an illegal trust and appointed him U.S Frank Billings Kellogg
attorney to prosecute the case Frank Billings Kellogg
He later served as the lead solicitor against Union Pacific and Standard Oil and as ambassador to Britain from 1923 to 1925 Frank Billings Kellogg
In his next position he succeeded Charles Evans Hughes, and while holding it he won a Nobel Prize Frank Billings Kellogg
FTP, name this Secretary of State under Calvin Coolidge who won the support of sixty-two nations for an idealistic pact outlawing warfare, an agreement which is named for this man and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. Frank Billings Kellogg
One side's battle plan called for cavalry under George Stoneman to raid the opponent's supply and communication lines Battle of Chancellorsville
However, the inability of Howard's troops to speak English and the refusal of one side's commander to turn control over to Darius Couch after being injured led to failure Battle of Chancellorsville
Occurring at the intersection of the Orange Plank Road and Orange Turnpike, it saw Early man Marye's Heights to isolate Sedgwick Battle of Chancellorsville
During this battle, Lee's outnumbered Army of Northern Virginia outmaneuvered Hooker's Army of the Potomac after the Union forces crossed the Rappahannock River Battle of Chancellorsville
FTP, name this 1863 Civil War battle in Virginia in which friendly fire led to the death of Stonewall Jackson. Battle of Chancellorsville
His friend William Van Ness published an "Examination" of some charges against him under the pseudonym of Aristides Aaron Burr
While in Philadelphia he met secretly with Anthony Merry, whose superiors refused this man's proposals Aaron Burr
After taking a partial interest in the Bastrop grant on the Washita River, he received support from Harman Blennerhassatt Aaron Burr
He was defended by Luther Martin when he was put on trial in Richmond, but John Marshall ruled that only an overt act would constitute the "levying" of war mentioned in the Constitution Aaron Burr
FTP, name this vice president under Thomas Jefferson who was tried for treason and who fought a duel with Alexander Hamilton. Aaron Burr
When one member of this gathering cited the example of Charles I, another quipped that "he lost his head," to the dismay of Robert Hunter Hampton Roads Peace Conference
Major Thomas Eckert, the head of the Telegraph Office, was sent out to meet one party at City Point before it took place Hampton Roads Peace Conference
It was inspired by Francis Blair's plan to launch an attack against the French, a scheme which was supposed to help create a "continental regulator." The proposal included a refusal to recognize future treaties and an offer of $400 million to a certain gr Hampton Roads Peace Conference
This meeting took place aboard the "River Queen," where Alexander Stephens was forced to refuse a proposal of emancipation and reunion, since he was only authorized to accept independence Hampton Roads Peace Conference
FTP, name this February 1865 peace conference meant to end the Civil War. Hampton Roads Peace Conference
Governor George C The Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 (accept clear-knowledge equivalents)
Pardee appointed a panel to investigate this event The Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 (accept clear-knowledge equivalents)
During it, soldiers shot three people on top of the Windsor Hotel before they could jump The Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 (accept clear-knowledge equivalents)
After it, Mayor Eugene Schmitz was indicted on 27 counts of bribery, though not before he gave police orders to shoot looters on sight The Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 (accept clear-knowledge equivalents)
It began on April 18th around 5:13 A.M The Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 (accept clear-knowledge equivalents)
and its effects continued for several days, although the main event was finished by 5:14 A.M The Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 (accept clear-knowledge equivalents)
FTP, name this event that registered somewhere between VII and IX on the Mercalli scale and 8.25 on the Richter scale, which leveled a California town in 1906. The Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 (accept clear-knowledge equivalents)
This man, who was given the Indian name "Horse Chief of the Long Knives," fought alongside Captain Archibald Gillespie against Andres Pico at the Battle of San Pasquale Stephen Watts Kearny
Named commander of the Army of the West by President Polk, he promulgated a famous "code" stabilizing conditions in New Mexico and granting equal citizenship to Californios Stephen Watts Kearny
He quarreled with Robert Stockton and had John C Stephen Watts Kearny
Fremont arrested after establishing himself as governor and commander-in-chief of California Stephen Watts Kearny
FTP, name this cavalry commander of the Mexican War, an uncle of the Civil War general Philip and the namesake of two forts in Nebraska. Stephen Watts Kearny
Contemporary accounts of this conflict were written by Philip Vincent and Lieutenant Lion Gardiner, who famously protested its unnecessary violence Pequot War
Jonathan Brewster relayed a key message of a preemptive strike Pequot War
It was partly prompted by an incident at the "House of Hope." There was a failed peace conference at Fort Saybrook which was later besieged, and there were nine casualties during a raid on Wethersfield Pequot War
A raid on Block Island was led by John Endicott Pequot War
This conflict, formally ended by the Treaty of Hartford, had been sparked by the murder of John Oldham Pequot War
The Mystic River Massacre saw John Mason kill a number of men under Sassacus, who was later scalped, which resulted in the Narragansetts abandoning their alliance Pequot War
For 10 points, name this 1636-1638 conflict that pitted the namesake tribe against the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies. Pequot War
With Duncan McArthur, this politician negotiated the transfer of the Ohio Valley to the American government by way of the Treaty of Fort Meigs Lewis Cass
He outlined his support for the annexation of Texas in the Hannegan Letter, and was succeeded in one of his most famous posts by Thomas Fitzgerald Lewis Cass
He wrote a pamphlet attacking European search and seizure of slaves during his time as minister of France Lewis Cass
He ran for president with William Orlando Butler and later succeeded William Marcy as secretary of state for James Buchanan in 1860 Lewis Cass
He organized the Black Hawk War and the Seminole Wars as Secretary of War from 1831 to 1836 for Jackson Lewis Cass
FTP, name this longtime Michigan senator and staunch supporter of Popular Sovereignty. Lewis Cass
This year was the first time Farrell Dobbs ran for president for the Socialist Workers Party, the second time that Claude Watson was nominated for the Prohibition Party, and the last time Norman Thomas earned the Socialist Party nomination Election of 1948
One major candidate earned his nomination over bids by Harold Stassen and Arthur Vandenberg Election of 1948
Another candidate had given the "Century of the Common Man" speech as vice president and chose Glen Taylor as his running mate Election of 1948
Its eventual victor announced the "Point Four" program as a plan for foreign aid Election of 1948
The loser took Earl Warren as his running mate, while the winning vice presidential candidate was Senate minority leader Alben Barkley Election of 1948
FTP name this election year which saw Dixiecrat Strom Thurmond make his bid for president, and which infamously saw the newspaper headline "Dewey defeats Truman." Election of 1948
Joseph Gusfield wrote a study of this organization, which was supposedly inspired by a speech of Dr Woman's Christian Temperance Union or WCTU
Dio Lewis Woman's Christian Temperance Union or WCTU
The idea for it was initially suggested at the Chautauqua conference and it adopted the slogan "For God and Home and Native Land," the last part of which was later changed to "Every Land." The Anchorage Mission was founded by this group, which started out Woman's Christian Temperance Union or WCTU
It expanded its membership by means of the White Ribbon Recruits and its founders include the author of Glimpses of Fifty Years, Frances Willard, who served as its president after Annie Wittenmyer Woman's Christian Temperance Union or WCTU
FTP, name this organization founded in 1873 to promote the cause of prohibition by some women. Woman's Christian Temperance Union or WCTU
This agreement brought an end to a conflict which saw the death of Major Alexander Truman and Colonel John Hardin, both of whom were killed while attempting to negotiate peace three years earlier Treaty of Greenville
It reportedly took eight months to negotiate and its second article mandates the taking of ten hostages as insurance Treaty of Greenville
It was made possible after the newly formed Legion of the United States avenged some earlier losses by Josiah Harmar and Arthur St Treaty of Greenville
Clair Treaty of Greenville
It created a namesake line extending south to Fort Laurens and west to Fort Loramie and Fort Recovery, though some land was set aside for the army of George Rogers Clark, and it was agreed to by Little Turtle and Blue Jacket among other Indian leaders Treaty of Greenville
FTP, name this 1795 treaty negotiated by Mad Anthony Wayne after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Treaty of Greenville
George Gettman and Fred Hainey were key participants in this event which saw a confrontation at the tavern of Enoch Roberts, where Everard Foulke was held captive Fries Rebellion (or House Tax Rebellion or Home Tax Rebellion before "windows")
Captain Henry Jarrett joined a raid at Sun Inn and troops were raised under Brigadier General William McPherson to oppose it after a march from Milford resulted in freeing prisoners at Bethlehem Fries Rebellion (or House Tax Rebellion or Home Tax Rebellion before "windows")
This event resulted from a measure which used the number of windows on houses and their size to assess a certain tax; housewives were instructed to pour hot water on tax collectors and its leader was captured when he was betrayed by the bark of his dog "W Fries Rebellion (or House Tax Rebellion or Home Tax Rebellion before "windows")
FTP, name this 1799 rebellion led by a namesake German farmer in Pennsylvania. Fries Rebellion (or House Tax Rebellion or Home Tax Rebellion before "windows")
This document was released partly as a reply to a meeting at the estate of Great Elm two years earlier in Sharon, Connecticut, where journalist M Port Huron Statement
Stanton Evans drafted a similar work Port Huron Statement
It was contributed to by Dick Flacks and it ends by declaring that "if we appear to seek the unattainable, as it has been said, then let it be known that we do so to avoid the unimaginable." Some of its sections are entitled "Values" and "The Society Beyo Port Huron Statement
Some historians like David Fischer have argued that this group never truly existed, although its key members were often distinctly enumerated - they included Benjamin Goodhue, Nathaniel Tracy, and Jonathan Jackson Essex Junto
Another member was the author of the "Laco letters," Stephen Higginson, who was also associated with a related group called the "Blue Lights." This group also included Fisher Ames and the influential jurist Theophilus Parsons, and its name was coined by J Essex Junto
Including prominent members like Timothy Pickering and George Cabot, they campaigned for repeal of the Embargo Act and against the French policies of John Adams Essex Junto
FTP, name this radical faction of the Federalist Party which dominated the Hartford Convention. Essex Junto
This man was an owner of the Saginaw Bay Company along with James Fraser and Daniel Fitzhugh and at one point moved into the Webster House built by the company James Gillespie Birney
He studied law under Alexander Dallas years before he wrote the pamphlet The American Churches, the Bulwarks of American Slavery James Gillespie Birney
The "Garland forgery" hurt his political campaign when he ran with Thomas Morris as his vice president, after having earlier run with Thomas Earle James Gillespie Birney
He founded a newspaper called the Philanthropist in Cincinnati after he'd spent some time in Alabama outlawing the importation of slaves and formed the Kentucky Anti-Slavery Society James Gillespie Birney
The party he is associated with nominated John Parker Hale in 1848 and then merged itself with the Free Soil Party James Gillespie Birney
FTP, name this two-time presidential candidate for the Liberty Party. James Gillespie Birney
One piece of legislation by this name, named for a representative from Missouri, created the state agricultural experiment station system Hatch Act(s)
That bill, passed in 1887, created a series of research facilities by way of the Morrill Act connected to land grant colleges Hatch Act(s)
A more famous bill of this name was co-sponsored by Morris Sheppard and Warren Austin and was upheld in the Supreme Court case of United Public Workers v Hatch Act(s)
Mitchell, over a sharp dissent by Hugo Black on First Amendment grounds Hatch Act(s)
Sponsored by a namesake New Mexico senator, it was subtitled "An Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities" and passed a year after the Fair Labor Standards Act Hatch Act(s)
FTP, name this 1939 New Deal act preventing bribery and political corruption. Hatch Act(s)
This man's presidency saw the first US commercial treaty with the Hanseatic League John Quincy Adams
In addition to a more famous minister, this man negotiated a treaty with General Vives, and he accused Senator Trimble of Ohio of having a brain occupied by a maggot when he voted against that treaty John Quincy Adams
Under the pseudonym Publicola, he criticized Thomas Paine and in his Congressional career, he attacked rules suggested by Henry Pinckney and Atherton, after being elected on an Anti-Masonic ticket John Quincy Adams
His presidency ended with a disastrous dispute with the British West Indies, and with his Secretary of State, he built the Dismal Swamp Canal and other routes of transportation John Quincy Adams
Present at the negotiations of the Treaty of Ghent and the signer of a treaty with Onis, FTP, name this president whose term saw the passing of the Tariff of Abominations and began with a "Corrupt Bargain." John Quincy Adams
The attacking army in this battle dispatched generals James Grant and Leopold von Heister, who fought a skirmish at Baker's Tavern; they then swept around the watch of Colonel Samuel Miles Battle of Long Island (or Battle of Brooklyn or Brooklyn Heights)
Maryland troops under Mordecai Gist were ordered by William Alexander, Lord Stirling, to make a stand at the Old Stone House, resulting in capture but buying time for the rest of the army, after the breaching of Jamaica Pass Battle of Long Island (or Battle of Brooklyn or Brooklyn Heights)
This clash was quickly followed by a battle at Kip's Bay and later the Battle of White Plains, which only saw further retreat by the colonial army Battle of Long Island (or Battle of Brooklyn or Brooklyn Heights)
John Sullivan was replaced by the elderly Israel Putnam who was defeated by Howe, but John Glover and the fortune of some foggy weather helped Washington and the colonials cross the East River Battle of Long Island (or Battle of Brooklyn or Brooklyn Heights)
FTP, name this 1776 battle which quickly led to the execution of Nathan Hale and the burning of New York City. Battle of Long Island (or Battle of Brooklyn or Brooklyn Heights)
The majority in this case repeatedly cites the Fifth Circuit decision Burnside v Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
Byars for the relevant standard; it also uses the earlier opinions of Justice McReynolds in Bartels v Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
Iowa and Meyer v Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
Nebraska on reasonableness, which is cited as erroneous in Justice Black's dissent Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
Decided a year after United States v Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
O'Brien, Justice Harlan added a short dissent in this case, which involved an unnamed petitioner Christopher Eckhardt Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
Justices Stewart and White issued short concurrences to the majority opinion by Abe Fortas, which held that the central behavior was "akin to pure speech" and that "undifferentiated fear" could not be used to prohibit a symbolic act which does not "materi Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
In the days leading up to this battle, the victors made a short march up to Benedict without incident, and a number of ships at Pig Point were deliberately set on fire to prevent them from being taken Battle of Bladensburg
The defending forces organized in three prongs with the colonels Sterett and Beall under General Tobias Stansbury, but alas, the Commodore Joshua Barney was eventually wounded and captured Battle of Bladensburg
Stansbury had been dispatched by William Winder, who was defeated by a force under the command of Robert Ross here Battle of Bladensburg
Its aftermath is sometimes called its namesake "races," from the helter-skelter flight of the American militia, which had failed to stop the march up the Patuxent River or hold the Anacostia River Battle of Bladensburg
FTP, name this British victory in the War of 1812, which allowed them to march on Washington and burn the White House. Battle of Bladensburg
The Foundation of one of this group's creators distanced itself from the "New" group of this name created in 1989 by Michael McGee, claiming the latter's members did not follow the examples of John Huggins and Bunchy Carter The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
Its socialism is reflected in the second point of its Ten-Point program, which demanded full employment, while the sixth demanded exemption from military service and the eighth mass amnesty The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
Elaine Brown was its last leader, following David Hilliard, but by 1977 it had been decimated by the efforts of COINTELPRO The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
A 1969 trial in New Haven focused on the alleged killing of Alex Rackley by one of its founders, while the other was convicted of killing John Frey the year before The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
FTP, name this group founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, a party which espoused a program of black nationalism. The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
This event resulted in the death of a boy named Johnson, and known popularly as "Little Billy." It happened a year before the Battle of the Windmill, during which men like Samuel Lount allied with groups known as the Hunters' Lodges Caroline affair
A letter by Governor Francis Bond Head responded to a communiqué between John Forsyth and Henry Fox in the wake of this event; Head denied responsibility for the happenings at Fort Schlosser, where Andrew Drew had acted under orders from Colonel Allan Mac Caroline affair
This event saw the death of Amos Durfee after departure from Navy Island, but Alexander MacLeod was acquitted on all charges Caroline affair
General Winfield Scott was sent to quell hostility on the American side, after William Lyon Mackenzie had tried to incite war with Great Britain Caroline affair
FTP, name this 1837 incident, the Canadian-led takeover and burning of a ship on the Niagara River. Caroline affair
This was the subject of a paper by Erich Fromm presented to the US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Détente
The most straightforward declaration of this idea came in Nixon's inaugural address and was presented as a variation on the policies instituted by George Kennan Détente
It came to a peak with the affirmation of human rights at the Helsinki Conference, though a failure to follow those accords led it to be referred to as "a one-way street," while Gerald Ford referred to this policy as "peace through strength." Its successe Détente
Chiefly associated with Henry Kissinger, FTP, name this "era of negotiation" between the US and the USSR during the Cold War. Détente
This man, once referred to as the "Stormy Patriot," was one of five from his state to sign the Olive Branch Petition, along with Matthew Tilghman, William Paca, Thomas Johnson Jr., and Thomas Stone Samuel Chase
He was sent to Canada along Benjamin Franklin and Charles Carroll of Carrollton, to try to get them to join the revolution Samuel Chase
He famously argued with James Iredell over whether principles of natural law should be enforced by judges, after he replaced John Blair on the Supreme Court Samuel Chase
That debate occurred in this man's first and most substantial opinion Calder v Samuel Chase
Bull Samuel Chase
This staunch Federalist from Maryland referred to Jefferson's overly democratic policies as "mobocracy" and was defended by Luther Martin when he was put on trial Samuel Chase
FTP, name this only Supreme Court Justice to be impeached. Samuel Chase
One controversial member of this organization was Frank Ferrell, who caused an incident when it was suggested that he introduce the governor of Virginia Knights of Labor
Its later leaders include Henry Hicks and John Williams Hayes, who was accused of misappropriating funds as its treasurer and conspired with another leader James Sovereign to lead a rival faction of this organization Knights of Labor
It printed an illustrated manual called "Adelphon Kruptos" and its first leader proposed that an equilateral triangle set within a circle be adopted as its symbol Knights of Labor
That leader, Uriah Stephens, was succeeded by Terence Powderly who quarreled over the inclusion of lawyers in this organization while serving as its second Grand Master Workman Knights of Labor
FTP, name this organization discredited by the Haymarket Square Riot, a labor movement founded in 1869 and eclipsed by the AFL. Knights of Labor
As a lawyer, this man successfully defended Billy McNew, Jim Gilliland, and his longtime friend Oliver Lee who were all accused of murdering Albert Jennings Fountain, who was conveniently the political rival of this man Albert Bacon Fall
He founded a newspaper called the Independent Democrat, but cleverly switched to the Republican Party along with Thomas Catron Albert Bacon Fall
As a result, those two became the first two senators from his state, New Mexico, where he owned the massive Tularosa ranch at Three Rivers Albert Bacon Fall
In his most famous role, he convinced Edwin Denby to give him the power to accept a $100,000 loan from Edward Doheny, after he had given Doheny and Harry Sinclair a secret lease to Elk Hills and some other naval reserves Albert Bacon Fall
FTP, name this Secretary of the Interior who resigned and was imprisoned as a result of the Teapot Dome scandal. Albert Bacon Fall
Late in his career, this man was placed in charge of relief efforts when martial law was declared after the Great Chicago Fire Philip Henry Sheridan
Given the epithet "the Inevitable" in a book by Richard O'Connor, he replaced Winfield Hancock as commander of the Department of the Missouri in 1867 and carried out the winter buffalo offensives during the Plains Wars Philip Henry Sheridan
Earlier, his army had mortally wounded J.E.B Philip Henry Sheridan
Stuart at Yellow Tavern and he led victories at Fisher's Hill and Waynesboro over the army of Jubal Early Philip Henry Sheridan
But, one of his more famous actions came at the Battle of Cedar Creek where his horse Rienzi supposedly gained its name Philip Henry Sheridan
FTP, name this cavalry commander of the Army of the Potomac who directed the burning campaign in the Shenandoah Valley. Philip Henry Sheridan
This man negotiated a namesake peace agreement with the general José María Moncada; it is often referred to as the Pact of Espino Negro Henry Stimson
The author of Democracy and Nationalism in Europe, he collaborated with McGeorge Bundy on the memoir On Active Service in Peace and War Henry Stimson
He negotiated the above treaty after he'd been sent to Nicaragua by Coolidge, and then in 1927 he became governor-general of the Philippines Henry Stimson
His first cabinet post was in 1911 as Taft's Secretary of War, a position he'd hold again from 1940-45, when he had a significant impact over the Manhattan Project Henry Stimson
But, it was during his time as Secretary of State for Hoover that he issued a proclamation in response to Japan's invasion of Manchuria Henry Stimson
FTP, name this statesman whose doctrine says that the US will not recognize territorial changes achieved by force. Henry Stimson
This military man was once shot by a subordinate, Lieutenant Andrew Gould, and responded by pulling out a pen-knife and skewering Gould to death Nathan Bedford Forrest
Sometimes called the "untutored genius," with a very small force he succeeded at repelling Colonel Abel Streight, defeating his forces at Cedar Bluffs to thwart his raid on Rome, Georgia Nathan Bedford Forrest
In a letter to Edwin Stanton, Sherman referred to him as "the very devil." He first gained fame for escaping from Fort Donelson, and afterwards, this man, also known as the "wizard of the saddle," scored his most impressive victory over Samuel Sturgis at Nathan Bedford Forrest
He'd earlier gained infamy for sanctioning the Fort Pillow massacre Nathan Bedford Forrest
For 10 points, name this man who also served as the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, a cavalry commander for the Confederacy. Nathan Bedford Forrest
This politician was the author of an autobiography entitled Journeys and earned the nickname "Mr Edmund Sixtus Muskie
Clean" for his stance on environmental issues, including his authorship of a Clean Air and Clean Water Act Edmund Sixtus Muskie
He attacked William Loeb, the publisher of the Union Leader, which once printed a forged letter alleging that this man had used the word "Canuck" to describe French-Canadians Edmund Sixtus Muskie
He later became Secretary of State after the resignation of Cyrus Vance under Jimmy Carter Edmund Sixtus Muskie
But, he is still remembered for allegedly bursting into tears while giving a speech on a flatbed truck, which arguably played a role in him losing the Democratic nomination to George McGovern Edmund Sixtus Muskie
FTP, name this one-time governor of Maine who ran for vice president with Hubert Humphrey in 1968. Edmund Sixtus Muskie
The most famous person to hold this office married Margaret Lea and released the militia to put down the Regulator-Moderator War President of the Republic of Texas (or equivalents that include "President" and "Texas")
The second person to officially hold this position almost caused financial collapse when he issued valueless paper currency dubbed "redbacks." David G President of the Republic of Texas (or equivalents that include "President" and "Texas")
Burnet held this title twice in an interim role, while the last person to hold it was Anson Jones, a doctor who was once the "Apothecary General." The aforementioned second one, Mirabeau B President of the Republic of Texas (or equivalents that include "President" and "Texas")
Lamar, came after Burnet who had negotiated the treaties of Velasco and led a mass evacuation known as the Runaway Scrape, which moved the capital to Harrisburg from Washington-on-the-Brazos President of the Republic of Texas (or equivalents that include "President" and "Texas")
FTP, name this position most famously held twice by Sam Houston, the highest office in a certain Republic and later U.S President of the Republic of Texas (or equivalents that include "President" and "Texas")
state. President of the Republic of Texas (or equivalents that include "President" and "Texas")
The attacking army suffered the death of Lieutenant Jules Ord and Hamilton Hawkins, whose brigade used a small trail revealed by Colonel Derby, when he ascended in a hydrogen Signal Corps balloon which was soon shot down Battle of San Juan Hill (or San Juan Heights)
An area known as the "Bloody Ford" was the site of heavy fire and is sometimes dubbed "Hell's Pocket." Samuel Sumner commanded the cavalry since "Fighting Joe" Wheeler was deathly ill, but Wheeler rose from his sickbed to meet up with Jacob Kent, who had Battle of San Juan Hill (or San Juan Heights)
Henry Lawton's division got bogged down at the Battle of El Caney and never arrived; so the charge against Arsenio Linares y Pombo was led by men like Leonard Wood Battle of San Juan Hill (or San Juan Heights)
FTP, name this battle in 1898 which made a name for the Rough Riders and Teddy Roosevelt when they ascended the namesake landmass in Cuba. Battle of San Juan Hill (or San Juan Heights)
As a lawyer, this politician argued on behalf of the Second Bank of the U.S Henry Clay
in the Supreme Court case Osborn v Henry Clay
U.S Henry Clay
He pierced John Randolph's coat in a duel, and he used Friedrich List's ideas to develop his protectionist economic system Henry Clay
This man finished fourth in an election year that saw William Crawford earn votes despite suffering a debilitating stroke, and he swung the House of Representatives to John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson in a move that lead to his appointment as Secreta Henry Clay
This man's presidency saw the establishment of the Naval Academy at Annapolis by his first Navy Secretary, George Bancroft James Knox Polk
He was nominated with the help of Robert Walker, his future Treasury Secretary and tariff namesake, who reinstated the need for support of two-thirds of convention delegates James Knox Polk
He was thus able to win the nomination over James Buchanan, who became his Secretary of State, as well as pre-convention favorite Martin Van Buren James Knox Polk
He then won the general election over Henry Clay James Knox Polk
For 10 points, name this man whose term saw the signing of the Oregon Treaty and the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo, a "dark horse" who was elected in 1844. James Knox Polk
The decision in this case claimed that the character of an act depends on its circumstances, citing Aikens v Schenck v. United States [accept in reverse order]
Wisconsin Schenck v. United States [accept in reverse order]
The precedent established by this case was altered in the case whose dissent introduced the marketplace of ideas, Abrams v Schenck v. United States [accept in reverse order]
U.S., and was officially established in Brandenburg v Schenck v. United States [accept in reverse order]
Ohio after being repeatedly cited by Louis Brandeis Schenck v. United States [accept in reverse order]
Its plaintiff, a general secretary of the Socialist party, was charged with violating the Espionage Act for distributing anti-draft pamphlets Schenck v. United States [accept in reverse order]
For 10 points, name this 1919 Supreme Court case with a majority opinion by Oliver Wendell Holmes that placed limitations on the First Amendment with the "clear and present danger" test. Schenck v. United States [accept in reverse order]
This group's creation was inspired by the book Stride Towards Freedom Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee [or SNCC; or Snick]
A speech critical of Kennedy's planned civil rights bill was given during the March on Washington by its leader, John Lewis, who also oversaw the organization of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party for the 1964 Democratic Convention Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee [or SNCC; or Snick]
Initially started in Greensboro, North Carolina, it was formally organized in a conference led by Ella Baker at Shaw University Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee [or SNCC; or Snick]
After the Watts Riots, it began to reject civil rights legislation and was taken over by its militant branch Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee [or SNCC; or Snick]
For 10 points, name this civil rights organization that supported "black power" under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee [or SNCC; or Snick]
In one election, this man defeated Hal Suit after overcoming a man he labeled "Cufflinks Carl" in the primary James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
His presidency saw a scandal involving his budget director, Bert Lance, and he threatened military response to Soviet action near the Persian Gulf in his namesake doctrine James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
During his presidency, the United States entered into full diplomatic relations with China and ceded the Panama Canal to Panama James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
He also signed the SALT II agreement and brokered the Camp David Accords, though he is better remembered for poor handling of the Iran hostage crisis James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
For 10 points, name this former Georgia Governor, the U.S James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
President from 1977 to 1981. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr.
James Alexander Walker ran on the American Party ticket in this election, while the Prohibition Party nominated Green Clay Smith United States Presidential Election of 1876
The running mate of the Democratic Party nominee later served as Cleveland's first vice president; that was Thomas Hendricks United States Presidential Election of 1876
The Republic convention saw Roscoe Conkling withdraw from the running in order to prevent James G United States Presidential Election of 1876
Blaine from getting the nomination United States Presidential Election of 1876
The governor of Oregon declared one of his electors ineligible, and several electors refused to vote for a certain New Yorker United States Presidential Election of 1876
For 10 points, name this election which saw an Electoral Commission decide the defeat of Samuel Tilden by Rutherford B United States Presidential Election of 1876
Hayes. United States Presidential Election of 1876
During the Civil War, this state saw Confederate raiders rob the St Vermont
Albans bank, and in 1883 it was the site of a copper mine riot called the Ely War Vermont
Connecticut's Roger Griswold brawled with a representative of this state, Matthew Lyon, and it copied Pennsylvania's Constitution when it became a breakaway republic during the Revolution Vermont
This was the only state carried by Anti-Masonic candidate William Wirt in 1832, and a group from this state opposed the New York annexation of the New Hampshire Grants and captured Fort Ticonderoga Vermont
For 10 points, name this state which saw the Battle of Bennington, home to Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys. Vermont
This man clerked for Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr Alger Hiss
and served as an assistant to the son-in-law of Woodrow Wilson, Francis B Alger Hiss
Sayre, which he described in his autobiography Recollections of a Life Alger Hiss
He met with a man he knew as George Crosley, while Igor Gouzenko and Elizabeth Bentley helped identify him Alger Hiss
Along with Harry Dexter White, he was implicated by the Moynihan commission using information from the Venona project Alger Hiss
He was the subject of the "pumpkin papers" as well as a testimony by Whittaker Chambers that accused him of espionage Alger Hiss
For 10 points, name this state department official convicted of perjury in connection to being a Soviet spy. Alger Hiss
The operation that triggered this event was named after the Anadyr River to deceive military intelligence about its location Cuban Missile Crisis
One party involved talked about burglars and those that caught the burglars in a telegram to Bertrand Russell, and its resolution was begun by a meeting between an ABC news reporter and Alexsandr Fomin Cuban Missile Crisis
It resulted in the death of Rudolf Anderson, a U2 pilot, and a resolution was eventually reached with the removal of Jupiter missiles from Turkey, as proposed by Nikita Khrushchev Cuban Missile Crisis
For 10 points, name this October 1962 event in which the United States and the Soviet Union were brought to the brink of war over Soviet weapons in Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis
He first came to Washington to give a speech in the aftermath of the Chesapeake Affair, and he created the Bureau of Indian Affairs while serving as Secretary of War under Monroe John Caldwell Calhoun
In another role, he was replaced by Martin Van Buren after his wife Floride exacerbated the Peggy Eaton affair, and earlier he wrote an Exposition and Protest named for his home state that argued against the Tariff of Abominations John Caldwell Calhoun
He served as vice president for both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, and late in life, he was unable to read his own speech against the Compromise of 1850 John Caldwell Calhoun
For 10 pints, name this proponent of slavery and nullification, a senator from South Carolina. John Caldwell Calhoun
This man's video rental history was printed in the Washington City Paper, leading to the Video Privacy Protection Act Robert Heron Bork
Like Samuel Alito and William Rehnquist, his nomination to the Supreme Court was opposed by the ACLU, though his qualifications were highly praised by Warren Burger Robert Heron Bork
This man performed an action that William Ruckelshaus and Elliot Richardson refused to do, the firing of Archibald Cox in the Saturday Night Massacre, while serving as Solicitor General Robert Heron Bork
Florynce Kennedy used his name as a verb in 1991, arguing against Clarence Thomas's appointment Robert Heron Bork
For 10 points, name this Supreme Court nominee of Ronald Reagan, rejected by the senate. Robert Heron Bork
This act was limited by a Supreme Court decision for the Virginia Electric and Power co., and its constitutionality was upheld in a case involving the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation Wagner-Connery Act [or National Labor Relations Act]
It was cosponsored by Massachusetts representative William Connery, and domestic servants and agricultural workers were explicitly excluded from this act Wagner-Connery Act [or National Labor Relations Act]
It was amended in 1947 by an act that passed over President Truman's veto, the Taft-Hartley Act, and under this legislation, workers were allowed to choose the union they desired via election Wagner-Connery Act [or National Labor Relations Act]
For 10 points, name this legislation that established a namesake board for governing labor disputes, a 1935 act named for a New York senator. Wagner-Connery Act [or National Labor Relations Act]
The voice of Frank Johnson can be heard in one recording of this event that was reported on live by Tom Pettit, and the central figure is flanked by L.C the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald [accept equivalents]
Graves and James Leavelle in Jack Beers' photo of it the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald [accept equivalents]
The narration of George Phenix's film of it helped propel the career of Dan Rather, and Bob Jackson's photo of it won the Pullitzer the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald [accept equivalents]
The victim had met with Thomas Kelley and been interrogated by Will Fritz, and was being transported when he encountered a nightclub owner in the basement of a Dallas jail the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald [accept equivalents]
For 10 points, name this event that occurred November 24, 1963 and was perpetrated by Jack Ruby, resulting in the death of JFK's assassin. the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald [accept equivalents]
Rulings in this man's court included Justice Story's finding that the court can fulfill the Constitution's supremacy clause by overriding a state court in a case involving Virginia voiding an inheritance, Martin v John Marshall
Hunter's Lessee John Marshall
He ruled that Congress has the right to regulate interstate commerce, and found that New Hampshire could not interfere with George III's charter because it was a private contract John Marshall
In addition to Gibbons v John Marshall
Ogden and Dartmouth v John Marshall
Woodward, he ruled that a president had the right to not deliver his predecessor's court appointments, establishing judicial review John Marshall
For 10 points, name this chief justice during Marbury v John Marshall
Madison. John Marshall
The use of public funds by religious schools are banned by this man's namesake amendments James Gillespie Blaine
He was Speaker of the House for three terms, though a scandal involving the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railway caused him to lose the presidential nomination to Rutherford B James Gillespie Blaine
Hayes James Gillespie Blaine
This man was Secretary of State for both James Garfield and Chester Arthur, and he was hurt in his attempt to become president by Reverend Burchard, who spoke of "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion." For 10 points, name this "Plumed Knight" and "Continental Lia James Gillespie Blaine
Its creation was presaged by plans written by Malcolm Rorty and James Warburg the NRA [or National Recovery Administration]
A review board chaired by Clarence Darrow suggested investigation of it by the FTC for monopolistic practices the NRA [or National Recovery Administration]
It promoted a "blanket code" under its first director, retired army general Hugh S the NRA [or National Recovery Administration]
Johnson the NRA [or National Recovery Administration]
It was decided that the president was given too much power by its "codes of fair competition" in the Supreme Court case that declared it unconstitutional, Schechter v the NRA [or National Recovery Administration]
U.S., called the "sick chicken" case the NRA [or National Recovery Administration]
Publicity supporting it featured the slogan "we do our part" and images of a blue eagle the NRA [or National Recovery Administration]
For 10 points, name this New Deal agency which set maximum working hours and minimum wage. the NRA [or National Recovery Administration]
The night before this battle, the victors were able to land behind and take Vergor's camp at the L'Anse-au-Foulon, bypassing forces led by Levis and Vaudreuil Battle of the Plains of Abraham [or Battle of the Heights of Abraham; prompt on Battle of Quebec]
The battle itself lasted less than an hour, with two extremely effective musket volleys devastating the advancing French line Battle of the Plains of Abraham [or Battle of the Heights of Abraham; prompt on Battle of Quebec]
Afterwards, the French retreated over the St Battle of the Plains of Abraham [or Battle of the Heights of Abraham; prompt on Battle of Quebec]
Charles River to regroup under Bougainville, leaving the victors free to besiege the city Battle of the Plains of Abraham [or Battle of the Heights of Abraham; prompt on Battle of Quebec]
It resulted in the death of both commanders: for the French, the Marquis de Montcalm, and for the British, James Wolfe Battle of the Plains of Abraham [or Battle of the Heights of Abraham; prompt on Battle of Quebec]
For 10 points, name this battle of the French and Indian War which occurred on a plateau near Quebec. Battle of the Plains of Abraham [or Battle of the Heights of Abraham; prompt on Battle of Quebec]
Section 4 of this law allows those injured in its violation to seek treble damages, which resulted in the case Kansas v Clayton Antitrust Act
Utilicorp United Inc., and another section notes that "The labor of a human being is not a commodity or article of commerce." It was amended by the Celler-Kefauver Act, and it notably does not regulate collective bargaining or picketing, and thus does no Clayton Antitrust Act
For 10 points, name this act passed during the Wilson administration, the successor to the Sherman Antitrust Act. Clayton Antitrust Act
This man served as chair of the Special Studies Project while advising the Governor of New York, Nelson Rockefeller, and he argued for a policy of "flexible response" as opposed to "massive retaliation" in his 1957 book Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy Henry Alfred Kissinger [or Heinz Alfred Kissinger]
This man supported Pakistan in its fight against Bangladesh and India, while his implementation of a South American assassination campaign, Operation Condor, led to his being accused of war crimes Henry Alfred Kissinger [or Heinz Alfred Kissinger]
However, he also won a Nobel Peace Prize he shared with Le Duc Tho for the U.S Henry Alfred Kissinger [or Heinz Alfred Kissinger]
ceasefire and withdrawal from Vietnam Henry Alfred Kissinger [or Heinz Alfred Kissinger]
For 10 points, name this Secretary of State under Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Henry Alfred Kissinger [or Heinz Alfred Kissinger]
Prior to this battle, the Hornet and Enterprise were sent on a surprise bombing mission, leaving them out of the US fleet Battle of the Coral Sea
The other side in this battle wished to secure the island of Tulagi and its harbor Battle of the Coral Sea
On May 7, the first major day of battle, the Kikuzuki and the Shoho were both destroyed, and the next day the Shokaku was forced to retreat Battle of the Coral Sea
The Yorktown escaped major damage from the Japanese attack, but the Lexington was destroyed Battle of the Coral Sea
For 10 points, name this battle fought over control of Port Moresby, a 1942 naval battle that notably featured no ship-to-ship combat, fought in a namesake body of water that is home to the Great Barrier Reef. Battle of the Coral Sea
Forty-two of the charges against the plaintiff were dropped before this case appeared before the Supreme Court, and those charges include a violation of minimum wage laws Schechter Poultry Co. v US [Accept Sick Chicken Case]
One concurrence in this decision advocated a spectrum approach to direct and indirect effects; that concurrence was by Cardozo Schechter Poultry Co. v US [Accept Sick Chicken Case]
The court's narrow reading of Article 2 in this case was reversed two years later in West Coast Hotel v Schechter Poultry Co. v US [Accept Sick Chicken Case]
Parrish, and Charles Evan Hughes wrote for the majority as this case overturned the "codes of fair competition", thus curtailing the power of the executive branch Schechter Poultry Co. v US [Accept Sick Chicken Case]
FTP, name this 1935 Supreme Court case that overturned the National Recovery Act and gets its name from the interstate delivery of certain ill animals to a butcher company. Schechter Poultry Co. v US [Accept Sick Chicken Case]
One potential attack plan from this conflict was presented to a commander by Robert Johnston, and would have occurred on a moonless night Second Persian Gulf War [accept First Persian Gulf War, as different sources number it differently]
The aftermath of this conflict led to Southern and Northern Watch, which ensured that the defeated side observed a military restriction above the 36th and below the 33rd parallel Second Persian Gulf War [accept First Persian Gulf War, as different sources number it differently]
The ground operation in this war lasted 100 hours, and was launched from Saudi Arabia to crush the Republican Guard; that operation, Desert Sabre, was preceded by an air offensive, Desert Storm Second Persian Gulf War [accept First Persian Gulf War, as different sources number it differently]
For 10 points, identify this conflict, triggered by the invasion of oil-rich Kuwait by neighboring Iraq in the early 1990s. Second Persian Gulf War [accept First Persian Gulf War, as different sources number it differently]
Abe Fortas once referred to this concept as a "social religion," and its connection to the "Formation of the Postwar World," is the topic of a book by Wyat Wells antitrust
In an essay which was initially subtitled "Notes on the Evolution of An American Creed," Richard Hofstadter concludes that it was a victim of its own success in asking "What Happened to" this kind of movement antitrust
In two cases decided in 1911, Justice Edward White put forth the "rule of reason," that he believed should be used in cases of this type antitrust
Legislation of this type was the subject of the case Loewe v antitrust
Lawlor, which found that unions were subject to it, while another piece of this type of legislation was amended by the Robinson-Patman Act and prohibited price discrimination against consumers antitrust
For ten points, identify this word that describes legislation designed to prevent certain business combinations, examples of which include the Clayton and Sherman acts. antitrust
This man received the undesirable assignment of guarding Black Rock Winfield Scott
William B Winfield Scott
Giles got this man a commission to an artillery corps early in his career, and in another post, this man replaced John Wool Winfield Scott
He was captured on the Niagara front, but fought successfully at Lundy's Lane Winfield Scott
Later, this man won three victories in quick succession at Molina del Rey, Churubisco, and Chapultapec, after earlier getting fed up with Zachary Taylor's progress and capturing Veracruz Winfield Scott
Later, he drafted the Anaconda Plan, but ran in an election against Franklin Pierce and was the unsuccessful Whig candidate Winfield Scott
For ten points, identify this excessively formal general nicknamed "Old Fuss and Feathers." Winfield Scott
In the cartoon "A Hard Summer for the Soft Rag Baby," this man holds a fan over baby, which has passed out after drinking high bock beer, symbolizing confusion of his policies Samuel Tilden
This man also defended Azariah Flagg, who was required to show why he, moreso than the mechanic Giles, deserved the position of city comptroller Samuel Tilden
This member of the Barnburners cracked down on the Canal Ring as governor of New York, the position in which he brought down the Tweed Ring as well Samuel Tilden
His presidential bid, with Thomas Hendricks as his vice president, ended with the removal of federal troops from the South to resolve a dispute over the Electoral Commission Samuel Tilden
FTP, name this American politician who lost to Rutherford B Samuel Tilden
Hayes in the 1876 presidential election. Samuel Tilden
Only Jacob Read supported both this document and the nomination to Chief Justice of one of its most outspoken proponents, John Rutledge Jay's Treaty [or Treaty of London of 1794]
It was supported under the pseudonym of Camillus by Alexander Hamilton, while Fisher Ames gave a speech in favor of it as a Congressman from Massachusetts Jay's Treaty [or Treaty of London of 1794]
Granting free passage between the US and Canada to all those half Native American or more, it set the Saint Croix river as the northeastern boundary of the United States Jay's Treaty [or Treaty of London of 1794]
Enraging the nascent Republican party, this is, for 10 points, which agreement between the United States and Great Britain, settling conflicts that had arisen after the Treaty of Paris, which takes its most common name from its major negotiator, the first Jay's Treaty [or Treaty of London of 1794]
This event led to a thirteen-week strike known as the "Uprising of the Twenty Thousand," and it was cited by one Cabinet member as "the day the New Deal began." The IGLWU teamed with Al Smith to push through legislation after this event, the aftermath of Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire [or Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire; accept reasonable equivalents]
Isaac Harris and Max Blanck were tried for manslaughter on the basis of the bodies on the ground after workers were forced to jump from a ninth-story window Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire [or Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire; accept reasonable equivalents]
Occurring at the Asch building just east of Washington Square, this is, for 10 points, which March 25, 1911 event where unsafe working conditions led to the death of 146 workers for its namesake garment company? Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire [or Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire; accept reasonable equivalents]
William Nichols helped pass an act which increased the powers of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the presidency of this man, under whose tenure the Simpson-Mazzoli Act, which granted amnesty to certain illegal immigrants, was also passed Ronald Reagan
After an attack on American soldiers at a Berlin nightclub, this man ordered the bombing of air defense networks and barracks in Libya Ronald Reagan
Economic initiatives of this man's presidency include the passage of the Kemp-Roth Act and the curtailing of inflation by Paul Volcker Ronald Reagan
During this man's presidency, Norman Schwarzkopf commanded the invasion of Grenada, and Oliver North was indicted for his role in the Iran-Contra Scandal Ronald Reagan
For ten points, name this fortieth president of the United States who preceded George H Ronald Reagan
W Ronald Reagan
Bush. Ronald Reagan
Although Paul Allen was the recognized efforts of the publication of Lewis's and Clark's memoirs, it is believed that two volumes were written by this politician, who edited Port-Folio magazine while serving in his state's legislature and supported effort Nicholas Biddle
A participant in an audit of the Louisiana Purchase, he also wrote Pennsylvania's rejection of the Hartford Convention Nicholas Biddle
This man reached his highest post after the resignation of Langdon Cheves, and he was opposed in that role by Treasury Secretary Roger Taney Nicholas Biddle
To combat a hostile President, he shrank the U.S Nicholas Biddle
monetary supply, causing a recession in order to force Andrew Jackson to re-charter the entity he led Nicholas Biddle
FTP, name this politician who played a part in the Panic of 1837 and who served as head of the Second National Bank. Nicholas Biddle
Albert Gallatin and Hugh Henry Brackenridge were among those who met with William Bradford, James Ross, and Jasper Yeates in an attempt to prevent this event, which pitted the "White Indians" against the "Watermelon Army," according to the derisive nickna Whiskey Rebellion
Herman Husband and Robert Philson were the only people arrested due to this event, which had been instigated with Oliver Miller's death when John Neville's house was marched on Whiskey Rebellion
"Lighthorse Harry" Lee and Alexander Hamilton commanded forces in it, which required the first use of the Militia Law of 1792 Whiskey Rebellion
FTP, name this 1794 uprising in the Monongahela Valley of Pennsylvania due to the impositions of a tax on the namesake distilled drink. Whiskey Rebellion
This bill's demise once prompted the President to declare that the Supreme Court was living in a "horse and buggy era" National Industrial Recovery Act [do not accept National Recovery Administration]
A series of "codes of competition" was among the provisions of this bill, which was overseen by a board led by Clarence Darrow National Industrial Recovery Act [do not accept National Recovery Administration]
It set up an agency headed by General Hugh S National Industrial Recovery Act [do not accept National Recovery Administration]
Johnson that, and it reduced maximum hours so that more people couple be employed, while its Section 7a was an important concession to labor unions National Industrial Recovery Act [do not accept National Recovery Administration]
It was symbolized by a Blue Eagle, alongside the motto "We Do Our Part" National Industrial Recovery Act [do not accept National Recovery Administration]
Ruled unconstitutional by the 1935 Supreme Court case Schecter Poultry Corporation v National Industrial Recovery Act [do not accept National Recovery Administration]
US, this is, FTP, which piece of New Deal legislation that set up the Public Works Administration and the National Recovery Administration? National Industrial Recovery Act [do not accept National Recovery Administration]
This amendment was used to prevent gerrymandering in the 1957 case Gomillion vs Fifteenth Amendment
Lightfoot and was the basis of the 2000 case Rice vs Fifteenth Amendment
Cayetano regarding the trustees of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs Fifteenth Amendment
A more radical version of this amendment was not passed because northern Republicans wished to keep their own limiting state laws in tact Fifteenth Amendment
Thomas Mundy Peterson is the first man to utilize this amendment, when he voted in the Perth Amboy school board election Fifteenth Amendment
Common ways employed to circumvent this amendment are literacy tests, poll taxes and grandfather clauses Fifteenth Amendment
For 10 points, name this 1870 Amendment to the Constitution, which states that the right to vote will not be denied based on race or servitude. Fifteenth Amendment
This man helped Adolfo Diaz come to power in Nicaragua by negotiating the Espino Negro pact, and he subsequently served as governor general of the Philippines Henry Stimson
With McGeorge Bundy, this man wrote the autobiography On Active Service in Peace and War, and he led the United States delegation to the London Naval Conference while serving as Herbert Hoover's secretary of state Henry Stimson
During World War II, this man argued against the bombing of Kyoto, urging instead the bombing of military targets, and the 1928 Pact of Paris was the foundation of his opposition to China's invasion of Manchuria Henry Stimson
FTP, name this man who served as Secretary of War under William Howard Taft and Franklin Roosevelt and whose namesake doctrine called for the nonrecognition of territories gained by aggressive force. Henry Stimson
This politician requested either two billion dollars or the cession of Canada in the Alabama Claims, and he introduced a resolution that the names of battles between U.S Charles Sumner
citizens should not be placed on the regimental colors of the Army, as a move of Civil War reconciliation Charles Sumner
During the war, he helped defuse the Trent affair as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Charles Sumner
He was later kicked off the committee after stopping plots to annex Santo Domingo Charles Sumner
His first famous speech in the Senate was an attack on the Compromise of 1850, and he famously characterized fellow senators Andrew Butler and Stephen Douglas as "myrmidons" of slavery Charles Sumner
FTP, name this Massachusetts senator, who in 1856 was beaten on the Senate floor by South Carolina representative Preston Brooks. Charles Sumner
An attempted bribery of the ship Michigan by these people was prevented by the arrest of Charles Cole, a member of this group the Copperheads [accept Butternuts and Peace Democrats before they are mentioned]
George Pugh defended its most famous leader, although Humphrey Leavitt denied his appeal the Copperheads [accept Butternuts and Peace Democrats before they are mentioned]
That leader was tried for the violation of General Order No the Copperheads [accept Butternuts and Peace Democrats before they are mentioned]
38, which criminalized the "habit of declaring sympathies for the enemy," as head of the "Knights of the Golden Circle," a secret society with members from this group the Copperheads [accept Butternuts and Peace Democrats before they are mentioned]
The military tribunal of members of this group, who attempted to free prisoners at Camp Douglas, was deemed unconstitutional in Ex parte Milligan the Copperheads [accept Butternuts and Peace Democrats before they are mentioned]
Although Chicago Times was one of its key supporters, these people known also known as Butternuts were concentrated in Ohio the Copperheads [accept Butternuts and Peace Democrats before they are mentioned]
Essentially marginalized following the union victories in 1864, for 10 points, this is what Clement Vallandingham-led faction of Peace Democrats? the Copperheads [accept Butternuts and Peace Democrats before they are mentioned]
One side in this battle considered both traveling through Rigolet's Pass and using Chef Menteur Road to get to the city, but they eventually decided to scale the mud walls of the Rodriguez Canal; however, the plan fell through when Colonel Mullins could n Battle of New Orleans
Although Colonel Thorton was able to move in on Generla Morgan's guns, John Keane's regiment of Highlanders suffered heavy losses before this battle's end Battle of New Orleans
Followed shortly by the Battle of Fort Bowyer, it saw the losing side withdraw by the orders of John Lambert after Edward Pakenham's fatal wound Battle of New Orleans
With the help of Jean Lafitte's pirates, Andrew Jackson led American forces to victory in, FTP, which battle of the War of 1812 which occurred after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent? Battle of New Orleans
During one conflict, this commander captured and executed Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Ambrister Andrew Jackson [or Old Hickory]
This man was attacked by the "coffin handbills," and was known as "Sharp Knife" to Native Americans Andrew Jackson [or Old Hickory]
This commander defeated Mateo Manrique at the Battle of Pensacola after crushing the Red Sticks Andrew Jackson [or Old Hickory]
This candidate won a presidential election over William Wirt, and vetoed the Maysville Road bill Andrew Jackson [or Old Hickory]
He appointed Roger Taney to the Supreme Court, replaced his vice-president during the Peggy Eaton affair, and signed the Indian Removal Act Andrew Jackson [or Old Hickory]
For 10 points, name this general who defeated John Quincy Adams in the election of 1828, America's seventh president. Andrew Jackson [or Old Hickory]
After this battle, John Sullivan became the focus of "illiberal complaints" despite successfully distracting of the British from Stirling's forces, which had nearly been outflanked at Meeting Horse Hill Battle of Brandywine Creek
Following the retreat from this battle, Charles Grey defeated of Anthony Wayne at Paoli Battle of Brandywine Creek
Wilhelm Knyphausen successfully captured American artillery during this battle, during which the Marquis de Lafayette was wounded Battle of Brandywine Creek
After this battle fought near Chadd's Ford, forces under William Howe were able to march into Philadelphia Battle of Brandywine Creek
Fought on September 11, 1777, for 10 points, name this Revolutionary War battle in which Washington's forces could not prevent the British from crossing the namesake body of water. Battle of Brandywine Creek
During this conflict, Jireh Bull's Garrison was burned shortly after Josiah Winslow marched through Pomham's territory King Philip's War [or Metacom's War before mentioned]
Nine colonists were tortured in Cumberland after Captain Michael Pierce's men were ambushed near Central Falls, while the eventual losing side in this conflict was greatly demoralized after the Great Swamp Fight near Kingston King Philip's War [or Metacom's War before mentioned]
After Captain Benjamin Church's men arrived at Mt King Philip's War [or Metacom's War before mentioned]
Hope in Rhode Island, John Alderman shot and killed its leader King Philip's War [or Metacom's War before mentioned]
Sparked by the murder of John Sassamon and the resulting trial, it was fought by the son of Massasoit King Philip's War [or Metacom's War before mentioned]
For 10 points, identify this 1675 to 1676 conflict in New England, named after the Wampanoag chief Metacom. King Philip's War [or Metacom's War before mentioned]
In its early years, this political party was supported by the Genesee Valley Free Press, a newspaper established by Asahel N Republican Party [or the Grand Old Party]
Cole Republican Party [or the Grand Old Party]
Thomas Cardozo masterminded this party's so-called "Black and Tan" Revolution Republican Party [or the Grand Old Party]
It gained support after the election of Nathaniel Banks as Speaker of the House, and pioneered the use of torchlight parades called Wide Awakes Republican Party [or the Grand Old Party]
This party's first convention was held in Pittsburgh, and was presided over by Francis Blair, Sr Republican Party [or the Grand Old Party]
Later, this party was rocked by the Credit Mobilier scandal, while the issue of political patronage caused this party to split into factions called Half-Breeds and Stalwarts Republican Party [or the Grand Old Party]
For 10 points, name this political party which nominated presidential candidates such as John C Republican Party [or the Grand Old Party]
Fremont and Abraham Lincoln. Republican Party [or the Grand Old Party]
This politician was forced to move after beating William Stanbery with a hickory cane Samuel Houston
He ran a trading post among the Cherokee, who named him "Big Drunk." Edward Clark replaced him as Governor of his state because of his vehement opposition to secession, while Anson Jones replaced him in another position Samuel Houston
As a commander, he won a battle with the help of cannon nicknamed "Twin Sisters," although direct disobedience of his orders to retreat led to disasters at Bexar and Goliad Samuel Houston
For 10 points, name this man who won the Battle of San Jacinto over the forces of Santa Anna, the first elected president of Texas. Samuel Houston
The General Accounting Office was created during the tenure of this president Warren Gamaliel Harding
He endorsed Irvine Lenroot as his running mate, and his postmaster general was the namesake of a code used to censure Hollywood films Warren Gamaliel Harding
He may have had affairs with Carrie Phillips and Nan Britton, and he appointed William Howard Taft to the Supreme Court Warren Gamaliel Harding
After his nomination was secured by his campaign manager Harry Daughterty, he defeated a ticket consisting of Franklin D Warren Gamaliel Harding
Roosevelt and James Cox Warren Gamaliel Harding
His Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall leased the fields at Elk Hills to Edward Doheny in the Teapot Dome Scandal Warren Gamaliel Harding
For 10 points, name this president who the election of 1920 and advocated a "return to normalcy." Warren Gamaliel Harding
This congressman was the primary sponsor of the Alaska Mental Health Enabling Act, and won his first Senate seat by defeating majority leader Ernest McFarland Barry Morris Goldwater
Along with Bill Nichols, this politician sponsored a 1986 bill reorganizing the Department of Defense Barry Morris Goldwater
This author of The Conscience of a Conservative used the slogan "A choice, not an echo" when running for president, although his campaign was damaged by his statement "extremism in defense of liberty is no vice." In that campaign, the Daisy commercial pre Barry Morris Goldwater
For 10 points, name this ultra-conservative Republican from Arizona who was defeated by Lyndon B Barry Morris Goldwater
Johnson in the Election of 1964. Barry Morris Goldwater
Parts of this law were upheld in New Negro Alliance v Norris-La Guardia Act of 1932
Sanitary Grocery Co, and it improved upon the earlier Davis-Bacon Act Norris-La Guardia Act of 1932
Legal interpretation of this law often focuses on the definition of "the allowable area of economic conflict." Exceptions to this act must be approved in open court, and a 1974 amendment to the NLRA extended its provisions Norris-La Guardia Act of 1932
This act prohibited yellow dog contracts and prevented federal courts from issuing injunctions against pickets, boycotts, and strikes Norris-La Guardia Act of 1932
Supplanted by the more extensive Wagner Act, for 10 points, name this act that extended rights to unions, which was proposed by a Nebraska Senator and a longtime mayor of New York City. Norris-La Guardia Act of 1932
In the aftermath of this event, John Young was elected governor the Anti-Rent War [accept Heldeberg War before mentioned]
The trials resulting from this uprising saw the two lead lawyers fist-fight in court, and launched the career of Ambrose Jordan the Anti-Rent War [accept Heldeberg War before mentioned]
This conflict was joined by calico Indians, who made its white leader their chief with the name "Big Thunder." This revolt led to the creation of the East Manor Tenant Association under the leadership of Smith Boughton, and its large meetings in Berne led the Anti-Rent War [accept Heldeberg War before mentioned]
For 10 points, name this war against "patroonery" spurred by the death of Stephen Van Rensselaer III, an 1840s tenants' revolt in upstate New York that opposed payments for use of land. the Anti-Rent War [accept Heldeberg War before mentioned]
A letter from George Fishback tipped off investigators to this event Whiskey Ring
The guilt of one of its participants was suggested by the "Sylph Dispatch," an implication denied during the farcical "Bloody Shirt Revue" conducted by defense lawyers George Williams and Emory Storrs Whiskey Ring
Myron Colony and David Dyer worked to prosecute its participants, who were organized by John McDonald Whiskey Ring
Its impetus was Carl Schurz's opposition to the sitting president, which caused the creation of a private slush fund Whiskey Ring
Leading to the prosecution of Orville Babcock, for 10 points, name this scandal during the Grant administration, whose participants tried to skirt taxes on the namesake variety of alcohol. Whiskey Ring
Theodore J John Wilkes Booth
Nottingham's The Curse of Cain asserts that this man fled to Japan, although his body was officially identified on the USS Montauk John Wilkes Booth
Late in life, he was unwittingly helped by Peanuts Burroughs, although part of his plan was foiled by the incompetence of George Atzerodt John Wilkes Booth
His meetings at the house of Mary Surratt resulted in her execution, and his other accomplices included Lewis Powell, a man thwarted by his victim's neck brace John Wilkes Booth
Eventually killed by Boston Corbett at Garrett's Farm in Virginia, for 10 points, identify this actor who shouted "sic semper tyrannis" after assassinating Abraham Lincoln. John Wilkes Booth
One theater in this general war saw forces under Haidar Ali defeated at the Battle of Porto Novo, part of the Second Anglo-Mysore War American Revolutionary War [or the War For American Independence or the Northern War of George Washingtonian Aggression; prompt on "Second Anglo-Mysore War" or "Antilles War" or "4th Anglo-Dutch War" before mentioned]
The defeat of a fleet commanded by Juan de Langara in Cape St American Revolutionary War [or the War For American Independence or the Northern War of George Washingtonian Aggression; prompt on "Second Anglo-Mysore War" or "Antilles War" or "4th Anglo-Dutch War" before mentioned]
Vincent became known as the Moonlight Battle and allowed George Rodney to resupply troops at Gibraltar American Revolutionary War [or the War For American Independence or the Northern War of George Washingtonian Aggression; prompt on "Second Anglo-Mysore War" or "Antilles War" or "4th Anglo-Dutch War" before mentioned]
This more general conflict ended up sparking the 4th Anglo-Dutch War, and the Battle of the Saintes was a turning point in the Caribbean phase, known as the Antilles War American Revolutionary War [or the War For American Independence or the Northern War of George Washingtonian Aggression; prompt on "Second Anglo-Mysore War" or "Antilles War" or "4th Anglo-Dutch War" before mentioned]
The French entered this conflict via the Treaty of Alliance, while Russia formed the League of Armed Neutrality during it American Revolutionary War [or the War For American Independence or the Northern War of George Washingtonian Aggression; prompt on "Second Anglo-Mysore War" or "Antilles War" or "4th Anglo-Dutch War" before mentioned]
For 10 points, identify this conflict where a French naval victory at the Battle of the Virginia Capes prevented British troops from reinforcing Cornwallis at Yorktown. American Revolutionary War [or the War For American Independence or the Northern War of George Washingtonian Aggression; prompt on "Second Anglo-Mysore War" or "Antilles War" or "4th Anglo-Dutch War" before mentioned]
This organization's secret laws, Adeplhon Kruptos, were revised by its secretary Charles Litchman Knights of Labor
That secrecy caused it to be known as the "Society of the Five Stars." This organization's General Investigator, Leonora Barry, helped recruit its members, and its motto was "an injury to one is the concern of all." One of its leaders was a former mayor o Knights of Labor
Its membership declined after many of its members joined the American Federation of Labor Knights of Labor
For 10 points, name this Noble and Holy Order led by Grand Master Workmen such as Uriah Stevens and Terence Powderly. Knights of Labor
To set its goals, this meeting appointed a five-member committee, which included Nathan Dane and Chauncey Goodrich Hartford Convention
Theodore Lyman wrote a short account of this meeting, which proposed a series of amendments, including one preventing presidents from being elected from the same state in successive terms Hartford Convention
Its secretary was Timothy Dwight, and it was contemporaneous with Governor Caleb Strong's secret peace mission Hartford Convention
George Cabot presided over this meeting, which was instigated by discontent with the Non-Intercourse Act and the War of 1812 Hartford Convention
For 10 points, name this 1814-1815 convention which ruined the Federalist Party, and discussed New England's secession from the United States. Hartford Convention
This president signed an immigration act written by Congressmen Johnson and Reed, which created a two percent "national origins quota system." This president twice vetoed the McNary-Haugen Bill, and created the Federal Radio Commission, a precursor to the Calvin Coolidge
During his time in office, Congress passed two Revenue Acts designed by his Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon Calvin Coolidge
He gained national fame by asserting "There is no right to strike against the public safety" during the Boston police strike, which occurred during his term as Governor of Massachusetts Calvin Coolidge
For 10 points, name this Republican who defeated John W Calvin Coolidge
Davis in the election of 1924, who was succeeded in office by Herbert Hoover. Calvin Coolidge
One cause of this battle was the two day respite allowed in the blockade on Presque Island harbor Battle of the Thames [or Battle of Moraviantown]
It was followed by the Battle of Longwoods, and one side was short both guns because they had previously been removed from Fort Amherstburg to be mounted on Commander Barclay's ships Battle of the Thames [or Battle of Moraviantown]
When Procter's cannon failed to fire, many of his men fled to Burlington, leaving most of his men under Colonel Warburton to face American commanders like Isaac Shelby, Duncan McArthur, and Lewis Cass Battle of the Thames [or Battle of Moraviantown]
Precipitated when Oliver Hazard Perry blockaded Detroit, it is named for an Ontario river Battle of the Thames [or Battle of Moraviantown]
For 10 points, name this victory for William Henry Harrison in the War of 1812, during which Tecumseh was killed. Battle of the Thames [or Battle of Moraviantown]
Frederick John Dalton wrote a book about the "moral vision" of this leader, who studied under Fred Ross while working for CSO Cesar Chavez
This leader set up the "Wet Line" to curb illegal immigration, and lobbied to end the bracero program Cesar Chavez
He fasted for twenty-five days at Delano to stem the support for violence among members of his organization, which was created from the merger of AWOC and NFWA Cesar Chavez
This man chose a black Aztec eagle as the symbol of that organization, and led many boycotts of grapes in the 1960s Cesar Chavez
For 10 points, name this labor leader, who organized migrant workers as the longtime head of the United Farm Workers. Cesar Chavez
In Boston, a jeweled sword was presented to the commanding officer of the U.S Trent Affair [accept Mason and Slidell Affair before they are mentioned]
Exploring Expedition for services in this event, in which that man was congratulated for "twisting the lion's tail." The search of the Powhatan took place before this event, which also involved Eustis and Macfarland and occurred as Richard Williams's men Trent Affair [accept Mason and Slidell Affair before they are mentioned]
In the wake of this incident, Lord Lyons was appeased thanks to the decision of William Seward, who defended the actions of Captain Charles Wilkes on the San Jacinto, yet released the prisoners in question Trent Affair [accept Mason and Slidell Affair before they are mentioned]
For 10 points, name this 1861 diplomatic crisis sparked by the capture of James Mason and John Slidell, two Confederate envoys, from the namesake British ship. Trent Affair [accept Mason and Slidell Affair before they are mentioned]
The second person of this name admitted missionaries to his kingdom but purportedly refused to convert because he enjoyed polygamy and rum too much Kamehameha
A wife of one person of this name worked for women's rights by persuading him to eat publicly in mixed company and served as prime minister to another person of this name Kamehameha
The third person of this name was inspired by William Richards to issue the Edict of Toleration and Declaration of Rights, which introduced a legislature and supreme court to his country Kamehameha
This name, meaning "The Very Lonely One," was first held by the man who ended human sacrifice, issued the "law of the splintered paddle" against plunder, and won the Battle of the Leaping Mullet to complete his defeat of Kiwalao Kamehameha
For 10 points, give this common name of four rulers, the first of whom conquered Oahu and Maui to unite Hawaii. Kamehameha
This agreement set up a committee to resolve a lingering boundary question that had earlier led Lyman Cutlar to destroy some property of Charles Griffin in the Pig War Treaty of Washington
That question, the San Juan Boundary Dispute, was referred by this treaty to arbitration by Kaiser Wilhelm II Treaty of Washington
One portion of this treaty addressed fishing north of the thirty-ninth parallel, while another part resulted in a payment of fifteen million dollars Treaty of Washington
Negotiated for the U.S Treaty of Washington
by Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, this agreement also created a court in Geneva to review the activities of Raphael Semmes, in which the U.S Treaty of Washington
charged Britain with aiding the Confederate cause Treaty of Washington
For 10 points, name this 1871 treaty which addressed the Alabama Claims. Treaty of Washington
During this man's time as the head of the Board of Economic Warfare, he came into conflict with Commerce Secretary Jesse Jones over the planting of cryptostegia in Haiti Henry Agard Wallace
A scandal involving this man was the discovery of his "Dear Guru" letters to Nicholas Roerich Henry Agard Wallace
This man described World War II as "a fight between a slave world and a free world" in his speech, "The Century of the Common Man." This man's father was Secretary of Agriculture under Harding and Coolidge, a post this man also held Henry Agard Wallace
In 1948 this editor of The New Republic coupled with Glen Taylor and was cross-endorsed by the Communist Party, but finished behind Strom Thurmond as well as the major candidates as the Progressive Party's Presidential candidate Henry Agard Wallace
He thus lost to a man who had replaced him in 1944, Harry Truman Henry Agard Wallace
For 10 points, name this man who served as the second vice-president under Franklin Roosevelt. Henry Agard Wallace
This region was initially inhabited by the Arikara people Black Hills
One legend relates that Henri LeBeau dreamed of a stream and grapevines while falling asleep in this region and upon waking dedicated his life to making jewelry Black Hills
The Conn family led an extensive exploration in this region around Sylvan Lake, located near the Needles Black Hills
Cities in this region include the home of one of the world's largest motorcycle rallies, as well as the home of Ellsworth Air Force Base Black Hills
Containing the world's second longest cave system, Jewel Cave, its highest point is Harney Peak, and, in addition to Rapid City, it contains the location of the deaths of Calamity Jane and Wild Bill Hickok, Deadwood Black Hills
For 10 points, identify this region of western South Dakota, a mountain range which is notable for Sturgis, Custer State Park, the Crazy Horse monument, and Mount Rushmore. Black Hills
During the state-level hearings that led to this case, one witness testified that a certain Vivian had "a look about her." The respondent in this case was changed following the death of Dr Buck v. Bell [or Bell v. Buck]
Priddy, and the appeal rested on the Fourteenth Amendment implications of a passage about "whatever God has given to everyone" in the Munn v Buck v. Bell [or Bell v. Buck]
Illinois decision Buck v. Bell [or Bell v. Buck]
This case was the first blow against the doctrine of substantive due process, and Justice Pierce Butler was the sole dissenter in this case but declined to write an opinion Buck v. Bell [or Bell v. Buck]
This case focused on a woman who was raped by a relative and whose mother was alleged to have had a history of prostitution and immorality Buck v. Bell [or Bell v. Buck]
It directly addressed a law promoted by Harry Laughlin, a 1924 Virginia statute mandating sterilization of the mentally retarded, and was partially overturned in the 1942 case of Skinner v Buck v. Bell [or Bell v. Buck]
Oklahoma Buck v. Bell [or Bell v. Buck]
For 10 points, name this 1927 case in which Oliver Wendell Holmes, in a rare majority opinion, declared that "Three generations of imbeciles are enough." Buck v. Bell [or Bell v. Buck]
The U.S.'s abrogation of the treaty signed prior to this conflict was held constitutional because of Congress's "plenary power" in the case Lone Wolf v The Red River War
Hitchcock The Red River War
One party in this conflict had earlier been defeated at the battles of Beecher Island and was known as the "Dog Soldiers." One combatant in this war, Billy Dixon, is one of six civilians to earn the Medal of Honor, and sniped a man at 1500 yards in "the s The Red River War
This war was spurred by the abrogation of the Medicine Lodge Treaty, and ended when Red Warbonnet was routed by Ranald Mackenzie at Palo Duro Canyon The Red River War
For 10 points, name this 1874 war to remove the Arapahoe, Cheyenne, Comanche, and Kiowa from the southern plains, named for the border waterway between Texas and Oklahoma. The Red River War
One of the central figures of this event had earlier gotten pregnant after a fling with a black American named Jim, after which she attempted to give herself an abortion with a darning needle the Profumo Affair
Another figure involved in this event allegedly held another hostage with an axe, and this event went public after Lucky Gordon's rival Johnny Edgecombe blew off a doorhandle with a revolver the Profumo Affair
One participant in this event evaded arrest by ramming his Jaguar into a convoy of press vehicles, and had previously earned a living as an osteopath and a portrait painter the Profumo Affair
In addition to Stephen Ward, this event involved Eugene Ivanov, a Soviet naval attaché who allegedly probed the central figure for information on American missiles in West Germany the Profumo Affair
For 10 points, name this event centering on Christine Keeler that caused the downfall for a namesake Secretary of State for War, a scandal that rocked Harold Macmillan's government. the Profumo Affair
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, James M Fiorello La Guardia
Landis succeeded this man as director of the Office of Civilian Defense Fiorello La Guardia
He was crushed in his first attempt to gain another in 1929 by incumbent Jimmy Walker, but after a later victory, he rounded up thousands of rigged slot machines produced by gangster Frank Costello Fiorello La Guardia
He also employed thousands of laborers on public works projects directed by Robert Moses Fiorello La Guardia
Along with a senator from Nebraska, he provides half of the name of a bill that made "yellow dog" contracts unenforceable in federal courts Fiorello La Guardia
His nickname of "little flower" was a translation of his Italian first name Fiorello La Guardia
For 10 points, name this Republican mayor of New York City in the 1930s, a major proponent of labor unions and the New Deal who is the namesake of a Queens airport. Fiorello La Guardia
During one event of this kind, a television news director who was trying to stay uninvolved was killed in the Silver Dollar Cafe riots in Los Angeles [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on riots or riots in California or stuff like that]
Another person involved in the periphery of one of these events was "Football" Williams, who collaborated with Twain Miller and Kiki Watson for an act that was filmed from a helicopter by Bob Tur riots in Los Angeles [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on riots or riots in California or stuff like that]
The Right of Assembly and Movement Committee opposed the overzealously enforcement of certain curfew laws that led to another one of these, while a further one of these events occurred in the wake of the Sleepy Lagoon murders and led to the U.S riots in Los Angeles [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on riots or riots in California or stuff like that]
Navy declaring a certain downtown area off limits to all servicemen riots in Los Angeles [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on riots or riots in California or stuff like that]
In addition to the ones that caused the death of Ruben Salazar and the beating of Reginald Denny, one of these was ended by Chief William Parker's invocation of the National Guard following anger over the arrest of Marquette Frye riots in Los Angeles [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on riots or riots in California or stuff like that]
For 10 points, identify this popular activity in a certain city, examples of which include the Watts one, the "Sunset Strip curfew" one, and the one in 1992 that followed the acquittal of several white police officers charged with brutalizing Rodney King. riots in Los Angeles [accept obvious equivalents; prompt on riots or riots in California or stuff like that]
A few years after opposing the League of Nations, Senator William Borah of Idaho became the only Republican to vote against this bill when it came before the Senate Fordney-McCumber Tariff
It was supported by Senator Edwin Ladd of North Dakota, the spokesman of the Farm Bloc Fordney-McCumber Tariff
The final version did not contain the American Valuation Plan, which was part of the original bill proposed by one of its namesakes Fordney-McCumber Tariff
When that original bill came before the House, John Nance Garner grabbed a straw hat and challenged Republicans to state a duty on it Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Named after the chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee from Michigan and a Republican senator from North Dakota, it was immediately preceded by an Emergency Tariff Act, which was put into place while it was being drawn up Fordney-McCumber Tariff
For 10 points, identify this tariff that raised duties after the Underwood-Simmons tariff, signed by President Harding in 1922. Fordney-McCumber Tariff
A letter of Joseph Jones told this man to be on the lookout for "dangerous combinations" and "sinister practices," and the Louis Nicola letter to this man proposed that he proclaim himself dictator George Washington
This man quashed a conspiracy instigated by Christopher Richmond and John Armstrong George Washington
The goal of that movement was to illicitly use this man's prestige to gain the power to tax imports George Washington
When this man denounced that attempt of Alexander McDougall and Walter Stewart, known as the Newburgh Conspiracy, he took out glasses and stated that he had grown both gray and blind George Washington
This man was also targeted by the inspector general of the army, who was miffed that this figure had not granted a promotion to major general, and sought to replace this man with Horatio Gates George Washington
For 10 points, identify this target of the Conway Cabal, who went on to name such figures as Henry Knox and Alexander Hamilton to his Cabinet. George Washington
In this battle, Zachariah Deas forced the retreat of General William Carlin from La Fayatte Road, before an attack on Lytle Hill caused confusion among opposing generals Battle of Chickamauga
The victorious general here had kept command despite the agitations of Leonidas Polk and William Hardy, while another of that general's critics began the fighting at this battle Battle of Chickamauga
That man was John C Battle of Chickamauga
Breckinridge, who attacked Glass's Mill Battle of Chickamauga
The right side of the Union line was demolished by reinforcements under Longstreet, but another man held position on the left side at Snodgrass Hill earning the nickname the "Rock of" this battle, George Henry Thomas Battle of Chickamauga
It saw the defeat of the Army of the Cumberland under William Rosecrans Battle of Chickamauga
For 10 points, identify this Civil War Battle on the Tennessee-Georgia border, a victory for Braxton Bragg. Battle of Chickamauga
John Gibbs led a revolt in its epicenter a few years after this event, which saw prisoners held for two weeks in the house of Captain Crawford Culpepper's Rebellion
Arms for this event were provided by Captain Zachary Gilliam, which started after Valentine Byrd and Timothy Biggs were replaced by Thomas Eastchurch and Thomas Miller to enforce a statute ignored by John Judkins and Governor Drummond Culpepper's Rebellion
One of its leaders was later exonerated thanks to testimony in London by the Earl of Shaftesbury, and it was also led by George Durant Culpepper's Rebellion
Sparked by the enforcement of the colony's proprietors of the Navigation Acts and based in the Albermarle region, for 10 points, name this 1677-1679 rebellion which made its namesake the temporary governor of the Carolinas. Culpepper's Rebellion
This man argued that all states should give up claims to western lands after accusing Governor Johnson of Maryland of trying to profit from recent land purchases made from Indians George Mason
A document written by this man said that slave importation was an "unnatural trade" and that "descendants not of the conquered, but of the conquerors" were speaking George Mason
In another document by this man, he praised "the great bulwarks of liberty" that "can never be restrained but by despotic governments" and stated "that it is the mutual duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love, and charity toward each other." T George Mason
This master of Gunston Hall was the principal author of both the Fairfax Resolves and the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and thus refused to support the Constitution until a Bill of Rights was added George Mason
For 10 points, name this American independence figure who, due to his founding of Alexandria, became the namesake of a northern Virginia university. George Mason
A few months before this event, tensions were inflamed when the politically connected James Bentley was acquitted of a murder The Eureka Stockade [or Eureka Uprising, etc]
Proponents of this event used slogans such as "no property qualifications" and "annual goddamn elections," and many participants had been involved three years earlier in the Forest Creek Monster Meeting The Eureka Stockade [or Eureka Uprising, etc]
This conflict turned violent with the murder of James Scobie, which prompted the Peter Lalor-led "diggers" to form the Ballarat Reform League The Eureka Stockade [or Eureka Uprising, etc]
The roots of this conflict were in the "licensing fees" introduced by lieutenant governor Charles La Trobe The Eureka Stockade [or Eureka Uprising, etc]
For 10 points, identify this 1854 standoff named for the hastily constructed fort of the gold miners, twenty of whom were shot after agitating for reforms in the colony of Victoria. The Eureka Stockade [or Eureka Uprising, etc]
A cartoon about this event depicts a lion stepping on a fox above a half-donkey, half-key peering out from a pit Star Route Scandal
George Bliss and Benjamin Brewster helped uncover evidence of this event, and key testimony about it was provided by Montfort C Star Route Scandal
Rerdell Star Route Scandal
Thomas James asked P Star Route Scandal
J Star Route Scandal
Woodward to lead the investigation into this scandal, which focused on contracts that represented the phrase "certainty, celerity and security" with three asterisks Star Route Scandal
At trial, Robert Ingersoll defended the perpetrators of this scandal, who included Thomas Brady and former senator Stephen Dorsey Star Route Scandal
The investigation of this scandal was interrupted by the assassination of James Garfield Star Route Scandal
For 10 points, name this 1882 scandal in which corrupt members of the post office created fictitious accounts. Star Route Scandal
One majority opinion by this man upheld the arrest of Irving Feiner following inflammatory remarks he made in Syracuse, New York Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
This man was joined by Justices Reed and Minton in a dissent that cited Lincoln's naval blockade of the South to argue for the party represented by Secretary of State Charles Sawyer Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
He used reasons like the necessity of keeping electronic devices secret in his majority opinion denying Air Force reports to widows of civilian crash victims in United States v Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
Reynolds Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
He also wrote a majority opinion holding that certain individuals were trying to overthrow the government and that the Smith Act was constitutional in Dennis v Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
U.S, a landmark anti-Communist opinion Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
Dying before his court could rule on Brown v Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
Board of Education, for 10 points, name this former Secretary of the Treasury whom Truman appointed as a replacement for Harlan Fiske Stone as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1946. Frederick Moore "Fred" Vinson
University of Texas professor Sanford Levinson questioned why this provision does not get more coverage in legal journals in an article titled for its "embarrassing" consequences The Second Amendment
The 1886 Presser v The Second Amendment
Illinois case, which said that this restriction does not apply at the state level, was challenged in April 2009 by a Ninth Circuit ruling which held that this amendment is now incorporated The Second Amendment
The majority opinion in a recent case addressing this law noted that "a purposive qualifying phrase that contradicts the word or phrase it modifies is unknown this side of the looking glass, except, apparently, in some courses on Linguistics." An earlier The Second Amendment
Heller and U.S The Second Amendment
v The Second Amendment
Miller rulings, a Constitutional amendment guaranteeing the right to keep and bear arms. The Second Amendment
In 2006, the instigator of this Supreme Court case, Moreton Rolleston, concluded an eleven-year appeals process against a malpractice verdict that saw him representing himself while in manacles at age eighty-eight Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States [or United States v. Heart of Atlanta Motel]
The test of whether the regulation has a "real and substantial relation to the national interest" was developed in the opinion for this case by Justice Clark Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States [or United States v. Heart of Atlanta Motel]
It was decided the same year as a similar case, Katzenbach v Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States [or United States v. Heart of Atlanta Motel]
McClung, which examined Ollie's Barbecue in Birmingham Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States [or United States v. Heart of Atlanta Motel]
This decision, which pointed out the facility's proximity to Interstates 75 and 85, hinged on whether the commerce clause was sufficient grounds for Title II of the Civil Rights Act Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States [or United States v. Heart of Atlanta Motel]
For 10 points, name this 1964 case in which prohibitions on discrimination in places of public accomodation were upheld over the objections of a Georgia lodging-house operator. Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States [or United States v. Heart of Atlanta Motel]
Its first territorial governor was a colonel of the Squirrel Hunters named Sidney Edgerton, while later territorial governors included a corrupt former governor of Kentucky nicknamed the "Coldwater Governor," Preston Leslie Montana
One senator from this state was set to be FDR's first attorney general before he died in 1933, a man replaced by James Edward Murray Montana
Besides Thomas J Montana
Walsh, another senator from this state publicized the secret Victory Plan on the eve of Pearl Harbor, was the subject of the anti-communist pamphlet "The Plot Against America," and was Robert La Follette's 1924 running mate Montana
A battle fought in this state saw fighting on Reno Hill and reinforcements under Frederick Benteen fighting against troops partially commanded by Chief Gall Montana
For 10 points, name this state home to Progressive senator Burton K Montana
Wheeler, the site of a defeat of the 7th Calvary Regiment by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, the Battle of Little Bighorn. Montana
This rebellion faltered after a skirmish in which militia under William Shepard defeated troops who erroneously believed they would receive reinforcements from Luke Day Shays' Rebellion
This rebellion was ended with the capture of several leaders at Petersham, which occurred the day after Benjamin Lincoln successfully defended the Springfield Armory from a rebel attack Shays' Rebellion
Governor James Bowdoin had to ask local merchants to form a militia to put this down, which showed the weakness of and contributed to the demise of the Articles of Confederation Shays' Rebellion
For 10 points, name this rebellion of veterans of the American Revolution who weren't being paid in Massachusetts. Shays' Rebellion
This event started out as a peaceful meeting at Blue Island, but Edward Walker was appointed to deal with its participants after this event turned violent  Pullman Strike
Its participants disregarded Attorney General Richard Olney's attempts at mediation  Pullman Strike
Over the objections of Peter Altgeld, President Cleveland ordered federal troops to enter on the grounds that this event was disrupting mail service, a costly mistake which would lead to President Cleveland's failure to recapture the Presidency in 1896  Pullman Strike
For 10 points, name this riot launched in response to the Panic of 1893 in which labor workers led by Eugene Debs refused to run trains containing cars made by a certain company.  Pullman Strike
This man espoused his socialist ideas in Wealth in the Hands of the Few, and like William McKinley, this president served in the Army of West Virginia during the Civil War Rutherford Birchard Hayes
A city and department in Paraguay are named for this man because he arbitrated the end of the War of the Triple Alliance Rutherford Birchard Hayes
Although he was overridden, this president vetoed the Bland-Allison Act, and the Great Railroad Strike occurred during his administration Rutherford Birchard Hayes
For 10 points, name this one term president from Ohio whose victory over Samuel Tilden in the Election of 1876 resulted in the end of Reconstruction. Rutherford Birchard Hayes
The winter following this engagement is known as the Forage War, and this battle ended with John Sullivan's capture of Nassau Hall Battle of Princeton
At a critical point in this engagement, John Cadwalader arrived with militiamen to support the fleeing forces of Hugh Mercer, who the British mistook for George Washington Battle of Princeton
The night before this defeat for Charles Mawhood, the victorious side had won the Battle of Assunpink Creek, and it occurred about a week after the Battle of Trenton Battle of Princeton
Resulting in the British fleeing from New Jersey, for 10 points, name this 1777 victory for George Washington in an Ivy League college town. Battle of Princeton
This organization's first president William Jones resigned over a scandal involving its Baltimore branch Second Bank of the United States
This organization's second president Langdon Cheves restored its integrity by weeding out incompetent officers, including the director of that Baltimore branch, James McCulloch, who was also involved in the namesake 1819 Supreme Court case that establishe Second Bank of the United States
The third president of this organization blamed the demise of it on the Specie Circular, and famously quarreled with the man who refused to renew its charter, Andrew Jackson Second Bank of the United States
For 10 points, name this organization led by Nicholas Biddle, the national bank which succeeded the one proposed by Alexander Hamilton. Second Bank of the United States
In 1946, this politician defeated Representative Howard Johnstone McMurray in a Senatorial election and, in 1957, this politician's vacated Senate seat was won by William Proxmire Joseph Raymond McCarthy
The right to criticize, the right to protest, the right of independent thought, and the right to hold unpopular opinions were stated in the Declaration of Conscience speech delivered by Margaret Chase Smith against this politician Joseph Raymond McCarthy
This politician targeted Mongolian historian Owen Lattimore during the deliberations of the Tydings Committee Joseph Raymond McCarthy
In 1954, Army attorney Joseph Welch asked him, “Have you left no sense of decency?” For 10 points, name this Wisconsin Republican Senator who made wild allegations that certain individuals of the State Department were Communists. Joseph Raymond McCarthy
Sutter Green is named after one member of this society, and one of its leaders, John Kelly, was a trustee of the savings bank located across from this society's headquarters Tammany Hall [or the Columbian Order; or the Society of St. Tammany; or the Sons of St. Tammany]
William Leggett led the Locofocos who opposed this organization, and its leaders included Charles Francis Murray and its founder, William Mooney Tammany Hall [or the Columbian Order; or the Society of St. Tammany; or the Sons of St. Tammany]
In political cartoons, this group was often represented as a tiger, and one of its leaders was represented as a man with a moneybag in place of his head by cartoonist Thomas Nast Tammany Hall [or the Columbian Order; or the Society of St. Tammany; or the Sons of St. Tammany]
For 10 points, name this Democratic Party political machine which heavily influenced New York politics under the leadership of bosses like William Tweed. Tammany Hall [or the Columbian Order; or the Society of St. Tammany; or the Sons of St. Tammany]
This man's support for William H Martin van Buren
Crawford's candidacy drew him his first electoral vote, from Georgia for the vice presidency Martin van Buren
Charles Ogle accused this man of an overly-opulent lifestyle in the “Gold Spoon Oration,” and he refused to override Lilburn Boggs' “Extermination Order” against the Mormons in Missouri Martin van Buren
This man's vice president caused a scandal in Washington by entering into a common law marriage with a mulatto slave, and this man twice sent Winfield Scott to New England to resolve border disputes in the Caroline Affair and the Aroostook War Martin van Buren
Nominated as a presidential candidate later in life by the Free Soilers, for 10 points, name this president who got saddled with the Panic of 1837 shortly after arriving in office. Martin van Buren
This politician rose to prominence by leading a group known as the Insurgents against the corruption of Senator Philetus Sawyer Robert Marion La Follette
This politician sponsored the Seamen's Act of 1915, which increased the safety of passengers, and he vehemently opposed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act, passed after the Panic of 1907 Robert Marion La Follette
This man was one of the leaders of the opposition to the Espionage Act, as well as to American involvement in World War One Robert Marion La Follette
Burton Wheeler served as the running mate of this man, who placed third in an election behind John Davis and Calvin Coolidge Robert Marion La Follette
For 10 points, name this Wisconsin politician and nominee of the Progressive Party in the 1924 presidential election. Robert Marion La Follette
This man espoused his socialist ideas in Wealth in the Hands of the Few, and like William McKinley, this president served in the Army of West Virginia during the Civil War Rutherford Birchard Hayes
A city and department in Paraguay are named for this man because he arbitrated the end of the War of the Triple Alliance Rutherford Birchard Hayes
Although he was overridden, this president vetoed the Bland-Allison Act, and the Great Railroad Strike occurred during his administration Rutherford Birchard Hayes
For 10 points, name this one term president from Ohio whose victory over Samuel Tilden in the Election of 1876 resulted in the end of Reconstruction. Rutherford Birchard Hayes
After this man met Benjamin Lundy he joined the immediatism movement, and he burned a copy of the Constitution on the Fourth of July because he believed it was an agreement with the devil William Lloyd Garrison
In Thoughts on African Colonization, this man condemned recolonization efforts and the Liberty Party split from this man after he lost support while campaigning against capital punishment, tobacco, and imprisonment for debt William Lloyd Garrison
Inspired by The Book and Slavery Irreconcilable to found a certain organization, for 10 points, name this abolitionist leader who called for "no union with slave holders" in The Liberator and also founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. William Lloyd Garrison
Minor candidates in this race included John St Election of 1884
John, the nominee of the Prohibition Party, and Belva Lockwood, on the ticket of the Equal Rights Party Election of 1884
The losing candidate was tainted by his past association with the so-called “Mulligan letters,” which suggested he sold his influence to businesses while serving in Congress Election of 1884
The winning candidate was forced to deal with allegations that he had fathered an illegitimate child, but his opponent lost votes after the speech made in his support by Rev Election of 1884
Samuel Burchard, who described the Democrats as the party of “rum, Romanism, and rebellion.” For 10 points, name this American presidential election in which Republican James Blaine narrowly lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland. Election of 1884
This man was criticized by subordinate William Rosecrans for his caution at skirmishes at Rich Mountain and Philippi Races George Brinton McClellan
One of this man's campaigns was stalled by the trickery of John Magruder, who made him believe that his enemy had substantially more troops George Brinton McClellan
This man led one side at the battles of Williamsburg and the Seven Days Battles, part of the aforementioned Peninsular Campaign, and later his extreme caution also cost him a decisive victory when he left troops in reserve numbering more than the entire o George Brinton McClellan
For 10 points, name this general, the first commander of the Army of the Potomac who led Union troops at the Battle of Antietam. George Brinton McClellan
One of this man's speeches asks "What rule must we observe in forgiving?", to which he replies "you must forgive" unless there is a lawful pledge John Winthrop
He concludes that speech by declaring that if the community turns their hearts away from God, then they will "surely perish out of the good land." Along with "A Model of Christian Charity", he discusses A Smallpox Epidemic, the plans of one man to create John Winthrop
For 10 points, name this seventeenth century preacher and governor in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who used the term "city upon a hill" to help compel his city to follow Christianity. John Winthrop
This man stated in Time magazine that “Every good Christian ought to kick Falwell right in the ass,” in support of Sandra Day O'Conner's confirmation to the Supreme Court Barry Goldwater
With Bill Nichols, this man names a piece of 1986 legislation which reformed the command structure of the military Barry Goldwater
His vote against the Civil Rights Act and support of states' rights allowed him to gain electoral votes in a region of the country that his party had previously done poorly in, despite being the target of the “Daisy Girl” ad Barry Goldwater
This Senator gained prominence with the publication of his book The Conscience of a Conservative in 1960 Barry Goldwater
For 10 points, name this Arizona Republican politician whose participation in the presidential election of 1964 resulted in a landslide defeat by Lyndon B Barry Goldwater
Johnson. Barry Goldwater
This act was stated to have been created for the protection of the public in the case Spectrum Sports Inc v Sherman Antitrust Act
McQuillan, while the case Rice v Sherman Antitrust Act
Norman Williams co-created a two-step process by which courts would see if this act was pre-empting state laws Sherman Antitrust Act
George Hoar helped draft this legislation, and it was based on an act named for Valentine passed in its namesake's home state of Ohio Sherman Antitrust Act
A follow-up to this legislation was amended by the Robinson-Patman Act and included provisions about tying arrangements and price discrimination; that act was named for Clayton Sherman Antitrust Act
For 10 points, name this piece of legislation that forbade the formation of monopolies, an early antitrust law. Sherman Antitrust Act
This state's largest city endured an 1855 Rum Riot, put down with the help of 1880 Prohibitionist Candidate for President Neal S Maine
Dow. One of this state's Native American tribes won back 300,000 acres of land from the state government in Passamaquoddy v Maine
Morton. Its twentieth division, commanded by Joshua Chamberlain, defended the extreme left of the Union line on Little Round Top at Gettysburg Maine
Home to the industrial site of Bath Iron Works, it briefly allowed for same-sex marriages under Governor John Baldacci Maine
Until the 1960s, it held a gubernatorial election in September, and an unresolved border in this state prompted the Aroostook War Maine
For 10 points, name this state, home to Continental Liar James G Maine
Blaine, which broke off from its southern neighbor Massachusetts in 1820. Maine
This man unsuccessfully attempted to force Thomas Jefferson Rusk to disband his vigilante army, leading to the end of the Cordova Rebellion Sam Houston
While lobbying in Washington D.C., he beat senator William Stanberry with a cane and hired Francis Scott Key as his lawyer in the ensuing trial Sam Houston
This man won one battle by utilizing two artillery guns known as the “Twin Sisters.” He served two non-consecutive terms in another office, creating a Mirabeau B Sam Houston
Lamar sandwich Sam Houston
He had earlier served as Congressman from Tennessee's ninth district, and worked to expose frauds practiced upon the Cherokee, who had adopted this man and named him "The Raven." For 10 points, name this victor of the Battle of San Jacinto and two-time Pr Sam Houston
This man compared the actions of Joe McCarthy to “burning down the house to kill the rats.” In response, Richard Nixon called him “a PhD from Dean Acheson's cowardly college of Communist containment” and attacked him for testifying as a character Adlai Ewing Stevenson II
This politician vetoed a bill requiring loyalty oaths for teachers and state employees while serving as governor Adlai Ewing Stevenson II
This man confronted Valerian Zorin, calling for him to “answer yes or no” during the Cuban Missile Crisis, while Ambassador to the United Nations, an organization he helped found Adlai Ewing Stevenson II
This Illinois politician was defeated for the presidency by a man who would go on to build the Interstate Highway System. For 10 points, name this Democrat who ran twice for the presidency against Eisenhower. Adlai Ewing Stevenson II
William B Battle of Fredericksburg
Franklin led a charge from Bowling Green Road during this battle, while casualties of this battle included Maxcy Gregg and Thomas Cobb Battle of Fredericksburg
The "second battle" at this location pitted Jubal Early against John Sedgwick, who was attempting to relieve the pressure on Joseph Hooker during the Battle of Chancellorsville Battle of Fredericksburg
Though it isn't Antietam, during the first battle at this location, Prospect Hill and the Sunken Road were key defensive points Battle of Fredericksburg
Before this battle, the losing commander spent weeks waiting for a pontoon train to arrive and build bridges that would allow him to assault Marye's Heights across the Rappahannock River Battle of Fredericksburg
For 10 points, name this decisive victory of Robert E Battle of Fredericksburg
Lee over Ambrose Burnside in northern Virginia. Battle of Fredericksburg
A column of two hundred miners attempting to join this movement stole a Northern Pacific locomotive and got two hundred miles before being stopped by federal troops in Forsyth, Montana Coxey's Army [or “Commonweal in Christ” before mentioned]
The germ of this movement can be found in its leader's “Bulletin Number 1” of his Good Roads Association; that founder believed he was the reincarnation of Andrew Jackson Coxey's Army [or “Commonweal in Christ” before mentioned]
A man who called himself “the Unknown” was expelled from it when he feuded with Carl Browne Coxey's Army [or “Commonweal in Christ” before mentioned]
Its leader had a son named “Legal Tender.” Upon reaching his destination, this movement's leader was arrested for trespass and “parading on the grass.” It started in Massilon, Ohio, and was officially called the Commonweal in Christ Coxey's Army [or “Commonweal in Christ” before mentioned]
For 10 points, name this group of the unemployed who marched to Washington in 1894. Coxey's Army [or “Commonweal in Christ” before mentioned]
This conflict included an action called Pierce's Fight, which was followed by some torturing at a site that became known as Nine Men's Misery King Philip's War [accept Metacomet's War before it is read]
Benjamin Church led successful raids during this conflict, which was partially sparked by the policies of Governor Josiah Winslow King Philip's War [accept Metacomet's War before it is read]
Fighting during this conflict occurred at Hadley as well as at Turners Falls on the Connecticut River, and one leader during it was Canonchet King Philip's War [accept Metacomet's War before it is read]
A turning point in this conflict occurred with the Great Swamp Fight, after which the Narragansett were forced to withdraw King Philip's War [accept Metacomet's War before it is read]
This conflict occurred after the death of Massasoit, and it featured an uprising of the Wampanoag under Metacomet King Philip's War [accept Metacomet's War before it is read]
For 10 points, name this 1675 Native American uprising that takes its name from Metacomet's popular title among the colonists. King Philip's War [accept Metacomet's War before it is read]
This president arbitrated with Britain over Bering Sea seal hunting Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
During his presidency two American sailors were killed in a Valparaiso brawl, sparking the Baltimore crisis Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
His vice president failed to support a measure to protect black voting rights, the Force Bill of Henry Cabot Lodge Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
This man presided over the “businessman's cabinet,” named for its inclusion of Redfield Proctor and John Wanamaker Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
This president promoted the Dependent and Disability Pension Act Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
Late in his term, the Senate defeated his attempt to annex Hawaii after its takeover by Sanford Dole Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
This running-mate of Levi P Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
Morton presided over the “Billion Dollar Congress” and passed the McKinley Tariff Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
For 10 points, name this twenty-third president, sandwiched between Cleveland's two terms. Benjamin Harrison [prompt on Harrison]
The proposal for this program included a comparison to putting out a house fire with a garden hose, and explained why it would not violate the Johnson Act lend-lease program [accept Lend-Lease Act]
This program was opposed by a group headed by Robert E lend-lease program [accept Lend-Lease Act]
Wood, and among those who expedited its operation were W lend-lease program [accept Lend-Lease Act]
Averell Harriman and Maxwell Aitken lend-lease program [accept Lend-Lease Act]
Edward Stettinius briefly headed this program, which was also led by Harry Hopkins lend-lease program [accept Lend-Lease Act]
The inception of this program was supported in the “arsenal of democracy” speech, and this successor to Cash and Carry ultimately resulted in over forty-nine billion dollars in aid, mainly to Britain lend-lease program [accept Lend-Lease Act]
For 10 points, name this program created by a namesake 1941 act that allowed FDR to send war materials to American allies. lend-lease program [accept Lend-Lease Act]
This man suffered a memory lapse while meeting with the Austrian minister, leading to William Rufus Day taking his spot as Secretary of State John Sherman
James Garfield first rose to prominence while running this man's 1880 presidential campaign John Sherman
He was the chief Senate proponent of the bill that became the “Crime of '73.” This politician drafted a measure to redeem Civil War greenbacks with gold, the Resumption Act, which he also carried out while serving as Treasury Secretary under Hayes John Sherman
One piece of legislation named for this man expanded the Bland-Allison Act John Sherman
Another bill named for him was used against unions during the Pullman strike before being used to break up Standard Oil John Sherman
For 10 points, name this Ohio politician who authored a Silver Purchase Act and an Antitrust Act. John Sherman
This author of a letter entitled “The Prayer of Twenty Millions” supported Nathaniel Banks's election as Speaker of the House, leading to this man's caning by Albert Rust Horace Greeley
He was succeeded in his best known position by Whitelaw Reid Horace Greeley
During the Civil War this man urged the slogan “forward on Richmond!” and he lost popularity after signing the bail bond of Jefferson Davis Horace Greeley
This onetime ally of Thurlow Weed and William Seward joined with Carl Schurz and Charles Sumner to create an organization that pushed for civil service reform, the Liberal Republican Party Horace Greeley
He was unsuccessful in his bid to defeat Ulysses S Horace Greeley
Grant in the 1872 Presidential Election and died soon thereafter Horace Greeley
For 10 points, name this founder and longtime editor of the New York Tribune who once urged “go west, young man.” Horace Greeley
One leader of this group later ran a pyramid scheme at Omnitrition International the Yippies [accept Youth International Party before it is read]
Another leader of this group claimed that his real name was Shapoznikoff, and that he was known by a “slave name.” That leader of this group successfully defended himself at a trial by proving that the CIA was an unlawful organization the Yippies [accept Youth International Party before it is read]
This group was sometimes known as the Groucho Marxists the Yippies [accept Youth International Party before it is read]
They nominated a pig named Pigasus for president during a “Festival of Life” at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, leading to the arrest of some of them as members of the Chicago Seven the Yippies [accept Youth International Party before it is read]
This group included Jerry Rubin and the author of Steal This Book, Abbie Hoffman the Yippies [accept Youth International Party before it is read]
For 10 points, name this 1960's counter-culture group officially known as the Youth International Party. the Yippies [accept Youth International Party before it is read]
John Collier introduced one attempt to modify this piece of legislation, the violation of which led to the wire-tapping case Olmstead v Volstead Act [or National Prohibition Act]
US Volstead Act [or National Prohibition Act]
The drafter of this bill was known for his use of “pressure politics.” Its sponsor also co-sponsored a bill exempting farmers' cooperatives from anti-trust laws with Arthur Capper Volstead Act [or National Prohibition Act]
Maryland governor Albert Richie openly refused to enforce this act, which was drafted by Wayne Wheeler Volstead Act [or National Prohibition Act]
The Cullen-Harrison bill modified it to set a limit of 3.2 percent, raised from the original 0.5 percent Volstead Act [or National Prohibition Act]
Sponsored by a namesake Minnesota representative, this act passed despite Woodrow Wilson's veto Volstead Act [or National Prohibition Act]
It was supported by organizations like the Anti-Saloon League Volstead Act [or National Prohibition Act]
For 10 points, name this companion piece to the Eighteenth Amendment that enforced prohibition. Volstead Act [or National Prohibition Act]
The majority opinion in this case quotes Palko v Mapp v. Ohio
Connecticut in declaring the central matter a freedom “implicit in the concept of ordered liberty.” The majority opinion in this case also declared that “There is no war between the Constitution and common sense.” Harlan led a dissent that stresse Mapp v. Ohio
This case's decision was based on Boyd v Mapp v. Ohio
United States, and it extended the limitations placed on the Federal Government by Weeks v Mapp v. Ohio
United States Mapp v. Ohio
This case overturned Wolf v.Colorado in expanding the Fourth Amendment protection against unreasonable search and seizure to state governments Mapp v. Ohio
For 10 points, name this case which cemented the place of the exclusionary rule. Mapp v. Ohio
This man imprisoned José María Callava and then successfully defeated a writ of habeas corpus issued by Eligius Fromentin Andrew Jackson
This man asked the president to send him tacit support in a letter from John Rhea, and he sent Edmund P Andrew Jackson
Gaines to destroy the so-called “Negro Fort.” This man hung two British citizens in the Arbuthnot-Ambrister affair, and he was the victor at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend Andrew Jackson
Congress granted this man the right to use the army to ensure tariff collection with the Force Bill, and one of his programs was championed by Senator Thomas Hart Benton and by his Treasury Secretary, Levi Woodbury Andrew Jackson
For 10 points, name this president who issued the Specie Circular and vetoed the attempted re-charter of the Second Bank of the United States. Andrew Jackson
The dissent in this case compares it to a case involving a state mortgage law, Bronson v Munn v. Illinois
Kinzie, and that dissent was written by Stephen Field Munn v. Illinois
The opinion in this case cites two treatises by Lord Chief Justice Matthew Hale, referencing a cessation of juris privati Munn v. Illinois
This case specifically regarded the violation of the Constitution of 1870, and the decision by Morrison Waite rests on the argument that when public good is at state, the government can regulate private property Munn v. Illinois
This case was a victory for an organization led by Oliver Hudson Kelley, though it was overturned in a case that presaged the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Wabash case Munn v. Illinois
For 10 points, name this 1879 Granger case, which upheld the constitutionality of regulating grain elevator rates in a Midwest state. Munn v. Illinois
This politician was elected Senator over Matthew Clarkson in the first election that required tabulating a joint ballot of the state Assembly and Senate DeWitt Clinton
This man was opposed by the Bucktails, and he was elected governor for the last time with the People's Party DeWitt Clinton
He ran on the Peace Party ticket with Jared Ingersoll in the 1812 election, where he lost to James Madison DeWitt Clinton
As mayor, this man led a commission which proposed a plan later modified by Central Park, the grid layout of most of Manhattan DeWitt Clinton
Gouverneur Morris was the chair of a commission that this man effectively spearheaded to build a structure linking the Great Lakes to New York City DeWitt Clinton
For 10 points, name this longtime mayor of New York City and governor of New York who worked to build the Erie Canal. DeWitt Clinton
For his later activities involving an entirely different part of the United States, the man who accidentally revealed this group's activities to William McWilliams was described as "the most consummate artist in treason that the nation ever possessed" Conway Cabal [prompt on James Wilkinson before "St. Clair"]
Another member of this group defeated Arthur St Conway Cabal [prompt on James Wilkinson before "St. Clair"]
Clair in a Pennsylvania gubernatorial election and John Cadwalader shot this group's namesake in the mouth in a duel Conway Cabal [prompt on James Wilkinson before "St. Clair"]
The actions of this group, which included the aforementioned James Wilkinson and Thomas Mifflin, were revealed to its target by Lord Stirling, and this groups goal was the elevation of Horatio Gates to a certain post Conway Cabal [prompt on James Wilkinson before "St. Clair"]
For 10 points, name this group that plotted to replace George Washington as head of the Continental Army. Conway Cabal [prompt on James Wilkinson before "St. Clair"]
Meetings at this event were convened by prayers of Reverend Strong, and this event was satirized by a William Charles cartoon called “Leap No Leap” in which one of its leaders was jumping into a king's lap Hartford Convention
Some attendees of this event were referred to by the term “blue lights.” Theodore Dwight published a History of this event, while Harrison Gray Otis published Letters in Defense of it Hartford Convention
George Cabot served as its president and was a part of its dominant faction, the Essex Junto Hartford Convention
This conference sought to amend the Constitution to limit presidents to one term and abolish the three-fifths clause Hartford Convention
It was ultimately rendered ineffective by the signing of the Treaty of Ghent Hartford Convention
For 10 points, name this meeting of Federalists who opposed the War of 1812, which took place in Connecticut. Hartford Convention
From 1995 to 2000, the Kellogg Commission examined the future of institutions created as a result of this act Morrill Land Grant Act
The Nelson Amendment to this act established a permanent source of funding to achieve its goals Morrill Land Grant Act
Lyman Trumbull was initially asked to be the sponsor for this bill by the man sometimes given credit for its introduction, Jonathan Turner, but he instead supported a Vermont Representative as this bill's sponsor Morrill Land Grant Act
The 1887 Hatch Act provided funding for "agricultural experiment stations" associated with institutions funded by this bill Morrill Land Grant Act
For 10 points, name this 1862 act that set aside public lands for the establishment of colleges devoted to agriculture and engineering. Morrill Land Grant Act
This organization was studied by the Mollen Commission, which was formed after Michael Dowd was caught selling narcotics NYPD [or New York City Police Department]
Sam Battle was the first non-white member of this organization NYPD [or New York City Police Department]
The Lexow Commission's report on this organization led to the establishment of a four-member board that included Teddy Roosevelt NYPD [or New York City Police Department]
The 1970 Knapp Commission also studied this organization, after one of its members, Frank Serpico, went public with the knowledge of a "gambling pad." In 1999 four members of this organization's "Street Crimes Unit" were acquitted of wrongdoing after shoo NYPD [or New York City Police Department]
For 10 points, name this organization that lost 23 members in the September 11th attacks and is currently run by Commissioner Ray Kelly. NYPD [or New York City Police Department]
An important one-word excision in this speech was made on the advice of James Killian, and Ralph Williams later lamented that a section about the "tendency for orderly societies to break down into mob ridden anarchies" was excised President Dwight David Eisenhower's Farewell Address [or reasonable equivalents including Eisenhower and some indication that he gave the speech on the occasion of his leaving office]
This speech, written in collaboration with Malcolm Moos, warned that irresponsible spending might make democracy "the insolvent phantom of tomorrow", and that "a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity" President Dwight David Eisenhower's Farewell Address [or reasonable equivalents including Eisenhower and some indication that he gave the speech on the occasion of his leaving office]
Noting that in past years "American makers of plowshares could....make swords as well", it also warned against undue influence of the "military-industrial complex" President Dwight David Eisenhower's Farewell Address [or reasonable equivalents including Eisenhower and some indication that he gave the speech on the occasion of his leaving office]
For 10 points, name this speech delivered on January 17, 1961, three days before its speaker was succeeded by John F President Dwight David Eisenhower's Farewell Address [or reasonable equivalents including Eisenhower and some indication that he gave the speech on the occasion of his leaving office]
Kennedy. President Dwight David Eisenhower's Farewell Address [or reasonable equivalents including Eisenhower and some indication that he gave the speech on the occasion of his leaving office]
Two leaders of this group believed in a wacky form of theosophy in which those leaders were the "cerebrum of Christ" and "cerebellum of Christ" Coxey's Army [or Commonwealth of Christ before read]
Henry Vincent served as the official historian of this group Coxey's Army [or Commonwealth of Christ before read]
This group, officially known as the Commonweal of Christ, carried a banner proclaiming "Peace on Earth, Goodwill to Men, but Death to Interest on Bonds!" This group disbanded after Christopher Columbus Jones, Carl Browne, and its namesake were arrested fo Coxey's Army [or Commonwealth of Christ before read]
For 10 points, name this so-called "Army" that attempted to lobby the government for more road-building jobs by marching from Massillon, Ohio to Washington, D.C Coxey's Army [or Commonwealth of Christ before read]
in 1894. Coxey's Army [or Commonwealth of Christ before read]
According to legend, this man would hide in the bushes to see whether his soldiers were drinking Zebulon Montgomery Pike
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft proved that this man made a mistake in naming Leech Lake as the source of the Mississippi River Zebulon Montgomery Pike
This man's papers were confiscated by Nemesio Salcedo, who was convinced he was spying on New Spain Zebulon Montgomery Pike
This man coined the name "Great American Desert" for the region he most famously explored Zebulon Montgomery Pike
He died while leading an amphibious assault on York during the War of 1812 Zebulon Montgomery Pike
An expedition led by John Fremont later named what this man called "Grand Peak" after him Zebulon Montgomery Pike
For 10 points, give this "Lost Pathfinder" and namesake of the Rocky Mountains peak that allegedly inspired the song America the Beautiful. Zebulon Montgomery Pike
One argument during this event concerned whether the length of a word on a ten-foot-long sign measured one and a half feet long or merely one foot long Scopes Monkey Trial [or State of Tennessee v. Scopes; or Scopes v. State of Tennessee]
The central figure of this event had planned to work as a Ford salesman during the time of this event, and told reporter William Hutchinson that "I was doing something else" the day he was alleged to have violated the Butler Act Scopes Monkey Trial [or State of Tennessee v. Scopes; or Scopes v. State of Tennessee]
H.L Scopes Monkey Trial [or State of Tennessee v. Scopes; or Scopes v. State of Tennessee]
Mencken claimed that "we killed the son of a bitch" upon learning of William Jennings Bryan's death following this event, which he presumed was due to the constant harassment from defense attorney Clarence Darrow Scopes Monkey Trial [or State of Tennessee v. Scopes; or Scopes v. State of Tennessee]
For 10 points, name this 1925 case in which a Dayton, Tennessee schoolteacher was accused of teaching evolution. Scopes Monkey Trial [or State of Tennessee v. Scopes; or Scopes v. State of Tennessee]
During a key debate with rival John Turner over patronage appointments, this man made the famous zinger "You had an option, sir—to say no" Brian Mulroney
He filed a libel lawsuit over allegations he had received bribes during the Airbus affair Brian Mulroney
This man met with his American counterpart in the so-called Shamrock Summit on St Brian Mulroney
Patrick's Day, a precursor to the signing of the Free Trade Agreement between their two countries Brian Mulroney
While prime minister, this man attempted to negotiate a series of amendments which would give increased provincial powers to Quebec Brian Mulroney
This failed agreement was the Meech Lake Accord Brian Mulroney
For 10 points, name this Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of Canada from 1984 to 1993, who was succeeded by Kim Campbell and then Jean Chretien. Brian Mulroney
Ronald Dworkin called this case the "whipping boy" of constitutional law Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
In his denunciation of Roe v Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
Wade, John Hart Ely turned this case into a verb and compared the approach used in this case to a "green pastel redness" Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
This decision upheld a right previously established by Allgeyer v Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
Louisiana Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
In his dissent, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
echoed his earlier opinion in Otis v Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
Parker with talk of "general propositions", but differentiated the two cases through the "reasonable man" test; that dissent also claimed that "the Fourteenth Amendment does not enact Herbert Spencer's Social Statics" Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
For 10 points, name this 1905 Supreme Court case that struck down a New York state law that regulated the amount of time bakers could work. Lochner v. New York [or New York v. Lochner]
This event was brought to the attention of Jeanette Landesman when she heard a barking German shepherd named Highball St. Valentine's Day Massacre
A key error in the execution of this event was a misidentification by the Keywell brothers St. Valentine's Day Massacre
Among those killed during this event were an optician named Reinhardt Schwimmer and Albert Weinshank St. Valentine's Day Massacre
The victims of this event had been tricked into believing that they were waiting for a delivery of stolen whiskey St. Valentine's Day Massacre
This event, which took place at North Clark Street in the SMC Cartage Co St. Valentine's Day Massacre
building, failed to kill its primary target, George "Bugs" Moran, who suspected a raid and kept walking after a police car pulled up too early St. Valentine's Day Massacre
For 10 points, identify this 1929 killing of several members of Chicago's Northside gang, possibly orchestrated by Al Capone. St. Valentine's Day Massacre
The protagonist of this novel declares his "natural antipathy" toward washes, which his wife "makes" for their daughters  The Vicar of WakefieldÂ
One character's love interest saves her after she falls from her horse into a stream and later saves her sister from her marriage to Mr  The Vicar of WakefieldÂ
Williams  The Vicar of WakefieldÂ
In this novel, plans to frolic with city ladies are foiled when an informant spoils the good name of the central family, leading them to order Mr  The Vicar of WakefieldÂ
Burchell to leave  The Vicar of WakefieldÂ
One of the two weddings that end this novel involves George and Arabella Wilmot, and the other involves Sophia and Sir William Thornhill  The Vicar of WakefieldÂ
Featuring the evil Squire Thornhill's attempts to ruin the Primrose family, for 10 points, name this novel about a family that has their fortune restored, written by Oliver Goldsmith.  The Vicar of WakefieldÂ
Landon Carter served as Secretary of State of this polity, whose "Holston Constitution" prohibited office holders from being doctors or lawyers State of Franklin
This polity suffered an economic disturbance after its tax collectors cheated by sewing raccoon tails onto opossum hides State of Franklin
John Tipton arrested one of the leaders of this polity after a skirmish, but that leader soon escaped and led an expedition against the Overhill Cherokee towns State of Franklin
Anger over the Hopewell Treaty led to consultations with the Spanish Empire about annexation of this polity, but land reforms by the North Carolina government sapped its support State of Franklin
Headquartered at Greeneville and led by John Sevier, for 10 points, identify this short-lived polity named for an American statesman and located in present-day northeast Tennessee. State of Franklin
This work contains a lengthy sequence in which the speaker imagines what might have happened if he had sneezed after being stabbed as well as the statement that "the Jericho Road is the dangerous road" I've Been to the Mountaintop [accept equivalents like "MLK's Last Speech" before "title action"]
The speaker commends Ralph Jackson and Billy Lawton for their work and thanks Ralph Abernathy for the introduction before calling on the audience not to buy Wonder Bread and to hold an "insurance-in" I've Been to the Mountaintop [accept equivalents like "MLK's Last Speech" before "title action"]
Its last section ends with the first line of the Battle Hymn of the Republic and notes that "longetivity has its place" but that the speaker does not fear death because he has accomplished the title action and seen the Promised Land I've Been to the Mountaintop [accept equivalents like "MLK's Last Speech" before "title action"]
Delivered at the Mason Temple in Memphis on April 3, 1968, for 10 points, identify this final speech of Martin Luther King delivered the day before his assassination, whose title references a past journey to a symbolic peak's summit. I've Been to the Mountaintop [accept equivalents like "MLK's Last Speech" before "title action"]
This president's nomination of John Parker to the Supreme Court was not approved after backlash from organized labor and the NAACP Herbert Clark Hoover
Though the Clark Memorandum was written during his predecessor's administration, this man attempted to implement it by withdrawing troops from Nicaragua and Haiti Herbert Clark Hoover
This man appointed George Wickersham to chair a commission that produced the report Lawlessness in Law Enforcement and found the Volstead Act to be unenforceable Herbert Clark Hoover
Before becoming president, this man had served as head of the U.S Herbert Clark Hoover
Food Administration and Secretary of Commerce Herbert Clark Hoover
For 10 points, taking public blame for the Bonus Army fiasco and ineffectively dealing with the Great Depression probably cost what thirty-first President his 1932 re-election bid? Herbert Clark Hoover
One effect of this event was the dismissal of Matthew Ploughman as customs collector Leisler's Rebellion [or Leisler's Revolt, etc.]
Fitz-John Winthrop led an assault on Canada undertaken as a result of this event Leisler's Rebellion [or Leisler's Revolt, etc.]
During this event, a council known as the General Assembly of the Province was appointed to raise taxes Leisler's Rebellion [or Leisler's Revolt, etc.]
This event began when a group of allegedly drunk men deposed Nicholas Bayard as commander of Fort James, and both Bayard and William Nichols were imprisoned Leisler's Rebellion [or Leisler's Revolt, etc.]
The leader of this rebellion was accused of treason after failing to hand over the fort in a timely fashion to Henry Sloughter, who had replaced Francis Nicholson as governor Leisler's Rebellion [or Leisler's Revolt, etc.]
For 10 points, name this uprising that occurred when news of the Glorious Revolution reached New York and lasted until the German immigrant in charge was executed in 1691. Leisler's Rebellion [or Leisler's Revolt, etc.]
During this war, a group of Catholic deserters formed a battalion called the San Patricios, of which 50 were later hanged after being captured at the Battle of Churubusco Mexican-American War
One negotiator ignored his recall and was fired after successfully negotiating this war's peace treaty Mexican-American War
That man was Nicholas Trist Mexican-American War
One leader in this war lost his fake leg to troops guided on a flanking route by Robert E Mexican-American War
Lee in the Battle of Cerro Gordo Mexican-American War
One side in this war made an amphibious landing at Veracruz under Winfield Scott, and that side also had troops under Zachary Taylor Mexican-American War
For 10 points, name this war ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, from which one side received California. Mexican-American War
A faithless elector in this election chose to abstain from voting due to Washington, D.C.'s lack of statehood Election of 2000
67,000 votes in this election in New Mexico were misattributed due to a programming error, and New Mexico was won by only 366 votes Election of 2000
In another state during this election, N Election of 2000
Sanders Sauls became involved in the contest phase of the election after Katherine Harris ended the protest phase Election of 2000
That state also had many voters confused by the location of Pat Buchanan's name on butterfly ballots Election of 2000
For 10 points, name this election decided in favor of the Republican candidate after recounts in Florida were stopped by the ruling in Bush v Election of 2000
Gore. Election of 2000
This event prompted a future president to say "a little rebellion now and then is a good thing." John Bly and Charles Rose were the only leaders of this event executed at its conclusion Shays' Rebellion
One side in this conflict called themselves "Regulators" and fought against the government of James Bowdoin Shays' Rebellion
That side in this event was surprised and routed at Petersham after another army marched thirty miles in a snowstorm under Benjamin Lincoln Shays' Rebellion
The namesake of this rebellion tried to take the Springfield armory Shays' Rebellion
For 10 points, name this revolt under the Articles of Confederation that saw a number of courts forced to close by indebted farmers in western Massachusetts. Shays' Rebellion
This man convinced Arthur Goldberg to step down from the Supreme Court to become the Ambassador to the UN, which allowed this President to appoint Abe Fortas to the Court Lyndon Baines Johnson [or LBJ; prompt on Johnson]
This man won one primary race by 87 votes against Coke Stevenson, which led to his being nicknamed "Landslide." This President appointed the members of the Warren Commission and influenced the passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Lyndon Baines Johnson [or LBJ; prompt on Johnson]
The War on Poverty, the Voting Rights Act, and the Civil Rights Act were part of this President's Great Society plan Lyndon Baines Johnson [or LBJ; prompt on Johnson]
For 10 points, name this President from Texas who succeeded to the presidency after the assassination of John F Lyndon Baines Johnson [or LBJ; prompt on Johnson]
Kennedy. Lyndon Baines Johnson [or LBJ; prompt on Johnson]
The wood from this vessel was supposedly used to build a barn in the village of Jordans Mayflower
The Speedwell twice proved unseaworthy to travel along with this craft Mayflower
William Button was the only passenger on this ship to die during its voyage from Delftshaven under its captain, Christopher Jones Mayflower
At the end of this boat's voyage, forty-one of its members agreed to form a government Mayflower
Those passengers had earlier fled to the Netherlands and included John Alden, Myles Standish, and William Bradford Mayflower
For 10 points, name this ship that crossed the Atlantic and carried the Compact-forming founders of Plymouth Colony, the Pilgrims. Mayflower
The sniper Timothy Murphy shot down Frances Clarke and another officer during this battle as a part of Daniel Morgan's riflemen Battle of Saratoga [or Battle of Bemis Heights before mentioned; or Battle of Freeman's Farm before mentioned]
One part of this battle saw an attack fail to take Freeman's Farm Battle of Saratoga [or Battle of Bemis Heights before mentioned; or Battle of Freeman's Farm before mentioned]
The decisive phase of this battle was an attack on Bemis Heights that resulted in the death of Simon Fraser Battle of Saratoga [or Battle of Bemis Heights before mentioned; or Battle of Freeman's Farm before mentioned]
Horatio Gates was disobeyed during that phase by Benedict Arnold, who received a leg wound during this battle Battle of Saratoga [or Battle of Bemis Heights before mentioned; or Battle of Freeman's Farm before mentioned]
Following the British capture of Fort Ticonderoga, this battle ended "Gentleman Johnnie" Burgoyne's campaign down the Hudson River Battle of Saratoga [or Battle of Bemis Heights before mentioned; or Battle of Freeman's Farm before mentioned]
For 10 points, name this 1777 American victory in the Revolutionary War that led to an American alliance with the French. Battle of Saratoga [or Battle of Bemis Heights before mentioned; or Battle of Freeman's Farm before mentioned]
This President decided not to send any federal troops to help put down Dorr's Rebellion John Tyler, Jr.
This President's veto of two banking bills resulted in the resignation of his entire cabinet except for one man John Tyler, Jr.
That Secretary of State under this President negotiated a treaty that settled the border between Maine and Canada called the Webster-Ashburton Treaty John Tyler, Jr.
This President earlier served as Vice President to a man who developed pneumonia after giving a two hour inaugural address John Tyler, Jr.
For 10 points, name this Whig who became the tenth President and earned the nickname "His Accidency" after William Henry Harrison's death in 1841. John Tyler, Jr.
One member of this group paid twenty dollars for the Newfoundland dog Seaman Lewis and Clark Expedition [or Corps of Discovery]
This group got lost while being guided by Old Toby and nearly starved to death Lewis and Clark Expedition [or Corps of Discovery]
Another member of this group brought along his slave York Lewis and Clark Expedition [or Corps of Discovery]
The recommendation of Watkuweis helped this group befriend the Nez Perce, and they also were helped after hiring as an interpreter Toussaint Charbonneau Lewis and Clark Expedition [or Corps of Discovery]
That man was hired by this group after they wintered in Fort Mandan and he was married to a Shoshone woman Lewis and Clark Expedition [or Corps of Discovery]
For 10 points, name this expedition that traveled from St Lewis and Clark Expedition [or Corps of Discovery]
Louis to the Pacific to explore the west for Thomas Jefferson after the Louisiana Purchase, which was helped for a time by Sacagawea. Lewis and Clark Expedition [or Corps of Discovery]
As Secretary of State, James G lynching
Blaine became embroiled in a controversy with Italy after one of these events occurred in New Orleans lynching
A high frequency of these events preceded the Rosewood Massacre of 1923 lynching
Walter Francis White went undercover to investigate these events lynching
A prominent opponent of this practice documented them in The Red Record and Southern Horrors lynching
Emmett Till had an open-casket funeral after one of these events, but Roy Bryant and J.W lynching
Milam were acquitted by a Mississippi jury lynching
Ida B lynching
Wells campaigned against, for 10 points, what form of extrajudicial mob-inflicted punishment often directed against African-Americans? lynching
This work shares its name with a Scottish school of philosophy whose members included Thomas Reid and Adam Ferguson Common Sense
An "Epistle to the Quakers" was appended to later editions of this work Common Sense
It says that the ancient Jews angered God by wanting a king, but He let them have one Common Sense
This work later argues that monarchy could come from election, usurpation, or random selection, and that hereditary selection is illegitimate in any case Common Sense
Beginning with a section that finds monarchical and aristocratic tyranny in the English constitution, this work lambastes the absurdity of an island ruling a continent Common Sense
For 10 points, name this revolutionary pamphlet by Thomas Paine. Common Sense
The report of the British MAUD Committee helped lay the groundwork for this enterprise along with the work of the heads of the NDRC and OSRD, James B Manhattan Project [or Manhattan Engineer District]
Conant and Vannevar Bush Manhattan Project [or Manhattan Engineer District]
This program was put under the control of Leslie R Manhattan Project [or Manhattan Engineer District]
Groves Manhattan Project [or Manhattan Engineer District]
A major success for this project came at when the Chicago Pile 1 kept up a self-sustaining reaction Manhattan Project [or Manhattan Engineer District]
Project Y of this program set up the first test of its end product, which occurred at the Trinity Site near Los Alamos under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer Manhattan Project [or Manhattan Engineer District]
For 10 points, name this project set up during World War II that successfully developed the first atomic bombs. Manhattan Project [or Manhattan Engineer District]
The attacking force in this battle was on its way to meet with troops under the command of John Gibbon, which was part of a plan to start using a hammer-and-anvil tactic Battle of the Little Big Horn [or Custer's Last Stand; or Battle of Greasy Grass Creek]
Frederick Benteen was sent out to scout before this battle, and his troops united with Marcus Reno's when Reno was forced to retreat to nearby bluffs Battle of the Little Big Horn [or Custer's Last Stand; or Battle of Greasy Grass Creek]
The commander of the losing side in this battle disobeyed the orders of Alred Terry Battle of the Little Big Horn [or Custer's Last Stand; or Battle of Greasy Grass Creek]
This battle resulted in the defeat of the Seventh U.S Battle of the Little Big Horn [or Custer's Last Stand; or Battle of Greasy Grass Creek]
Cavalry Battle of the Little Big Horn [or Custer's Last Stand; or Battle of Greasy Grass Creek]
For 10 points, name this battle that took place in Montana, during which the Cheyenne and Lakota fighters under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse crushed the troops of George Custer. Battle of the Little Big Horn [or Custer's Last Stand; or Battle of Greasy Grass Creek]
While governor, this man's lieutenant governor was the creator of the "Pickrick drumsticks," Lester Maddox Jimmy Carter [or James Earl Carter, Jr.]
This man approved a plan that was hampered by a haboob and resulted in the death of eight participants, which was the disastrous Operation Eagle Claw Jimmy Carter [or James Earl Carter, Jr.]
This President lost his reelection bid in a race that featured Independent candidate John B Jimmy Carter [or James Earl Carter, Jr.]
Anderson Jimmy Carter [or James Earl Carter, Jr.]
This President helped negotiate an agreement between Sadat and Begin in the Camp David Accords Jimmy Carter [or James Earl Carter, Jr.]
For 10 points, name this President whose time in office also saw the Iran hostage crisis begin, and who served as governor of Georgia before his election in 1976. Jimmy Carter [or James Earl Carter, Jr.]
A group of reinforcements missed the first day of this battle by trying to take the Shunpike Road while under the direction of Lew Wallace Battle of Shiloh [or Battle of Pittsburg Landing before it is read]
A force of sixty-two cannon assembled on Duncan Field during this battle was attributed to the command of Daniel Ruggles Battle of Shiloh [or Battle of Pittsburg Landing before it is read]
That artillery fired on the men of Benjamin Prentiss, whose position in this battle was nicknamed the Hornet's Nest Battle of Shiloh [or Battle of Pittsburg Landing before it is read]
During the first day of this battle, the Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston was killed Battle of Shiloh [or Battle of Pittsburg Landing before it is read]
This battle is also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing Battle of Shiloh [or Battle of Pittsburg Landing before it is read]
For 10 points, name this Civil War victory for the Union under Ulysses S Battle of Shiloh [or Battle of Pittsburg Landing before it is read]
Grant fought in April 1862 in Tennessee. Battle of Shiloh [or Battle of Pittsburg Landing before it is read]
This President signed the Clean Air Act, which was then administered by his creation, the Environmental Protection Agency Richard Milhous Nixon
This man earlier achieved national prominence for his role in the Alger Hiss case Richard Milhous Nixon
While running for Vice President, this man claimed that the only political gift he accepted was a cocker spaniel named Checkers Richard Milhous Nixon
This Vice President to Eisenhower started the strategy of Vietnamization Richard Milhous Nixon
This man was the subject of an investigation aided by Mark Felt, which saw Woodward and Bernstein investigate this man's role in the break-in to a Washington hotel Richard Milhous Nixon
For 10 points, name this President who resigned in response to the Watergate scandal. Richard Milhous Nixon
This state's eventually successful attempt to mark its border at the Harris Line resulted in a skirmish at Phillips Corners against another territory Ohio
This state was represented in Congress during the Civil War by the leader of the Peace Democrats, or Copperheads, Clement Vallandigham Ohio
John Filo took a picture in this state of Mary Ann Vecchio kneeling over the body of Jeffrey Miller Ohio
That photo in this state came after a National Guard shooting of war protestors at Kent State University Ohio
For 10 points, name this state where the Cuyahoga River caught fire in 1969 and whose residents are known as Buckeyes. Ohio
A month before this battle, one side captured the other's gunboats in the Battle of Lake Borgne, but John Keane's caution may have cost that side a chance for further victory Battle of New Orleans
John Lambert was forced to lead one side in this battle after the death of Edward Pakenham Battle of New Orleans
The other side fighting this battle received support from the Baratarian pirates led by Jean Laffite Battle of New Orleans
This battle occurred over two weeks after the signing of a peace treaty ending its war Battle of New Orleans
For 10 points, name this War of 1812 battle that occurred after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent and saw Andrew Jackson defeat British forces in a Louisiana port city. Battle of New Orleans
This man defeated Howard McMurray in an election that came after he surprisingly won a nomination over incumbent Robert La Follette, Jr Joseph Raymond McCarthy
One speech by this man prompted the creation of the Tydings Committee; that speech was given to a women's club in Wheeling, West Virginia Joseph Raymond McCarthy
This man was challenged by the "Declaration of Conscience" speech made by Margaret Chase Smith Joseph Raymond McCarthy
This man was asked by Joseph Welch, "Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last?" during his hearings with the Army in 1954 Joseph Raymond McCarthy
For 10 points, name this Wisconsin Senator who became famous for accusing members of the government of being communist spies. Joseph Raymond McCarthy
Evidence presented during the resolution of this historical affair included an intercepted letter from artillery captain Caleb Huse to Major Josiah Gorgas Alabama claims affair
The language relevant to this dispute in the treaty which led to its resolution was later adopted as Article 8 of the 1907 Hague Convention Alabama claims affair
One party to this dispute rejected a settlement proposed at the Johnson-Clarendon Convention Alabama claims affair
Resolving this dispute became the major post Civil War task of Charles Francis Adams and it arose from the place of construction of a ship that would later be sunk by the USS Kearsarge Alabama claims affair
Resolved by an arbitration panel established by the Treaty of Washington with an indemnity payment of $15 million, for 10 points, identify this dispute between the United States and Britain, stemming from British production of a namesake Confederate warsh Alabama claims affair
Prior to this battle, James Neill had given way as chief of staff to Major George Washington Hockley, who is credited with nursing the shattered ankle of the winning commander Battle of San Jacinto
After Erasmus "Deaf" Smith reported the burning of Vince's Bridge, the winning force was able to aggressively advance its right flank under Henry Millard Battle of San Jacinto
Those attackers had two pieces of artillery, a pair of smoothbore guns donated by the citizens of Cincinnati called the "twin sisters," flanked by the infantry of Sidney Sherman on the left Battle of San Jacinto
Nearly a month later, the Treaty of Velasco cemented the success of the winners in this battle, which lasted only about 18 minutes Battle of San Jacinto
For 10 points, name this decisive 1836 battle by which Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna and captured him the following day. Battle of San Jacinto
Important primary sources about the conflict to take this location include the diary of Will Tummard and letters exchanged between members of the Lord family, residents of this place Vicksburg
An earlier attempt to take it saw Thomas Craven forced to turn back by mechanical breakdowns while Young's Point and Helena were used as staging grounds Vicksburg
To support the attack Nathaniel Banks struck to the south and, after the Battle of Plains Store, began a siege of Port Hudson Vicksburg
Commanders inside this city included William Loring, who lost earlier at Champion Hill, and Martin L Vicksburg
Smith who was actually a New Yorker Vicksburg
Assaults on it ordered by Grant were all repulsed, but John C Vicksburg
Pemberton ultimately surrendered this city after 47 days Vicksburg
For 10 points, identify this Mississippi city besieged by the Union during the Civil War. Vicksburg
Louis Feldman attempts to reconcile this concept with Joseph Raz's theories, concluding that the attitude this position requires is equivalent to a deference to practical authority originalism (accept word forms; accept judicial restraint, prompt on strict construction)
Richard Kay argues for a version of this that goes beyond the mere words of a provision and including the intentions of the text originalism (accept word forms; accept judicial restraint, prompt on strict construction)
Amy Guttman coauthored A Matter of Interpretation, which sets forward a theory of this type, justifying it by appealing to the US's common-law history originalism (accept word forms; accept judicial restraint, prompt on strict construction)
That book's primary author called this doctrine "The Lesser Evil" in an influential 1989 Cincinnati Law Review article, arguing that it was superior to activist theories originalism (accept word forms; accept judicial restraint, prompt on strict construction)
Those works are by Antonin Scalia originalism (accept word forms; accept judicial restraint, prompt on strict construction)
For 10 points, identify this theory of legal interpretation supported by members of the Federalist Society that emphasizes the intent or meaning at the time of formulation. originalism (accept word forms; accept judicial restraint, prompt on strict construction)
The story of this man is told in the book Deeds Not Deficits by Richard Fowler, which contains a forward by the journalist whose career was backed by this politician, William Allen White Alfred Mossman Landon
This man delivered a lecture entitled "New Challenges in International Relations" as the first in a series now named after him Alfred Mossman Landon
He narrowly defeated Harry Woodring in one election during which he gained the nickname "the Fox," but he's better remembered for a candidacy which led him to be the target of the joke "As Maine goes, so goes Vermont" - since those were the only two state Alfred Mossman Landon
This former governor of Kansas lost that election running alongside Frank Knox, and his poor showing led his party to replace him four years later with Wendell Willkie Alfred Mossman Landon
For 10 points, name this Republican who badly lost to FDR in 1936. Alfred Mossman Landon
It was precipitated by an assault on an officer named Edmund Fanning who was pulled down the stairs in his own home and by one's side refusal to attend a public meeting Regulator(s) Revolt or Uprising etc.
Although a proclamation against the taking of illegal fees was issued by Arthur Dobbs, the directive was ignored and the situation was further exacerbated by his successor's construction of a "palace" in New Bern Regulator(s) Revolt or Uprising etc.
Of the 14 captives tried at a special term of the Superior Court as a result of this event, whose leaders included such men as James Hunter, Rednap Howell, and Herman Husband, six were hanged, before the King agreed to pardon the rest Regulator(s) Revolt or Uprising etc.
Centered in and around the counties of Anson and Orange, it ended with Governor Tryon's victory at the Battle of Alamance, for 10 points, identify this 1771 uprising in colonial North Carolina. Regulator(s) Revolt or Uprising etc.
One key event leading up to this court case was a speech by Clarence Randall which accused Phil Murray of accepting a bribe Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (accept Steel Seizure Case until "steel" mentioned)
Its early stages saw district court judge David Pine reject the arguments of Holmes Baldridge and Marvin Taylor, whose positions were later softened by Philip Perlman Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (accept Steel Seizure Case until "steel" mentioned)
A popular portion of this court decision refers to a zone of twilight," that was subsequently cited in later cases like Dames & Moore v Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (accept Steel Seizure Case until "steel" mentioned)
Regan Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (accept Steel Seizure Case until "steel" mentioned)
This case arose after a report submitted by the Wage Stabilization Board led to the issuance of Executive Order 10340 Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (accept Steel Seizure Case until "steel" mentioned)
The aforementioned concurrence by Justice Jackson delineates the three levels of power held by the executive branch Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (accept Steel Seizure Case until "steel" mentioned)
For 10 points, identify this 1952 Supreme Court case sparked when President Truman attempted to seize some steel mills in the namesake town. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer (accept Steel Seizure Case until "steel" mentioned)
Charles Francis Adams notably criticized this man in a North American Review article Jay Gould
This author of A History of Delaware County was never listed by Mrs Jay Gould
William Astor in her list of the New York 400, even though he was worth more than many men on the list Jay Gould
Although some of his partners, like Russell Sage, made a fortune, others like Charles Leupp and Cyrus Field were less fortunate Jay Gould
His first success came after he founded a tanning factory and he would later establish an office in Jersey City to illegally issue stock in an attempt to best Cornelius Vanderbilt for control of the Erie Railroad Jay Gould
He tried to influence Horace Potter through the President's brother in law, A.H Jay Gould
Corbin, and a share of his investments, a situation that culminated on September 24, 1869, when the price of gold dropped precipitously Jay Gould
For 10 points, identify this American financier and railroad magnate whose actions, alongside his partner, Jim Fisk, precipitated "Black Friday." Jay Gould
The song "The Old Flag Never Touched the Ground" was associated with one of its original survivors, William Carney the 54th Massachusetts Infantry
Among the skirmishes in which this group participated were Olustee, Honey Hill, and Boykin's Hill the 54th Massachusetts Infantry
Its leader and second-in-command, Pen Hallowell, were both chosen by John A the 54th Massachusetts Infantry
Andrew, the man who had first proposed its formation the 54th Massachusetts Infantry
Among those called to recruit on its behalf were Edward Pierce and Lewis Hayden who did so before it assembled at Camp Meigs the 54th Massachusetts Infantry
Its first action was at James Island and two days later it participated in the attack on a location south of Charleston harbor the 54th Massachusetts Infantry
Memorialized for heading the assault on Fort Wagner, for 10 points, name this group led by Robert Gould Shaw, the first black regiment recruited in the North during the Civil War. the 54th Massachusetts Infantry
This organization played a key role in a series of conflicts between jockey clubs and poolroom gamblers Pinkerton Detective Agency or Pinkertons or Pinkerton Detectives or Men or Operatives
Its namesake, who was nearly killed in Windsor, Ontario, by George Johnson, had such rivals as the self-promoting William Burns, and a man named Charles Siringo a former employee and author who identified this organization as one of Two Evil Isms Pinkerton Detective Agency or Pinkertons or Pinkerton Detectives or Men or Operatives
Its New York office was headed by George Bangs, while other notable employees include James McParlan, whose published adventures in the coal fields of Pennsylvania were analyzed in Michael Denning's Mechanic Accents Pinkerton Detective Agency or Pinkertons or Pinkerton Detectives or Men or Operatives
This organization, which sent its "operatives" after such groups as the James Brothers, advertised its services with the motto, "The Eye that Never Sleeps." After suppressing the Molly Maguires, they cemented their notoriety by helping break the Homestea Pinkerton Detective Agency or Pinkertons or Pinkerton Detectives or Men or Operatives
Named for a Scottish immigrant, for 10 points, identify this first professional detective agency in America. Pinkerton Detective Agency or Pinkertons or Pinkerton Detectives or Men or Operatives
Michigan Democrats passed the "Miner Law" before this election to split the state's traditionally Republican vote Election of 1892
William Whitney unsuccessfully pushed for making former Republican and "Sisyphus of the Wabash" Isaac Gray the Democratic Vice Presidential candidate, and one ticket in this campaign featured both a former Union and Confederate General Election of 1892
The latter was Vice Presidential candidate James Field who ran with a man who published A Call to Action in this year Election of 1892
That faction put forth the Omaha Platform calling for a graduated income tax and a $50 per capita circulating medium Election of 1892
Wyoming's recent entrance into the Union made it the first presidential contest in which women could vote, and the incumbent was hurt by the newly-passed McKinley Tariff Election of 1892
Meanwhile four states were won by a ticket headed by James Weaver of the Populist Party Election of 1892
For 10 points, name this election in which Benjamin Harrison was defeated by Grover Cleveland. Election of 1892
This son of the "Oracle of New Lebanon" was turned out of one of his earliest offices by James Harper and gained his fortune by managing the merger of the Galena & Chicago Union and Northwestern Railroads Samuel Jones Tilden
Although he received partial vindication through the Potter Committee, he was hurt by a series of telegrams obtained from Senator Oliver P Samuel Jones Tilden
Morton that alleged his staff offered bribes for votes; those were the Cipher Dispatches Samuel Jones Tilden
He would later fail to directly challenge a body including Joseph Philo Bradley, who was appointed because the independent David Davis had resigned his position on the Supreme Court Samuel Jones Tilden
Earlier, his "Figures That Could Not Lie" report, combined with the efforts of William Wickham, helped bring down a certain "Grand Sachem." For 10 points, name this governor of New York who busted the Tweed Ring and went on to lose to Rutherford B Samuel Jones Tilden
Hayes in 1876. Samuel Jones Tilden
This man appointed Charles Henningsen as second-in-command, authorizing him to burn large portions of territory William Walker
He died after being betrayed by Norvell Salmon, the captain of the sloop Icarus, who falsely promised that his surrender would secure him safe transport home William Walker
Early in life, after the death of his deaf fiancée Ellen Martin, he left his career as editor of the New Orleans Crescent to travel to San Francisco William Walker
After that, he conspired with Edmund Randolph to reach a secret agreement with C.K William Walker
Garrison and Charles Morgan, aimed at the destruction of the Accessory Transit Company William Walker
That plan failed after this man's puppet president Patricio Rivas withdrew William Walker
For 10 points, name this doctor who gained infamy as a filibuster in Nicaragua. William Walker
James Van Zandt and Hugh Johnson were lesser known figures that were asked to lead this action, which was partly inspired by the French group Croix de Feu Business Plot
Men that were interviewed in the aftermath of this incident included Albert Christmas and Frank Belgrano, while Grayson Murphy, the treasurer of the American Liberty League, was notably not asked to testify Business Plot
Robert Clark employed one man involved in this incident, the only conspirator to testify before the McCormack-Dickstein committee Business Plot
That man, Gerald MacGuire, requested that the author of War is a Racket march 500,000 troops on Washington and become America's "Secretary of General Affairs" Business Plot
Smedley Butler exposed, for ten points, what alleged plot to install a fascist goverrnment and overthrow Franklin Roosevelt, hatched by some captains of industry? Business Plot
He once went to jail due to a libel suit stemming from his Herald of Freedom newspaper, while donations to Tufts University were part of his so-called "profitable philanthropy." Twice elected to the Connecticut State Senate, his initial fortune was built Phineas Taylor Barnum
He turned a collection of articles he wrote for the New York Weekly Mercury debunking frauds in history into the book Humbugs of the World and went on a European Tour with "General Tom Thumb." In addition he founded the American Museum which housed the S Phineas Taylor Barnum
For 10 points, name this creator of the "Greatest Show on Earth" who entered into a partnership with James A Phineas Taylor Barnum
Bailey. Phineas Taylor Barnum
Along with William Vans Murray and William Richardson Davie, this man was one of the three commissioners who negotiated the Treaty of Mortefontaine Oliver Ellsworth
He was accused of fastening "chains of slavery" on children with a "birth-duty of allegiance" for his decision that Isaac Williams could not renounce citizenship without the consent of the community Oliver Ellsworth
John Taylor of Caroline was horrified at a secession proposal produced by this man and Rufus King Oliver Ellsworth
He wrote the Letters from a Landholder urging adoption of the Constitution, chaired the conference committee for the Bill of Rights, and was the chief author of the Judiciary Act of 1789 Oliver Ellsworth
For 10 points, name this Connecticut Federalist and third Chief Justice of the United States. Oliver Ellsworth
Early in life, this man wrote a book entitled The Cult of Weakness, in which he warned against the U.S Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
becoming an unprepared nation Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
He won his first term in the U.S Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
Senate by beating Governor James Curley, while his time in a more famous position saw him respond to Cable 243 Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
In his two terms in that position, he succeeded Frederick Nolting and Maxwell Taylor respectively Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
This author of the memoir The Stream Has Many Eyes also served a seven year term as special envoy to the Holy See Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
His son lost his Senate seat to Ted Kennedy, ending Republican dominance of that seat Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
This man is best remembered for his controversial time as ambassador to South Vietnam Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
For ten points, name this man who ran for vice president with Richard Nixon in 1960, and had a same-named grandfather who opposed Woodrow Wilson's view of the League of Nations. Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (prompt Lodge or Cabot Lodge)
Attendees at this event included George Read and Richard Bassett from Delaware, and Egbert Benson from New York Annapolis Convention
They resided together at the city tavern belonging to George Mann, after initially being called to discuss water navigation regulations at this meeting, which attempted to resolve issues not agreed upon at the Mount Vernon Conference Annapolis Convention
It was attended by delegates of only five states, but Abraham Clark of New Jersey seized on the opportunity to call for a further meeting Annapolis Convention
For 10 points, identify this 1786 meeting that decided to reconvene a year later in Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation, and was held in the namesake Maryland city. Annapolis Convention
This man earned a Vice Presidential nomination after Indiana senator Benjamin Shively downplayed his interest Adlai Ewing Stevenson I or Adlai Ewing Stevenson, Sr. [do not accept "Adlai Stevenson II"; "Adlai Stevenson III"; etc.]
As Assistant Postmaster General, he conducted an 1885 purge of Republicans Adlai Ewing Stevenson I or Adlai Ewing Stevenson, Sr. [do not accept "Adlai Stevenson II"; "Adlai Stevenson III"; etc.]
If an operation to replace the sitting president's upper jaw due to mouth cancer had gone sour, this man would have become president Adlai Ewing Stevenson I or Adlai Ewing Stevenson, Sr. [do not accept "Adlai Stevenson II"; "Adlai Stevenson III"; etc.]
In 1900, Minnesotan Charles Towne was nominated for Vice President on the Populist ticket with William Jennings Bryan, but the Democrats nominated this man as Bryan's VP candidate Adlai Ewing Stevenson I or Adlai Ewing Stevenson, Sr. [do not accept "Adlai Stevenson II"; "Adlai Stevenson III"; etc.]
He was thus the first man to serve as VP and be nominated for VP with a different running mate Adlai Ewing Stevenson I or Adlai Ewing Stevenson, Sr. [do not accept "Adlai Stevenson II"; "Adlai Stevenson III"; etc.]
For 10 points, name this VP during Grover Cleveland's second term, an Illinois governor and grandfather of a same-named "egghead" who lost to Dwight Eisenhower twice. Adlai Ewing Stevenson I or Adlai Ewing Stevenson, Sr. [do not accept "Adlai Stevenson II"; "Adlai Stevenson III"; etc.]
This event was attributed to laziness and extravagant fashions by a contemporary article of Mordecai Manuel Noah, in the National Advocate the Panic of 1819
It was partly sparked when Ralph Osborn authorized the seizure of assets at Chillicothe the Panic of 1819
A book on this event by Murray Rothbard attributed it to dislocations arising from newly founded domestic industries following revived foreign trade the Panic of 1819
Senator Richard M the Panic of 1819
Johnson of Kentucky responded to it by proposing prorated foreclosures for public land debtors, which the Alabama legislature supported, citing "great diminution of the circulating medium." The efficacy of the recently founded Bank of the United States wa the Panic of 1819
For 10 points, name this calamity from the Era of Good Feelings, the first serious economic crisis in American history. the Panic of 1819
David Kennedy wrote a book about this woman's career that skeptically treated her story of experiencing a vision following the death of Sadie Sachs Margaret Sanger
This woman's visit to Spain with Lorenzo Portet resulted in a series of anti-clerical articles she wrote for the magazine of the New York Modern School Margaret Sanger
She used the alias "Bertha Watson" when she fled to Britain in October 1914 after being indicted for publication of The Woman Rebel Margaret Sanger
She married James H Margaret Sanger
Slee after her first husband, William, was jailed for thirty days for distributing a pamphlet that violated the Comstock Laws Margaret Sanger
For 10 points, name this author of "What Every Girl Should Know" and Family Limitation, an early advocate of birth control. Margaret Sanger
This figure described the protection he offered to Sam Deon and his decision to shoot Bull Bear in the head in his so-called "autobiography," which consists of reminiscences written down by Charles Wesley Allen Red Cloud (or Mahpiya Luta)
Late in his life, he sent a letter to the President asking that V.T Red Cloud (or Mahpiya Luta)
McGillycuddy be removed from office, though that actually resulted in him being deposed Red Cloud (or Mahpiya Luta)
He participated in the Wagon Box fight and attacked Fort Phil Kearny after learning that the government planned to open the Bozeman trail Red Cloud (or Mahpiya Luta)
His hostility ran until he agreed to sign to the Treaty of Fort Laramie, shortly after perpetrating the Fetterman Massacre Red Cloud (or Mahpiya Luta)
For 10 points, identify this Oglala Sioux leader who fought a namesake war in 1866. Red Cloud (or Mahpiya Luta)
According to Michael Johnson, the event associated with this man was actually instantiated by James Hamilton Jr., who sought to politically discredit his rival Thomas Bennett Denmark Vesey
This man's death was followed by the passage of a Seamen's Act that was declared unconstitutional Denmark Vesey
His emergence as a leader was predicted by a newspaper man, Edwin Holland, who described the Church, where he preached about the coming of a New Israelite Kingdom and served as "class leader," as a nest of "Jacobins." Earlier he secured his freedom with a Denmark Vesey
He sought out blacksmiths to hammer out swords in secret and was aided by such figures as Peter Poyas, as well as a man who gave each of his followers a charm to protect them from musket balls Denmark Vesey
That man, Gullah Jack, would also be executed for participating in a plot that was planned by this man for Bastille Day in 1822 Denmark Vesey
For 10 points, identify this man who conspired to lead namesake slave revolt in Charleston. Denmark Vesey
One program established by this legislation was headed a man nicknamed "Old Iron Pants." John Dickinson drafted one version of what would eventually become this bill, and Jonathan Alter argues that it was partially written to kill a Hugo Black-sponsored National Industrial Recovery Act [or Act of June 16, 1933; do not accept "National Recovery Administration" or "NRA"]
Pat Harrison and Bennett Champ Clark tried to water down provisions in its contentious Section 7[a], which like the earlier Norris-LaGuardia outlawed yellow dog contracts National Industrial Recovery Act [or Act of June 16, 1933; do not accept "National Recovery Administration" or "NRA"]
It urged the public to sign on to the slogan "we do our part" and mandated open price filing National Industrial Recovery Act [or Act of June 16, 1933; do not accept "National Recovery Administration" or "NRA"]
After its initial enactment, minimum wages were required by the president's "blanket code." It prompted the formation of an agency governed by Hugh Johnson and represented by a Blue Eagle, although Title I of it was struck down in the Sick Chicken Case National Industrial Recovery Act [or Act of June 16, 1933; do not accept "National Recovery Administration" or "NRA"]
For 10 points, name this New Deal legislation that created the WPA and NRA. National Industrial Recovery Act [or Act of June 16, 1933; do not accept "National Recovery Administration" or "NRA"]
This politician collected his public speeches in a volume entitled Live Questions, which he carried with him on campaign tours - it included his short treatise on crime entitled Our Penal Machinery and its Victims John Peter Altgeld
In one office, he hired Florence Kelley as the first Chief Factory Inspector, while his earlier service as a judge saw him notably overturn the convictions of Oscar Neebe, Samule Fielden, and Michael Schwab John Peter Altgeld
After that, he protested the actions of Attorney General Richard Olney as unconstitutional after Olney sent in federal troops under authority of Grover Cleveland to keep peace in this man's home state just after the Pullman Strike John Peter Altgeld
For 10 points, name this man who drew fire for his handling of the Haymarket Square Riot after being elected governor of Illinois of 1892. John Peter Altgeld
One conflict in this U.S South Carolina
state erupted when the "Hunkidori" conspiracy and the Hamburg Massacre enraged the so-called "Redeemers," who sought to oust Daniel Chamberlain from the governorship South Carolina
Governor Ben Tillman set up a state-controlled system of liquor sales in this state and one of its representatives, James Hammond, began the "gag" rule on anti-slavery legislation South Carolina
Wade Hampton used the support of redshirts to win the 1876 election in this state South Carolina
It was the site of the Orangeburg massacre in 1968, while colonial settlers of this state engaged in the Yamasee War against a coalition of Catawba and other Indians South Carolina
For 10 points, identify this site of the Battle of Cowpens and the Battle of Camden, which was the subject of a certain Exposition and Protest by John C South Carolina
Calhoun. South Carolina
This speech quotes a line from Florus's Epitome about "rather something more than a war." The speaker references Thor attempting to lift the Midgard Serpent in cat form in writing about "loathsome folds, now coiled about the whole land." This speech makes "The Crime Against Kansas" [accept things like "Charles Sumner's speech about Kansas" before read]
The speaker attacks James Murray Mason and David Atchison, and compares two senators to Don Quixote and Sancho Panza "The Crime Against Kansas" [accept things like "Charles Sumner's speech about Kansas" before read]
That speaker later served as longtime chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, where he helped resolve the Trent Affair "The Crime Against Kansas" [accept things like "Charles Sumner's speech about Kansas" before read]
This speech attacks Andrew Butler and Stephen Douglas and accuses one man of taking as a mistress "the harlot, Slavery." For 10 points, name this 1856 speech which criticizes the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and led its author Charles Sumner to get caned. "The Crime Against Kansas" [accept things like "Charles Sumner's speech about Kansas" before read]
This man's attempt to break the blockade of Long Island Sound was turned back on the "Inglorious First of June." Later, he was sent as a prisoner to Bermuda after running aground on a sandbar Stephen Decatur
His most successful action involved the redeployment of the captured ketch Mastico at Edward Preble's direction Stephen Decatur
This man who seized the frigate Macedonian and brought it to Newport served as a second in the "triple duel" of Richard Somers Stephen Decatur
He died of a gunshot wound in his own duel at Bladensburg with James Barron, the captain of the Chesapeake whose case he had decided while serving on a court-martial Stephen Decatur
He led a raid to burn the captured USS Philadelphia in the harbor of Tripoli Stephen Decatur
For 10 points, name this U.S Stephen Decatur
naval officer, who gave the toast "our country, right or wrong." Stephen Decatur
This legislation was the target of the Morse-Everett Amendment, which proposed to delay its effects for a period of six months Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
The passage of this law was foreshadowed by the court case In Re Tiburcio Parrott and supported in an influential speech by governor John Bigler Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Also supported by Dennis Kearney and his Workingman's Party, this legislation was extended by the Scott Act, before finally being repealed by the Magnuson Act Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Despite being loudly opposed by senator George Frisbie Hoar, it resulted in numerous incidents at Angel Island after it was renewed by the Geary Act in 1892 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
For 10 points, identify this act which aimed to prevent immigration of so-called "coolies", a group of people from the namesake nation, to the U.S. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
During this president's time in office, real estate taxes prompted John Fries to launch a rebellion in Pennsylvania John Adams [prompt on Adams; accept the older Adams or equivalents that disambiguate him from his son; do not accept “John Quincy Adams” or “J.Q. Adams”]
As an attorney, he represented British Captain Thomas Preston, who was acquitted for his role in the Boston Massacre John Adams [prompt on Adams; accept the older Adams or equivalents that disambiguate him from his son; do not accept “John Quincy Adams” or “J.Q. Adams”]
In a letter, this man's wife urged him to “remember the Ladies” in making laws John Adams [prompt on Adams; accept the older Adams or equivalents that disambiguate him from his son; do not accept “John Quincy Adams” or “J.Q. Adams”]
As president, he reacted to the Quasi-War with France, appointed John Marshall and the “midnight judges,” and supported the Alien and Sedition Acts John Adams [prompt on Adams; accept the older Adams or equivalents that disambiguate him from his son; do not accept “John Quincy Adams” or “J.Q. Adams”]
For 10 points, name this Federalist rival of Thomas Jefferson, a U.S John Adams [prompt on Adams; accept the older Adams or equivalents that disambiguate him from his son; do not accept “John Quincy Adams” or “J.Q. Adams”]
President whose son was also President. John Adams [prompt on Adams; accept the older Adams or equivalents that disambiguate him from his son; do not accept “John Quincy Adams” or “J.Q. Adams”]
This man said that farmers are “neither better nor worse than any other people” in a campaign speech Abraham Lincoln
He claimed that his party was a “sectional party” in a speech at the Cooper Union that was instrumental in earning him the presidential nomination Abraham Lincoln
He defeated John Breckenridge and John Bell in his first presidential election Abraham Lincoln
He engaged in a series of 1858 debates with the man who advanced the Freeport Doctrine, Stephen Douglass Abraham Lincoln
For 10 points, name this winner of the presidential election of 1860, who later issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Abraham Lincoln
The Hennings Report questioned this man's campaign and tax reports Joseph McCarthy
Millard Tydings led a committee that investigated the truth of this man's claims Joseph McCarthy
He made one of those claims during a speech at the Republican Women's Club of Wheeling, West Virginia Joseph McCarthy
During hearings held between the army and this man, whose chief counsel was Roy Cohn, Joseph Welch asked this man if he had any “sense of decency.” For 10 points, name this Wisconsin senator who in 1950 claimed to have identified fifty-seven communist Joseph McCarthy
This politician was blackmailed for sleeping with Maria Lewis, the wife of James Reynolds Alexander Hamilton
He toured American factories and presented a report of his findings to Congress advocating protective tariffs Alexander Hamilton
This author of the Report on Manufactures argued for the federal assumption of state debt in his 1790 Report on the Public Credit Alexander Hamilton
He insulted a rival who was running for governor in New York, which led to this man's death in Weehawken after he was shot in a duel Alexander Hamilton
For 10 points, name the first Secretary of the Treasury who died at the hands of Aaron Burr. Alexander Hamilton
During this battle, a boulder field along Plum Run called the Devil's Den was stormed by John Bell Hood's Georgia troops Battle of Gettysburg
General Heth decided to attack the Union soldiers from Herr's Ridge and through McPherson's Ridge on its first day Battle of Gettysburg
The commander of the victorious side of this battle had recently replaced Joseph Hooker Battle of Gettysburg
George Gordon Meade won this battle, which saw intense fighting at Culp's Hill and Little Round Top Battle of Gettysburg
For 10 points, name this loss for Robert E Battle of Gettysburg
Lee, a Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that included Pickett's Charge. Battle of Gettysburg
In this novel, Al fixes Ivy and Sairy Wilson's car after the death of the protagonist's grandfather The Grapes of Wrath
A strike on a peach orchard turns violent and leads to the death of Jim Casy in this novel, which includes a scene in which a man is breastfed during a flood by the mother of a stillborn baby, Rose of Sharon The Grapes of Wrath
The protagonist is released from prison at the beginning of this work, and goes on the run at the end after leading his family from Oklahoma to California The Grapes of Wrath
For 10 points, name this Great Depression-era work about the Joad family, a novel by John Steinbeck. The Grapes of Wrath
The lead-up to this conflict earned a future president the nickname “Spotty” because of the “spot” resolutions that that representative proposed to challenge the declaration of this war Mexican-American War [or Mexican War]
The Thornton Affair was a precursor to this conflict, which began after Mariano Arista attacked reinforcements at Palo Alto Mexican-American War [or Mexican War]
General Winfield Scott invaded Veracruz before forcing this war's losing side to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexican-American War [or Mexican War]
For 10 points, name this 1846 to ‘48 conflict in which James K Mexican-American War [or Mexican War]
Polk presided over the invasion of the U.S.'s southern neighbor. Mexican-American War [or Mexican War]
This man's slave, Charlotte Dupuy, sued for her independence nearly two decades before Dred Scott Henry Clay Sr.
This politician's Annual Message of 1815 contained the Seven Points of his high-tariff plan to fund internal development Henry Clay Sr.
As Secretary of State, this man dueled with John Randolph over the accusation that he supported John Quincy Adams for political gain in the so-called “Corrupt Bargain.” He brokered an agreement that allowed Maine to enter the Union as a free state Henry Clay Sr.
For 10 points, name this longtime Congressman from Kentucky, a Whig known as “The Great Compromiser.” Henry Clay Sr.
This deliverer of the “surly bonds of earth” speech was president during the Beirut Barracks bombing Ronald Wilson Reagan
After the failed nomination of Douglas Ginsburg, he appointed Anthony Kennedy to the Supreme Court Ronald Wilson Reagan
His Secretary of State, Alexander Haig, stated “I am in control here” after John Hinckley attempted to assassinate this president Ronald Wilson Reagan
His Defense Secretary, Casper Weinberger, helped to funnel arms to Nicaraguan rebels during the Iran-Contra scandal Ronald Wilson Reagan
For 10 points, name this man who urged Gorbachev to “tear down this wall” as president from 1980 to ‘88. Ronald Wilson Reagan
This colony stood in the area where the Margravate of Azilia previously existed Georgia colony [or Province of Georgia]
One of its founders, Noble Jones, constructed the estate at Wormsloe near Yamacraw Bluff Georgia colony [or Province of Georgia]
The battles of Gully Hole Creek and Bloody Marsh foiled Spanish attempts to invade this colony, whose founding followed the Yamasee War Georgia colony [or Province of Georgia]
This colony's founder was a former aide of Eugene of Savoy who purchased it from the Creek Indians and established it as a debtors' prison Georgia colony [or Province of Georgia]
For 10 points, name this colony bordered on the north by the Savannah River, founded by James Oglethorpe. Georgia colony [or Province of Georgia]
The western theatre of this conflict saw Wesley Miller become a military governor after the opposing fleet was wiped out by Commodore George Dewey Spanish-American War
“Fightin' Joe” Wheeler led an attempted charge on Santiago during this “splendid little war.” William Randolph Hearst's “yellow journalism” inflamed support for this conflict after the explosion of the Maine Spanish-American War
Theodore Roosevelt led the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill during this war Spanish-American War
For 10 points, name this 1890s war that led to the American annexation of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. Spanish-American War
This man, who asked to be addressed as "master and god," began a reign of terror with the execution of his cousin Flavius Sabinus, a reign which continued through the revolt of Saturninus in Upper Germany and which late in his life was directed against Se Caesar Domitianus Augustus
For 10 points, name this successor of Titus who ruled from 81 to 96 AD, the last of the Flavian emperors. Caesar Domitianus Augustus
This phrase helps to understand the often-difficult political system of Republican Rome the Senate and People of Rome or equivalents ; also accept Senatus Populusque Romanus, or SPQR before it is read.
Though the consuls were technically in supreme command, they had a one-year term and were responsible to the Senate, which felt itself to be a popularly based body the Senate and People of Rome or equivalents ; also accept Senatus Populusque Romanus, or SPQR before it is read.
It was a mantra chanted in battle by the troops of Julius Caesar and came to be a creed as well as a war cry the Senate and People of Rome or equivalents ; also accept Senatus Populusque Romanus, or SPQR before it is read.
Taken literally, it is the authority through which all Roman government was implemented the Senate and People of Rome or equivalents ; also accept Senatus Populusque Romanus, or SPQR before it is read.
FTP, give the phrase represented on the legions' battle flags by the abbreviation SPQR. the Senate and People of Rome or equivalents ; also accept Senatus Populusque Romanus, or SPQR before it is read.
This empire was ruled from its capital at Pataliputra, now the city of Patna the Mauryan empire
Founded by the king of Magadha who, from his home of Bihar, drove out the Greeks, it fell to the Sungas in 187 BC the Mauryan empire
FTP, identify this empire, whose third ruler accepted Buddhism, which was founded by Chandragupta and which ruled India for 150 years. the Mauryan empire
Found in 1908 by Josef Szombathy in an Aurignacian loess, it was originally colored with red ochre and has seven concentric horizontal bands, with two more half-bands A Woman of Willendorf or the Venus of Willendorf
The top circle is in the form of a rosette, and each band has notches alternating between bands to provide the effect of braided hair A Woman of Willendorf or the Venus of Willendorf
Kept at the Naturhistoriches Museum in Vienna, for ten points, name this figure notable for its wide hips and pendulous breasts, a famous sculpted figure of the Upper Paleolithic period. A Woman of Willendorf or the Venus of Willendorf
He criticized the Antiochenes in his pamphlet Misopogon, which means "Beard Hater." He tried to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem to insult Christians Julian the Apostate or Julianus Apostata or Flavius Claudius Julianus
This Neoplatonist and sun worshipper had proclaimed freedom of religion in 361, but later followed a path of persecution Julian the Apostate or Julianus Apostata or Flavius Claudius Julianus
For ten points, name this nephew of Constantine the Great and successor of Constantinius II, who publicly converted to paganism, earning the name "Apostate". Julian the Apostate or Julianus Apostata or Flavius Claudius Julianus
Their chief tendency was to resist all Greek or other foreign influences that threatened to undermine the sacred religion of their fathers, and they took their stand most emphatically upon divine law Pharisees
They wished the state and all public and political affairs to be measured and directed by the standard of divine law Pharisees
FTP, identify this group which gained its name when John Hyrcanus was high priest of Judea, and whom Jesus condemned in the New Testament. Pharisees
In 88 AD, he was awarded a praetorship, one of many public positions he held Tacitus
His father-in-law, Julius Agricola, was the subject of one of his early works, and he also wrote Dialogus de Oratoribus, marking his transition from interest in oratory to history Tacitus
His Histories begin in 69, and continue through Domitian's death in 96 Tacitus
FTP, who is this author of the Annales and Germania? Tacitus
In 445BC, Jerusalem came under the rule of this man Nehemiah
He institued religious reforms that became characteristic features of postexilic Judaism as recounted in Ezra and the book of the Bible named after him Nehemiah
FTP who by 439 BC, obtained permission from the Persian government to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem? Nehemiah
It was founded as Kart-Hadasht, meaning "New Town," and it is now a suburb of a world capital Carthage
The Byrsu, its ancient citadel, was on a hill overlooking the sea Carthage
When it was plundered and burned, its conquerors forbid all human habitation on its site, but it was re-founded and later captured by the Vandals, the Byzantine empire, and, in 705, the Arabs Carthage
FTP, name this city which may have been founded by Dido, and whose wars with Rome brought about its destruction in 146 BC. Carthage
Perhaps the product of one of his mother Faustina's frequent affairs with the gladiators, he considered himself a member of the gladiators' corps and frequently took part in the circus as a sword-man Commodus
Ironically born on the same day as Caligula, he shared Caligula's interests and brutal sadism, and like Caligula, may have killed his father with poison Commodus
Unlike the renowned charity of his father, he milked the Empire for all it was worth and is generally considered one of the worst Roman emperors Commodus
For 10 points--name this man who became Emperor in AD 180 and must have been a true test of the stoicism of his father, Marcus Aurelius. Commodus
In 1906 the royal archives of this ancient people were found in an excavation site near the town of Bogazkoy Hittites
Their Old Kingdom was founded by the ruler Labarna, and the New Kingdom was founded 200 years later, reaching its greatest power under prince Suppiluliuma (Soo pill lou lee ooma) Hittites
Under Muwatallis they fought one of the greatest ancient battles at Kadesh in 1299 BC Hittites
The battle had been fought with Ramses II of Egypt for control of Syria Hittites
FTP, who were these peoples with their capital at Hattusa and their homeland in Anatolia, who are crediting with first developing iron-working technology? Hittites
Ben Johnson wrote a play concerning this man in 1603 Lucius Aelius Sejanus
He influenced the emperor to banish Agrippina to the island of Pandataria where she eventually starved herself to death Lucius Aelius Sejanus
This prefect of the Praetorian Guard ruled Rome while Tiberius left Rome to go to Capri Lucius Aelius Sejanus
However, he tried to seize royal power and was put to death Lucius Aelius Sejanus
FTP, name this man, one time minister to Tiberius. Lucius Aelius Sejanus
The origins of this empire are believed to be in a Semitic population that lived in Chaldaea and at an early time moved to the upper headwaters of the Tigris River Assyria
They were subject to the Chaldaean King at Babylon until they achieved independence around 1250 BCE They rapidly eclipsed Babylon in power and became the dominant imperial power in Southwest Asia for the next 600 years Assyria
FTP, name this empire whose greatest early king was Tigath-pileser I and lasted until the fall of Nineveh. Assyria
He began the tradition of the Delian League, a sort of Greek mafia, by demanding tribute of the Argives in return for protection Themistocles
Playing a major role in Herodotus' Histories, he flaunted conventional strategy by informing the Persians of the Greek fleet's position, thus bringing the cumbersome Persian navy into an area where only Greek ships could maneuver Themistocles
FTP name this Greek general who engineered the defeat of Xerxes at Salamis. Themistocles
Almost the only account of his existence is in the 16th book of Tacitus' Annals, which describes how he arouses the jealousy of Tigellinus Petronius Arbiter or Gaius Petronius
He figures prominently in the Henryl Sienkiewicz novel Quo Vadis?, leaving a suicide note which insulted Nero's singing; Tacitus simply says he killed himself to escape execution by Nero Petronius Arbiter or Gaius Petronius
FTP name this "arbiter of elegance," believed to have written the Satyricon. Petronius Arbiter or Gaius Petronius
It was fought alongside a river called "Pinarus," which is thought to be either the Payaz or Deli Rivers north of Iskenderun in modern-day southern Turkey Battle of Issus
The Macedonian phalanx and cavalry crossed the river and smashed the Persian left, forcing Darius to flee, but allowing the rest of his family to be captured Battle of Issus
FTP, what was this decisive 333BC victory of Alexander the Great? Battle of Issus
Their name means "Shepherd Kings" in Greek, and is probably a version of a local term for foreign rulers, and not an entire nation Hyksos
Coming to power around 1674 BCE, they reigned for over a century, introducing the horse and chariot into Egypt Hyksos
It has been suggested that they had control of Egypt at the time of the Biblical story of Joseph Hyksos
For 10 points-what ancient charioteers brought an end to the Middle Kingdom? Hyksos
Plutarch said her voice "was like an instrument of many strings" and added, "Plato admits four sorts of flattery, but she had a thousand." Destined to be the last ruler of a three hundred year-old dynasty, she was the only one of the house to learn the n Cleopatra VII
Although she had been placed on the throne with her 13-year-old brother-husband in 51 BCE, she soon found herself in civil war with Ptolemy XII and enlisted the aid of Julius Caesar Cleopatra VII
FTP name this famous temptress and Queen of the Nile. Cleopatra VII
With the assistance of Rim-Sin of Larsa, he seized Isin, and near the end of his 42-year reign he conquered Mari from Zimri-Lim Hammurabi
Around 1728 B.C., he succeeded his father, Sin-muballit, to become the sixth king of his state's first dynasty Hammurabi
FTP, identify this ruler, under whose rule Marduk became the chief deity of Babylon, best known for a stele which depicts him receiving a ring from Shamash, on which the legal code named for him is recorded. Hammurabi
His palace was called Shanina-la-ishu, or "The Royal Nonesuch." His main enemy was the Chaldean Merodach-Baladan, who led a tribal insurrection in Babylonia and probably instigated a Palestinian revolt, both of which this Assyrian king put down Sennacherib
His wars against the Elamites eventually left him powerless for a while, but in 689, he besieged Babylon and sacked it Sennacherib
FTP, name this son of Sargon II who rebuilt Nineveh and made it his capital. Sennacherib
The daughter of a bear keeper, it is said that she performed as an actress clad only in a single thread to evade laws against public nudity Theodora
Although her people later blamed a plague on her promiscuity, they benefited from her reforms that liberalized divorce proceedings and extended toleration to the Monophysites Theodora
Married in 525, she was crowned augusta when her husband Justinian became emperor Theodora
FTP name this empress, probably the most powerful woman in Byzantine history. Theodora
In the eighteenth century, his name was invoked by Adam Weishaupt, and in the twentieth century he inspired German socialists Spartacus
A Thracian by birth, he deserted from the Roman army, but was recaptured Spartacus
Along with his companions, he sought refuge on Mount Vesuvius and later they defeated the two consuls in 72 Spartacus
His goal was to cross the Alps and have the slaves disperse to their homelands, but they balked at leaving Italy Spartacus
In 71 BC, he was defeated and killed by Crassus Spartacus
FTP name this former gladiator. Spartacus
Among this emperor's non-military activities were the abandonment of the province of Dacia and his attempt to establish the worship of Sol Invictus at the center of Roman state religion Aurelian (or Lucius Domitius Aurelianus)
His military achievements are probably better known, and include defeating the Vandals in Pannonia, repulsing an incursion into Italy by the Alamanni and Iuthungi, ending the Gallic empire at Chalons by defeating Tetricus, erecting protective walls around Aurelian (or Lucius Domitius Aurelianus)
FTP, name this leader called "restorer of the Roman world", who succeeded Quintillus as emperor in 270. Aurelian (or Lucius Domitius Aurelianus)
Rome fought a series of four wars with them, suffering disastrous defeats at their hands at the Caudine Forks and Lautulae, before winning decisive victory at Sentinum through the heroic self-sacrifice of Publius Decius Mus Samnites
FTP, name this people of the Appenine foothills who spoke an Oscan dialect related to Latin and whose resistance was the last real obstacle to the Roman mastery of mainland Italy. Samnites
Corneilus Cossus in 428 B.C Spolia opima or Spoils of Victory
and Claudius Marcellus in 222 B.C Spolia opima or Spoils of Victory
were the only two men ever to win them--although Roman tradition adds Romulus to the list for his legendary victory over the King of Caenina Spolia opima or Spoils of Victory
The younger Crassus probably should have won them as well, but Augustus vetoed the award, fearing a potential rival, and it was thereafter abolished Spolia opima or Spoils of Victory
For 10 points give this highest and rarest military honor in ancient Rome, which could be awarded only to a Roman commander who killed the enemy commander in single combat. Spolia opima or Spoils of Victory
In 406, they crossed the Rhine and ravaged Gaul, before settling in Spain in 409 Vandals
There, the Asdingi group under Gunderic became the ascendant faction after the Romans dissipated the Silingi and Alani Vandals
In 439 Gaiseric established an independent autocracy in North Africa, and from there he led this people to sack Rome in 455 Vandals
FTP these barbarians and militant Arian Christians. Vandals
The last ruler of this dynasty was defeated at the Battle of Great Zab River Umayyads
During their reign, Egypt, Palestine, Persia, North Africa, and Spain were absorbed into the empire Umayyads
Their rule also saw defeat at Poitiers and failure at the first siege of Constantinople from 674 to 678 Umayyads
FTP name this dynasty that succeeded the last of the four ìrightly-guided" caliphs in 661 and ruled to 750. Umayyads
Her husband suppressed the rebellion of Quietus for Gallienus and received the title "Governor of the East" in return Zenobia
After he was murdered in 267, she became regent for their son Vaballathus, but her proclamation of the boy as emperor antagonized Aurelian, who defeated her army at Immae and Emesa before capturing her as she tried to cross the Euphrates Zenobia
FTP, identify this second wife of Odenathus, who died peacefully in Tivoli after the Romans defeated Palmyra. Zenobia
This kingdom arose after the Cimmerians destroyed Phrygia, and according to legend was initially ruled by Gyges Lydia
According to Herodotus, it was culturally similar to Greece, and it played an important part in the rise of Greek commerce, thanks mainly to its establishment of permanent retail shops and its invention of gold and silver coins Lydia
FTP, name this kingdom which reached its height under Alyattes, had its capital at Sardis, and was destroyed when Cyrus the Great defeated Croesus. Lydia
His lost works include On the Calendar, On Sphere Making, and Catoptrica, a book on optics Archimedes
His extant works include Quadrature of the Parabola, which gives a formula for calculating the area of parabola segments; The Sand-Reckoner, which includes a system for expressing really big numbers; and On Spirals, which features the spiral now named for Archimedes
FTP, identify this Greek mathematician, whose other works include The Method, On Floating Bodies, and Measurement of the Circle, which gave pi its first exact value, who was killed in 212 B.C Archimedes
during the capture of Syracuse when he was drawing a figure in the sand. Archimedes
After Julius Caesar defeated Juba I at Thaspus, the Roman army in this region stationed itself at Lambessa Numidia
The region was conquered by the Vandals in 429, but shortly before that it had become the center of the Donatist movement Numidia
During the long reign of Masinissa, it was initially allied with nearby Carthage in the Second Punic War but later switched sides Numidia
FTP, name this region, whose boundaries coincided approximately with those of modern Algeria. Numidia
Their capital was at Avaris, and their last great king was Apopis I the Hyksos
The 3rd century B.C the Hyksos
historian Manetho gave this group the name we know them by, which means "shepherds," but they were hardly peaceful, conquering Kush and most of the northern Nile delta the Hyksos
They fell to Theban revolutionaries the Hyksos
FTP, name these expert archers and charioteers who conquered Egypt. the Hyksos
It said that Amon had descended upon her mother Ahmasi in a flood of perfume and light, and on departing had announced that Ahmasi would give birth to a daughter in whom all the valor and strength of the god would be made manifest on earth Hatshepsut
Indeed, Syria took advantage of her death to revolt, as it did not seem likely that the 22-year-old Thutmose III would be able to maintain the empire as well as his predecessor Hatshepsut
FTP, name the Egyptian pharaoh whose tomb was the first to be built in the Valley of the Kings. Hatshepsut
An 1836 work by Walter Savage Landor imagines her correspondence with her lover, and also includes the figure of Xeniades, who dies of love for her Aspasia (if someone says Pericles and Aspasia off the first clue, accept it)
After the death of her best-known lover she lived with Lysicles, an ignorant cattle dealer Aspasia (if someone says Pericles and Aspasia off the first clue, accept it)
FTP, name this native of Miletus, who was respected by Socrates and who may have written the famous funeral oration for her companion, Pericles. Aspasia (if someone says Pericles and Aspasia off the first clue, accept it)
Dying shortly after executing his son Antipater, his will included an order-- not carried out-- that several prominent people be killed in order to ensure mourning Herod the Great
His son, Archelaus, was made an ethnarch, while Philip and Antipas were made tetrarchs after his death in 4 BC Herod the Great
For ten points, name this client king of the Romans, who made many renovations to the second Jewish temple in Jerusalem. Herod the Great
During the Trojan War, the Greeks brought his bones to Troy because of a prophecy that only by doing so could they conquer the city Pelops (Note: The area of Greece is the Peloponnesus)
The grandson of Zeus and son of Tantalus, he was cut up, stewed, and served to the gods Pelops (Note: The area of Greece is the Peloponnesus)
He was saved and re-assembled except for his shoulder, which had been partially eaten by Demeter, and which was replaced with a shoulder of pure ivory Pelops (Note: The area of Greece is the Peloponnesus)
FTP, name this king, whose name was given to the southern area of Greece containing the cities of Sparta and Olympia. Pelops (Note: The area of Greece is the Peloponnesus)
According to his biographer, he died of a fever after eating too much cheese Antoninus Pius
Unlike his predecessor, he rarely left Rome, spending most of his 23 year reign at his at his palace at Lorium, and he was so beloved that the Senate voted unanimously to deify him upon his death Antoninus Pius
The biggest project of his rule was the establishment of a turf wall across Scotland, north of the stone wall of his predecessor Antoninus Pius
FTP, name this Roman emperor, the successor to Hadrian and the predecessor of Marcus Aurelius. Antoninus Pius
He divided his empire into 36 chün, or provinces, and constantly exchanged governors to ensure no base of support for a possible coup Shih Huang-Ti
His chief advisor was Li Ssu, and he ordered a massive burning of books three years before his death Shih Huang-Ti
He built many roads, and several canals, one of particular note Shih Huang-Ti
FTP name this monarch, the first member of the Ch'in dynasty, who died in 210 BCE and was born with the name of Cheng, but later changed it when he became the self-proclaimed "First Emperor" of all China. Shih Huang-Ti
This statesman served as archon under the Peisistratids, and after the overthrow of the tyranny he headed a faction opposed to Isagoras Cleisthenes of Athens
Son of Megacles and grandson of a tyrant of Sicyon, he was briefly forced into exile when Isagoras called upon the support of Cleomenes I of Sparta, but he was soon able to return to Athens due to the popularity of his proposed political reforms, which di Cleisthenes of Athens
FTP, name this 6th century BCE reformer, who is credited with introducing ostracism, and is often called the founder of Athenian democracy. Cleisthenes of Athens
Procopius tells us that this man died of guilt and shame upon being served a fish Theodoric (or Theoderic) the Great (accept Dietrich von Bern if someone manages to say that after the first sentence)
Also known as Dietrich von Bern, he was an Arian who enforced religious tolerance, though the last years of his reign featured the executions of Symmachius and Boethius Theodoric (or Theoderic) the Great (accept Dietrich von Bern if someone manages to say that after the first sentence)
FTP name this king of the Ostrogoths, who received permission from Zeno to invade Italy and ruled from Rome after murdering Odoacer. Theodoric (or Theoderic) the Great (accept Dietrich von Bern if someone manages to say that after the first sentence)
Numa Pompilius is said by Plutarch to have erected a brass statue of him as the most valiant man in Greece Alcibiades
He conquered Byzantium in 409 BC but was ejected by the Spartan admiral Lysander four years later Alcibiades
Ending his days in Phrygia, he had earlier sought refuge with the Persian governor Tissaphernes Alcibiades
Raised by his uncle Pericles, he abrogated the peace with Sparta in 415 B.C Alcibiades
The last speaker in Plato's Symposium and one of Timon's true friends in Shakespeare's Timon of Athens, FTP name this Athenian general who commanded a disastrous expedition during the Peloponesian Wars. Alcibiades
August 11, 3114 BCE has been computed as the beginning date for this civilization's calendar Mayan
They used a vigesimal number system and knew the use of zero Mayan
Sacrifices to the rain god Chac-mool were made by hurling virgins down a well Mayan
The same was allegedly done to the 12th century ruler Kukulkan Mayan
The great structures of their classical period include Bonampak, Palenque, and Tikal, which contains a pyramid 229 feet high Mayan
FTP, name this civilization, the most famous ruin of which is Chichen Itza. Mayan
Born to a concubine of King Micipsa, this man first aroused the enmity of Rome when he killed several Italians during the sacking of Cirta, the capital city of his half-brother Jugurtha
With the help of his father-in-law, Bocchus of Mauretania, he defeated Roman armies in 110 B.C., but was captured by Quintus Metellus when Bocchus switched sides four years later Jugurtha
FTP, identify this troublesome king of Numidia. Jugurtha
Prior to the Second Punic War, the area was split into eastern and western tribes Numidia
During that conflict the westerners sided with Hannibal while the easterners, led by Masinissa, joined the Romans Numidia
For his loyalty, Masinissa gained control of the entire region, which remained with his descendants until Julius Caesar overthrew Juba II in 46 BC, renaming it Africa Nova Numidia
For ten points, name the region, roughly equivalent to modern Algeria, which was also the homeland of Jugurtha. Numidia
His tactics resulted in the capture of Tarentum, although it intentionally allowed the ravaging of Campania and drew the ire of Minucius Rufus Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator
Elected dictator after a loss at Lake Trasimene, abandonment of his strategy led to a disastrous defeat at Cannae Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator
Name this man who cut off supply lines and followed a strategy of attrition, and FTP, is known for his dilatory tactics that allowed Rome to recover during the early stages of the Second Punic War. Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator
He died at Lavinum in Campania at the age of 50, cursing his native land despite having saved it from its enemies Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major or Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus the Elder
Liddell Hart once called him "greater than Napoleon" in one of the few biographies of this ancient hero, who owed his rise to the reluctance of others to take command of the disastrous situation in Spain where his father, his brother, and a Roman army lay Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major or Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus the Elder
FTP, name this man whose victories included Baecula, New Carthage, and most famously, Zama. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major or Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus the Elder
Laetus, his Prefect; Eclectus, his chamberlain; and Marcia, his mistress, could not kill him with poison, though they did engineer his death on New Year's Eve Commodus
After his father's death, he came to terms with the Marcomanni and returned to Rome Commodus
He incensed the public by claiming that he would accept the consulship dressed as a gladiator, and he had earlier renamed Rome as his colony Commodus
After this man's murder, Pertinax became emperor, thereby ending the rule of the Antonines Commodus
FTP, identify this crazy son of Marcus Aurelius, who ruled until his death in AD 192. Commodus
Fifty-five manuscripts of his work have appeared, with oldest surviving one written in the 9th century at Jarrow Vitruvius or Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
He is the original source for information on the people of Caryae, Dorus, king of Achaea, and the sculptor Callimachus and his sprouting acanthus leaves Vitruvius or Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
The shrine at Fano in Umbria is the only one of his works that is extant, though he lives on in Leone Battista Alberti's designs and the treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, which was based on this man's De Architectura Vitruvius or Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
In that 10-volume work, he discusses city planning, building materials, and the origin of the Greek orders of architecture Vitruvius or Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
FTP, identify this 1st century BC Roman architect. Vitruvius or Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
As punishment for suspected dealings with the Persians and for conspiring to seize power in Sparta by a helot uprising, this man was walled up in the Temple of Athena and starved to death Pausanias
The son of King Cleombrotus, he acted as regent for the son of Leonidas after the latter's death and served the Greeks well in the Persian Wars, commanding them in their victory at Plataea and capture of Byzantium Pausanias
For 10 points name this Spartan, also the name of the first century geographer and author of a Description of Greece. Pausanias
Born around 460 BC, this Athenian was related to Miltiades through his father Olorus and as the owner of a gold mine in Thrace was a member of the aristocracy Thucydides
Elected strategos in 424 BC, he failed to prevent the capture of the port of Amphipolis by the Spartan admiral Brasidas and was banished from Athens for the next 20 years, time which he used to observe the war from both sides Thucydides
For 10 points name this Athenian, who used his observations to write his History of the Pelopponesian Wars. Thucydides
The aggressors had no cavalry, the decisive imbalance in this battle, which took place nine years after a revolt by the Ionian cities Marathon
Since that rebellion had been aided by 20 Athenian ships, Darius wanted revenge, but the Persians were repelled by an armored force under Miltiades [mul-TYE-a-deez] Marathon
FTP, name this battle of 490 BC, which led Pheidippides [fye-DIP-a-deez] to run 26 miles with the news. Marathon
This general was killed at the outbreak of the Corinthian War, while leading an army of northern allies in an attack on Haliartus Lysander
After his greatest victory, he established the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, but lost influence at home two years later when Athens was allowed to reestablish its democracy Lysander
FTP, identify this Spartan leader whose victory at the September 405 BC Battle of Aegospotami effectively ended the Peloponnesian War. Lysander
The Roman general at this battle unwisely decided to pursue the enemy rather than wait for Geminus who was moving to join him Battle of Lake Trasimene
The enemy moved eastwards, to the south of Cortona, and Flaminius hoped that he would be able to trap them between his and Geminus's armies Battle of Lake Trasimene
The Carthaginians staked themselves along the hills, trapping the Romans in the narrow plain below, adjacent to the water Battle of Lake Trasimene
15,000 Romans were killed and another 10,000 were taken prisoner, and Flaminius was killed Battle of Lake Trasimene
FTP, name this 217 BC triumph for Hannibal on the shores of an Umbrian lake. Battle of Lake Trasimene
An earlier version was commissioned around 600 BC, and an architect named Chersiphron was hired to execute the project Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
His work was destroyed around 550 when Croesus invaded the city in which it stood; however, Croesus contributed funds for the construction of a new building designed by a man named Theodorus, but it was burned down in 356 by Herostratus and rebuilt by Sco Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
FTP, name this wonder of the world that was destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD when they invaded Ephesus. Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Born Cheng, he might have been the son of the intriguing minister Lu Pu-Wei, rather than of Prince Chuang Hsiang of Ch'in Shih Huang Ti
Ascending the throne at the age of 13, he gradually defeated the other six Chinese kingdoms, until, in 221 BC, he ruled over a unified empire and took the name by which he is known to history Shih Huang Ti
Although he built the Great Wall to defend China from the barbarians, his cruelty and attempts to centralize the kingdom led to great resentment, and his dynasty lasted only 4 years after his death in 210 Shih Huang Ti
FTP, name this first Chinese Emperor. Shih Huang Ti
This man claimed to "find" some lost texts of Confucius that conveniently supported his own reforms, including the nationalization of land and manumission of slaves, and the creation regional commissions to control the price of staple goods Wang Mang
Unfortunately, for him, starvation ensued and a group of peasants known as the "Red Eyebrows" executed him, thereby aborting his Hsin dynasty Wang Mang
FTP, whose chaotic rule divided the Early and Late Han dynasties? Wang Mang
In a 1998 article in the New England Journal of Medicine a team of doctors and historians declared his cause of death to be typhoid fever Alexander III of Macedon, or Alexander the Great
They drew their conclusion not so much from his symptoms of fever, chest pain, and partial paralysis as recorded by Plutarch and Arrian, but mainly because of strange reports that his body did not decompose until several days after his death Alexander III of Macedon, or Alexander the Great
For 10 points, who was this man whose body, under orders by his general Ptolemy, was then immersed in honey to prevent further decomposition during the trip to his final interment in Egypt in 323 BC? Alexander III of Macedon, or Alexander the Great
This Scirian was one of the chief officers of Orestes, and was murdered at a banquet by his chief rival Odoacer (or Odovacer)
After his most famous achievement his troops overran Dalmatia, threatening the power of the eastern emperor Zeno Odoacer (or Odovacer)
However, in 493 he was forced to surrender Ravenna when Zeno encouraged Theodoric to attack him Odoacer (or Odovacer)
FTP, who was this Gothic chieftain who overthrew Romulus Augustulus to become the first Germanic ruler of Italy? Odoacer (or Odovacer)
In part because of a curse on his family, this Alcmaeonid was opposed by his fellow aristocrats, and turned to the common people to achieve power Cleisthenes of Athens
He then instituted ostracism, expanded the Athenian council to 500 members, and reformed the Athenian tribes, abolishing the four old ancestor tribes in favor of ten new ones composed of three trittyes each Cleisthenes of Athens
FTP, name this Athenian who sought to build on Solon's democratic reforms, generally acknowledged as the founder of Athenian democracy. Cleisthenes of Athens
When the invading fleet appeared in the Bay of Phalerum before this battle, they were sent a false message by a spy which led them to blockade the Bay of Eleusis with a thin line of 1,000 ships Battle of Salamis or Salamis Bay or Straits of Salamis
The Greek fleet of 370 vessels attacked and broke the line, resulting in the loss of 500 Persians ships, while the Greeks under Themistocles only lost 40 ships Battle of Salamis or Salamis Bay or Straits of Salamis
FTP, name this major 480 BC naval battle in a strait southwest of Athen. Battle of Salamis or Salamis Bay or Straits of Salamis
One city of this name was described by Homer as "the Hundred Gated", and stood on the site of modern Al-Uqsur Thebes
In Strabo's time it was reduced to a small village, but earlier had served as the Egyptian capital during the 11th dynasty Thebes
The one in Boeotia was famous for the seven gates supposedly built using the music of Amphion, and in 336 it was sacked by Alexander the Great, who famously ordered that only the House of Pindar be left standing Thebes
FTP, what is the name of these cities, the latter of which was the subject of a mythical attack by seven Greek leaders? Thebes
The measures taken by this leader to restore popular confidence in the government is recorded in the so-called "Restoration Stela" from Karnak Tutankhaman (or Tutankhaten; accept early answer of Nebkheperure)
Also known as Nebkheperure, he came to the throne circa 1352 BCE, succeeding his brother Smenkhkare, and he soon married the priestess Ankhesenamun and restored the worship of Amun after the Amarna interlude before dying without an heir circa 1343 BCE, ma Tutankhaman (or Tutankhaten; accept early answer of Nebkheperure)
FTP, who was this chold pharoah famous for the virtually intact tomb discovered in 1922 by Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter? Tutankhaman (or Tutankhaten; accept early answer of Nebkheperure)
Important members of this dynasty included Rimush, Manishtusu, Naram-Sin, and Shar-kali-sharri Akkadian Dynasty
The Gutians and the Amorites brought about its downfall after about 200 years of rule Akkadian Dynasty
Founded circa 2350 BC and uniting much of southern Mesopotamia, FTP, identify this Sumerian dynasty begun by the 56-year reign of Sargon I. Akkadian Dynasty
Soon after his ascension he made his nephew, Petillius Cerialis, governor of Britain Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
He executed the stoic philosopher Helvidius Priscus for speaking out against him, four years after he had appointed Quintilian the first state teacher of rhetoric Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
This man's rise began with his successful siege and victory at Jotapata in Judea, where he forced the surrender of Josephus Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
Two years later, he came to power when the Danube and Syrian legions declared for him, and his general Antonius Primus defeated Vitellius, his predecessor Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
FTP, name this fourth Roman emperor in AD 69, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, who would be succeeded by his son Titus. Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
With the help of his father's minister, Shaktar, and a turncoat king, Parvatak, he came to power Chandragupta
While king, he sought the advice of the sage Bhadrabu, who predicted a famine that led to his religious conversion and eventual death from fasting Chandragupta
His chief minister, Chanakya, authored the political and military tract Arthashastra, which included explanations of how this king was able to unite the kingdom of Magadha and turn back an invasion by Seleucus I in 297 BC Chandragupta
FTP, name this man who unified most of India after the death of Alexander the Great to create the Mauryan Empire, a man who shares his name with the founder of the Gupta Dynasty. Chandragupta
This nation fought a five-year war with King Cyaxares before reaching a truce via a royal marriage between one of their princes and a Median princess Lydia
Alyattes, its penultimate king, was the first to reign in the absence of war, allowing him to build two magnificent temples to Athena Lydia
Their acknowledged "first king" was Gyges, who repelled the Cimmerians, expanded the empire to Miletus, and built up a magnificent capital at Sardis Lydia
For 10 points, name this ancient nation of Asia Minor that saw its unprecedented wealth reach a zenith under its final king, Croesus. Lydia
In art he is often depicted on the ground with a rock to beat against his chest St. Jerome or Eusebius Hieronymus
According to one story, God once accused him of being a Ciceronian in his dreams St. Jerome or Eusebius Hieronymus
He was ordained a priest by St St. Jerome or Eusebius Hieronymus
Paulinus of Nola and he went to Rome because of the Miletian schism St. Jerome or Eusebius Hieronymus
In Rome he became a secretary to Pope Damasus and wrote criticism of many religious figures including Jovinian, the Pelagians, his friend Rufinus, and St St. Jerome or Eusebius Hieronymus
Augustine St. Jerome or Eusebius Hieronymus
FTP, name this ascetic and scholar who led a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 385 where he would write the Vulgate. St. Jerome or Eusebius Hieronymus
After defeat, he led the shattered legions out of Parthia and spent the next few years warding off Parthian invasions and suppressing a revolt in Judea Caius Cassius Longinus
A one-time ally of Pompey, he was pardoned in 47 BC and in 44 BC became praetor peregrinus, but his noteworthy deeds arose after his younger brother-in-law was given the more prestigious post of praetor urbanus Caius Cassius Longinus
He died famously when he ordered a servant to stab him under the misapprehension that the Battle of Philippi had been lost Caius Cassius Longinus
FTP, name this possessor of a "lean and hungry look," who died after successfully plotting with his brother-in-law, Brutus, to kill Julius Caesar. Caius Cassius Longinus
The founder of this empire had been a governor under Diodotus Parthia or Parthian Empire
Its earliest capital was at Dara and later moved to Hecatompylos Parthia or Parthian Empire
It was eventually overrun by the Sassanids, who took its city of Ctesiphon for their own capital Parthia or Parthian Empire
Conquered in 226 A.D Parthia or Parthian Empire
by Artaxerxes, it had existed for almost 500 years from when Arsaces I liberated it from the Seleucid Turks in 247 BC Parthia or Parthian Empire
FTP, name this Asian empire between the Euphrates and Indus Rivers that probably took its name from the name for ancient Persia, which was Parsa. Parthia or Parthian Empire
Along with six other chieftains he hatched a plot to murder Gomates, the usurper to the throne Darius I or Darius the Great
Following this, he won the throne in a contest in which victory was determined by whose horse neighed first Darius I or Darius the Great
A towering rock known as the Behistun Inscription gives an account of the reign of this son of Hystaspes Darius I or Darius the Great
That reign included the building of the Royal Road from Smyrna to Susa and the quelling of a revolt of several Ionian cities in Asia Minor Darius I or Darius the Great
To that end he formed an army led by his son-in-law and nephew, Mardonius Darius I or Darius the Great
Though he was defeated at Marathon, FTP, what Persian emperor's fight would be carried on by his son Xerxes? Darius I or Darius the Great
In the last few years of his reign, the Echthesis, a formula proposed to reconcile the Monophysites, was advanced by one of his supporters, the Patriarch Sergius Heraclius I
He had gained the throne after his predecessor, the incompetent Phocas, was executed, and checked the advance of the Avars and the Persians Heraclius I
After the decisive battle of Nineveh in 627 and the death of Khusru a year later, he made peace with the Persians, but, within 13 years, had lost almost all of his gains to the Arabs under Muhammad Heraclius I
Ruling from 610-641, FTP, identify this Byzantine ruler who made Greek this official language of the empire and founded a dynasty which lasted until the death of Justinian II. Heraclius I
His early theory of evolution led to Galen labeling him the founder of Italian medicine Empedocles
A native of Acragas, he had been expelled from the Pythagorean order for "stealing discourses." Of his original written works the poem Katharmoi is one of only two extant Empedocles
In his philosophy he proposed cycles of Love and Strife that would join and separate the natural makeup of the world Empedocles
FTP, name this Greek philosopher, who might have thrown himself into Mt Empedocles
Etna and believed that matter was made up of fire, water, earth, and air. Empedocles
Little of the legislation he drafted in his first tribunate could hardly be called "popular", such as his granting of immunity to tribunician veto of outgoing senatorial appointments of provinces and his gift of rights to collect taxes and sit on extortio Gaius Sempronius Gracchus or C. Sempronius Gracchus
Support for suffrage for allied states tainted his second tribunate, held in 122 BCE, and his agitation for it led him to stir up sedition and capture the Aventine, resulting in his suicide after being condemned to death by decree of the Senate and defeat Gaius Sempronius Gracchus or C. Sempronius Gracchus
FTP name this so-called popularis fire-brand, who also took great pains to prosecute the murderers of his brother, Tiberius. Gaius Sempronius Gracchus or C. Sempronius Gracchus
Their major defeat came at the hands of Seqenere III, though their capital survived for another 70 years Hyksos
The only detailed account of this people comes from Josephus, who used Manetho as his source Hyksos
Their consolidation of power began with the establishment of Avaris and the introduction of such items as the compound bow and horse-drawn chariot Hyksos
With a name meaning "Shepherd Kings," they revered the god Seth and ruled for roughly 200 years Hyksos
FTP, name this Semitic people that invaded Egypt in the 18th-century BC. Hyksos
He was the favorite of Cornelius Nepos who dedicated the longest chapter in De viris illustribus, or "Concerning Famous Men," to this figure Alcibiades
Fearing a public revolt, he had his dog's tail cut off so that the Athenians would say he was eccentric and nothing worse Alcibiades
With Theramenes he conducted the victory at Cyzicus well after he had avoided the blame for Mantineia by allying with Nicias against Hyperbolus Alcibiades
Known as a good friend of Socrates and for having been raised in Pericles' house, FTP, name this unscrupulous and sometimes Athenian naval commander of the Peloponnesian War. Alcibiades
He is said to have been close friends with a southern king, Tissa, to whom he sent his brother Mahendra as a missionary Asoka or Asokavardhana
After serving as Viceroy of Malwa and Taxila, he was selected to succeed his father, Bindusara Asoka or Asokavardhana
Much of our knowledge of his reign comes from his numerous rock and pillar edicts, which stress the change in his rule following the bloody Kalinga war, and following that campaign he called the Council of Pataliputra circa 250 BC Asoka or Asokavardhana
FTP, name this Mauryan emperor known for his propagation of Buddhism in India. Asoka or Asokavardhana
As emperor, he transferred the last legion that was led by a senatorial proconsul to the command of an imperial legate, thus completing the complete control of the Roman army by the emperor Caligula
Although he may have been epileptic and did have a deep attachment to his sister Drusilla, accounts of his reign are so biased that it is difficult to ascertain his true actions Caligula
It is not true, however, that he made his horse a consul, though Suetonius claims he would have had he lived longer Caligula
FTP, name this wacky emperor who ruled Rome from 37 to 41 C.E. Caligula
Dedicated in 609 AD as the Church of the Santa Maria Rotunda, it is essentially the same building today as in 222 BC, the date of its last restructuring Pantheon
Caracalla faced it with a front porch, one hundred years after it was completely rebuilt by Hadrian Pantheon
It is rectangular in shape with a gabled roof supported by a colonnade on all sides Pantheon
Originally built to commemorate Octavian's victory over Marc Antony at Actium, it was finished in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa Pantheon
FTP, identify this Roman temple, so named because it is dedicated to all the gods. Pantheon
His first major military experience came while serving on the Danube with the Second Legion Adjutrix Publius Aelius Hadrianus
Following his military service he developed a rivalry with his brother-in-law, Julius Servianus, that would last throughout his life Publius Aelius Hadrianus
The patronage of his predecessor's advisor, Lucius Sura; his predecessor's wife, Plotina; and a marriage to his predecessor's grand-niece, Vibia Sabina helped lead to this man being named heir Publius Aelius Hadrianus
He built a massive mausoleum, Castel Sant'Angelo, after the death of his lover, Antinous, and soon after named Antoninus Pius his successor Publius Aelius Hadrianus
FTP, name this emperor who succeeded Trajan in AD 117 and built a barrier in Britain. Publius Aelius Hadrianus
This city on the Orontes River was the site of two major battles Battle of Kadesh
In the second battle, one commander hid his army behind the city and sent out false reports that he was at Aleppo, to the north Battle of Kadesh
The opposing monarch bought the trap and set up camp on the other side of the city, unaware of the 16,500 foot and 3,500 charioteers that were about to surprise him Battle of Kadesh
King Muwutallis might have won easily if not for the capture of two of his scouts Battle of Kadesh
Nevertheless, he was able to halt the enemy resurgence into Syria Battle of Kadesh
FTP, name this 1275 BC battle that saw the Hittites and Ramses II's Egyptians fight to a draw. Battle of Kadesh
Livy, in his fifth book, portrays this defeat as the consequence of Roman impiety, and its immediate cause was the appearance of Roman noblemen on the Etruscan side against a barbarian army that then turned south, slaughtered an unprepared Roman army at t The Battle of the Allia
FTP, name this great but largely legendary victory of the Gauls under Brennus in 390 BC, named for a small river east of Rome. The Battle of the Allia
One battle here ended in a victory for Bayram Khan over Hemu and marked the restoration of Mughal power after the expulsion of Humayun by Sher Shah the Afghan in 1540 Panipat
In another, the Maratha army, under the Bhao Sahib was destroyed by the Afghan chief Ahmad Shah Durrani beganing 40 years of anarchy clearing the way for later British supremacy Panipat
In the most famous battle here the use of wheeling tactics of the cavalry was able to divide the army of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi Panipat
FTP name this battle where Babar was victorious beginning the Moghul empire in India. Panipat
He was quaestor to the consul Hostilius Mancinus in 137 during the Spanish conquest Tiberius Gracchus
When he and Mancinus became trapped in the process of seizing the city of Numantia, he arranged a treaty that would free them, in return for an end to Rome's aggression Tiberius Gracchus
However, his treaty was deemed illegal by the Senate, and both politicians were disgraced Tiberius Gracchus
This may have added some vengeful motivation for this plebe, who he was elected tribune in 133 Tiberius Gracchus
Elected tribune in 133, he was slaughtered by the urban mob during his re-election campaign, and supposedly killed with broken furniture Tiberius Gracchus
FTP name this originator of the land redistribution laws and the chairman of the first land committee with his father-in-law Claudius Pulcher and his brother Gaius. Tiberius Gracchus
Of the nine aristocrats who held this position at any one time, the three most important were the leader of the military; the basileus, who served as religious judge; and the "eponymous" one, who acted as chief executive and lent his name to the year archons
At the end of their terms, they became members of the body which selected future occupants of this position, the Areopagus archons
FTP, give this term, Greek for "ruler," which referred to certain leaders of Athens. archons
This man suppressed a revolt led by Gaetulicus and Aemilius Lepidus, his sister's widower Caligula (prompt on "Gaius Caesar Germanicus")
The previous year he had ordered the execution of Naevius Macro, prefect of the Praetorian Guard Caligula (prompt on "Gaius Caesar Germanicus")
Four months after returning to Rome from Gaul he would be assassinated, along with his wife Caesonia, at the Palatine Games Caligula (prompt on "Gaius Caesar Germanicus")
He had received his moniker, meaning Little Boot, from the soldiers of his father, Germanicus Caligula (prompt on "Gaius Caesar Germanicus")
FTP, identify this Roman emperor who supposedly made his horse a consul, the successor to Tiberius, who would be succeeded by his uncle, Claudius. Caligula (prompt on "Gaius Caesar Germanicus")
They were converted to Christianity as a result of the efforts of Saint Ninian and Saint Columba the Picts
In the 7th century they recognized a single king, Brude the Picts
Their name was first used in Roman sources in 297 and by the sixth century they were organized in at least two kingdoms north of the River Forth the Picts
They reached the peak of their power under Angus, who established ascendancy over the Scots in 740 the Picts
The matrilineal system of inheritance caused succession problems, and they declined before joining with the Scots in the kingdom of Alba the Picts
FTP, identify these ancient inhabitants of northern Scotland. the Picts
Like Stonehenge, it is an ancient ruin of a Neolithic culture Orkney
The Ring of Brodgar is the main circle, lying between the lakes of Stenness and Harray Orkney
Also at this site is the Maes Howe, considered one of the most impressive chambered cairns in Europe Orkney
For 10 points, name this henge that shares its name with an island group, the capital of which is Kirkwall on Pomona Island, and which is separated by Pentland Firth from Caithness County, Scotland. Orkney
Later leaders of this family included Alexander Jannaeus, Queen Salome Alexandria, Aristobulus I, and John Hyrcanus Maccabees (accept Hasmonians until *)
Alternatively named for their ancestor * Hashmon, they were ousted from power by Pompey in 63 BCE Maccabees (accept Hasmonians until *)
They rose to prominence with the rebellion of Mattathias of Modin, and after his death his cause was continued by his sons Simon, Jonathon, and Judas, who was the most successful due to his defeat of Antiochus IV Maccabees (accept Hasmonians until *)
FTP, what was this Jewish family whose rededicating of the recently-desecrated Temple of Jerusalem is celebrated during Hanukkah? Maccabees (accept Hasmonians until *)
This dynasty included the Yung Lo reign of Ch'eng Tsu Ming Dynasty
Because Ch'eng Tsu feared that his nephew might return to claim the throne, he ordered naval expeditions which reached as far west as Aden and Hormuz Ming Dynasty
He also moved the capital to Peking from Nanking, where it had been established in 1368 by Chu Yüan-Chang, who ruled as Hung-wu Ming Dynasty
Sandwiched between the rule of the Yuan and the Manchus, FTP, name this Chinese dynasty, known for its porcelain vases. Ming Dynasty
He transferred the last legion that had been under a senatorial proconsul to the command of an imperial legate Caligula or Gaius Caesar Germanicus
He executed Naevius Sutorius Macro, the Praetorian prefect who made him emperor, and consecrated his own dead sister Drusilla as "Diva." Eventually murdered by Cassius Chaerea, he had become unpopular due to mental instability and personal excesses, such Caligula or Gaius Caesar Germanicus
Roman emperor from 37-41, FTP, name this son of Germanicus nicknamed "Little Boots." Caligula or Gaius Caesar Germanicus
She is sometimes called Elissa Dido
She was a wealthy and powerful princess in her homeland until her brother secretly murdered her husband Sychaeus Dido
Her brother, Pygmalion, concealed his deed to get access to her money, but his scheme was thwarted when Sychaeus appeared in her dreams, revealing the truth, and prompting her to take her gold and flee to Libya, where she founded a city Dido
FTP, name this native of Tyre who founded Carthage, where she fell in love with Aeneas. Dido
The first king of this name ruled from 1125-1104 B.C., defeating the Elamites and returning the stolen statue of the god Marduk to Babylon Nebuchadnezzar
Among the deeds of the more famous king of this name was the construction of two great walls to create artificial lakes to protect his city Nebuchadnezzar
The son of Nabopolassar, while still crown prince he defeated the Egyptians at Carchemish in 605 B.C., becoming king of Babylon the next year Nebuchadnezzar
FTP, name this king, known for destroying Jerusalem and for ordering the building of the Hanging Gardens. Nebuchadnezzar
A famous anecdote about this man relates how he went to register for the census and described his military service by stating he had served in sixteen victorious campaigns, all under his own command Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus)
Among these campaigns were his defeat of Sertorius in Spain, his suppression of the Cilician pirates in six months at sea, and his final conquest of Mithridates in the East, and it was for these successes, as much as his youthful resemblance to Alexander Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus)
For 10 points name this Roman, the best general of the late Republic, who finally met his match against his former father-in-law and fellow triumvir Julius Caesar at Pharsalus. Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus)
Born circa A.D Plutarch
46 in Chaeronea, this man studied philosphy in Athens and Alexandria before travelling to Rome, where he befriended the emperor Trajan and gave a popular series of lectures despite knowing almost no Latin Plutarch
Among his lesser-known works are a series of dialogues covering various political, religious, and philosophical issues entitled The Moralia, but he is more famous for his biographies Plutarch
For 10 points name this Greek author known for comparing the exploits of famous Greeks and Romans in his Parallel Lives. Plutarch
The current term used to designate this people was introduced by the historian Manetho Hyksos (prompt on Rulers of Foreign Lands)
Facilitating their conquests using an innovative rectangular fortification of beaten earth, they were a northwestern Semetic people who at their height ruled an empire including Syria and Palestine Hyksos (prompt on Rulers of Foreign Lands)
Establishing a capital at Avaris, they fell to Amasis I at the Battle of Tanis, ending over 100 years of rule in Egypt Hyksos (prompt on Rulers of Foreign Lands)
FTP, who were these "rulers of foreign lands" known for their introduction of the horse-drawn chariot? Hyksos (prompt on Rulers of Foreign Lands)
Much valuable information on this group comes from the writings of Priscus, who spent time at the court of their most famous leader, after whose death they were decisively defeated at the River Nedao, ending their historical significance Huns
A nomadic people, they used their formidable cavalry to defeat the Ukrainian Ostrogoths during the 370s, beginning their advance into Europe Huns
On the death of Rua they were ruled by two brothers, but Bleda was soon put to death by his brother, whose advance on Rome was stopped at Lake Garda just a year after his defeat by Aetius at Catalaunian Fields Huns
FTP, who were these people most famously led by Attila? Huns
In his most famous work this man used a flashback technique known as "ring-composition" to maintain the forward flow of the narrative Herodotus
Involved in an uprising against the tyrant Lygdamis early in his life, he died as part of an Athenian colony sent to Thurii Herodotus
A native of Halicarnassus, he spent much of his life traveling widely, providing much of the material for his masterpiece, a nine-volume historical work often criticized for its acceptance of eyewitness accounts but nonetheless revolutionary for its scope Herodotus
FTP, who is this man known as the "Father of History" for detailing the Greek-Persian Wars in his "Histories"? Herodotus
Fighting in this war was briefly ended by the Peace of Nicias, but three years later the battle of Mantinea sparked another 15 years of fighting Peloponnesian War
Cynossema and Cyzicus were naval victories for Athens, which relied throughout on the power of its navy to protect its trade routes Peloponnesian War
The disastrous Athenian campaign against Syracuse cost it much of its fleet, and despite the efforts of Alcibiades, Lysander's victory at Aegospotami led to Sparta's victory Peloponnesian War
Recorded in detail by Xenophon and Thucydides, FTP, what was this war named for the isthmus in the south of Greece? Peloponnesian War
He served under Pompey's father during the Social War and killed his own brother-in-law during the proscriptions of Sulla Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catalina
Charges of extortion and fornication with a Vestal Virgin failed to keep him out of office, though he and his forces were finally defeated in 62 BCE by Gaius Antonius Hybrida at Pistoria Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catalina
After losing the consulship in 64 BCE, he assumed command of the army at Faesulae and attempted to hold an insurrection Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catalina
FTP, identify this famous Roman conspirator who was the subject of a famous oration by Cicero. Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catalina
In his Ages in Chaos, the pseudo-scholar Velikovsky claimed that this monarch had a well-developed relationship with King Solomon Hatshepsut or Hatsepshut
Taking the royal name "Kamare", this ruler constructed two obelisks of red granite and the temple of Deir el Bahri Hatshepsut or Hatsepshut
Producing a daughter with Senmut and possibly poisoned by Thutmose III, this ruler usurped power from the son of the commoner Moutnofrit by claiming direct descendance from Amon and sent a famous expedition to Punt Hatshepsut or Hatsepshut
Born to Thutmose I and Aahmes, FTP, name this Egyptian monarch usually depicted in hieroglyphic reliefs as a man. Hatshepsut or Hatsepshut
It occupied a land made up by the valleys of the Hermus and Cayster Rivers and first rose to prominence after the Cimmerian destruction of Phrygia kingdom of Lydia
Under Gyges this kingdom established a capital at the foot of Mount Tmolus and became well known for its invention of metallic coinage kingdom of Lydia
Though it reached its zenith under Alyattes, who extended his rule into Ionia, it was brought low soon after by the Persians under Cyrus kingdom of Lydia
FTP identify this ancient kingdom whose most famous ruler was chronicled met Solon in Herodotus' writings and was named Croesus. kingdom of Lydia
A second marriage to his niece, Martina, was widely blamed for many of the problems that befell the second portion of his reign as Byzantine Emperor, including the loss of Syria and Egypt to the Arabs Heraclius I
The first part, however, was filled with victories over the Sassanid Persians, who occupied large portions of the empire at the time of his accession Heraclius I
FTP, name this Emperor who sailed from Carthage to Constantinople to save the empire from its Persian foes. Heraclius I
He wrote two Neo-Platonic works "A Hymn to King Helios" and "A Hymn to the Mother Goddess" as well as two panegyrics in honor of his cousin Constantius II Flavius Claudius Julianus
Other literary achievements include "The Caesars" a satire about Roman emperors and "The Beard-Haters" about the ingratitude of the citizens of Antioch Flavius Claudius Julianus
His military exploits include a victory over the Alemanni as Gallic Caesar in 357 and the abortive Persian campaign on which he died as sole emperor in 361 Flavius Claudius Julianus
FTP name this man most famous for trying to turn the Roman empire back toward paganism, called "The Apostate" Flavius Claudius Julianus
Lucius Cornelius was general during the Social War and an ally of Marius and Sertorius who took Rome in 87 BC and held it after Marius's death, attempting to keep the empire from Civil war with Sulla that was rendered useless by his assasination in 84 Cinna
His son, Lucius Cornelius, joined the mutiny of Lepidus and fought with Sertorius in Spain, and though his pardon from Caesar allowed him to return to Rome he expressed happines at Caesar's assasination, leading to an attempt on his life by the Roman mob Cinna
FTP give the common cognomen also shared, unfortunately, by Gaius Helvius, poet of the epic Smyrna mistaken for a conspirator and successfully killed by the mob "for his bad verses" as dramatised by Shakespeare. Cinna
Tribonian compiled his legislation into the Codex Constitutionum, later known as the Body of Civil Law Justinian I
Later legislation under his name included the Novellae, the first enactments in his empire to be published in Greek, not Latin Justinian I
Early in his reign the Blues and Greens revolted against his rule and convinced Hypatius to take the imperial seat at the hippodrome; on his wife Theodora's advice he sent to put down the rebellion Belisarius, who later reconquered much of the Roman Empir Justinian I
FTP, name this greatest Byzantine emperor. Justinian I
A member of the Alcmaeonid family he was born under a family curse incited by his great-grandfather Cleisthenes
Peisistratus exiled him and his family, but he returned twenty years later, and during the reign of Hippias convinced the Delphic oracle to tell Sparta to help overthrow the tyranny Cleisthenes
Gaining power in 510, he broke the traditional aristocracy, instituting a system of the ten tribes of Attica. Cleisthenes
FTP, identify this Athenian tyrant who created the council of 500 in order to favor equal rights for all citizens. Cleisthenes
Bordered by Paphlagonia, West Armenia, Cappadocia, the Anti-Taurus Mountains, and the Black Sea, its power began under a king known as Ctistes Pontus
A generation after its greatest height, Julius Caesar defeated Pharnaces II at Zela, but it was Pharnaces's father who brought most of Asia Minor and the Crimea under its control and fought three namesake wars with Rome Pontus
FTP, name this kingdom, eventually subjugated by Pompey's victory and the death of Mithridates VI. Pontus
It was included as a scene on Aeneas' shield in Virgil's Aeneid, and its namesake games are held at Nicopolis every four years to commemorate it Battle of Actium
Fought in northwest Acarnania at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf, one of the combatants in this battle was confounded by a rainstorm, while the other was restrained from attacking by Agrippa Battle of Actium
The battle was lost after an enemy maneuver forced Cleopatra to withdraw 60 ships Battle of Actium
FTP, identify this naval battle of 31 BCE fought between Octavian and Marc Antony. Battle of Actium
After this commander's most notable achievement, he suffered a defeat when trying to suppress Thrasybulus' democratic revolt Lysander
He later helped Agesilaus II gain the throne on the death of Agis II, and accompanied him to Asia in 396 BCE, but lost authority with the king Lysander
Returning to Sparta next year, he led a force into Boeotia but was killed while attacking Haliartus Lysander
FTP, identify Spartan commander victorious at Notium in 406 BCE, and who utterly defeated the Athenian fleet at Battle of Aegospotami. Lysander
As praetor designate in 65 CE, he was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against Nero, and later alerted his predecessor of the German revolt led by Antonius Saturninus Marcus Cocceius Nerva
With the aid of such advisors as Sextus Frontinus, this emperor allowed the sale of land to the poor at a reduced rate and sponsored public care of children of poor families Marcus Cocceius Nerva
His reign also saw a mutiny of the Praetorian Guard under Casperius Aelianus in 97 CE and he appointed his successor to be Trajan Marcus Cocceius Nerva
FTP, identify this successor to Domitian and first of the Five Good Emperors. Marcus Cocceius Nerva
This battle was preceded by the evacuation of Tarsus by Arsames and the defection of Harpalus Battle of Issus
The general Parmenio urged his commander to marshal his forces at this battle site, but instead ended up guarding the Syrian Gates Battle of Issus
Fought across the river Pinarus, this battle saw an attack by the Persians against the weakened Macedonian left flank, while the Companions scattered the Persian infantry and made straight for the king's golden chariot Battle of Issus
Fought in 333 BCE, FTP, identify this battle fought by Alexander the Great that caused Darius to abandon his wife and mother. Battle of Issus
He took Hersilia as his wife Romulus
Along with his brother, he was raised by Acca Larentia, the wife of a shepherd who found him in the wild Romulus
Later deified as the god Quirinus, this man killed Amelius, the brother of his grandfather, after rescuing his kidnapped brother Romulus
The son of a Vestal Virgin who was visited by Mars, this man was found by the shepherd Faustulus, after being raised by a she-wolf Romulus
During a quarrel regarding the height of his wall near the Palatine Hill, he slew his brother Remus Romulus
FTP, identify this legendary founder of Rome. Romulus
Some of his reputation is due to his scribe and army commander Thanuny and his vizier Rekhmire Tuthmosis III or Thutmose III
A superb war leader, his reign is associated with the conquest of Syria Tuthmosis III or Thutmose III
On the throne, he referred to himself as Men-kheper-re, or "Lasting is the manifestation of Re." Notable construction during his reign, from 1504 to 1450 BCE, included the Temple at Karnak at Amun and a Temple of Hathor Tuthmosis III or Thutmose III
He may be most famous, however, for his decision late in his reign to destroy monuments to his predecessor Tuthmosis III or Thutmose III
FTP, name this 18th dynasty pharaoh of ancient Egypt, who famously followed Hatshepshut. Tuthmosis III or Thutmose III
He is said to have purchased three prophetic books from the Cumaean Sibyl and to have deposited them in the temple of Jupiter begun by his father Tarquin the Proud or Tarquinius Superbus
His nephew Lucius Junius Brutus and his friend Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus led a revolt against him after his son, Sextus, supposedly raped Collatinus' wife Lucretia Tarquin the Proud or Tarquinius Superbus
The son of Tarquinius Priscus and the son-in-law of Servius Tullius, FTP, identify this man overthrown in 509 BCE, the seventh and last king of Rome. Tarquin the Proud or Tarquinius Superbus
It is known today in its present country as Takht-i Jamshid, and it is located near the modern city of Shiraz Persepolis
Sacked by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE, it was eventually abandoned and rediscovered in 1620, though excavation did not begin until 1931 Persepolis
Famous landmarks in the ancient city include the Hundred-Column Hall completed by Artaxerxes I, and its largest building, the famous Apadana, or audience hall Persepolis
Established by Darius I and serving as capital to the Achaemenid dynasty, FTP, identify this ancient city whose Greek name translates as "City of the Persians." Persepolis
Like the Egyptians, these ancient people are divided into Old and New Kingdoms Hittites
Calling themselves Nesilim, their Old Kingdom was founded by their leader Labarna around 1680 BCE, though his kingdom was later extended by Mursili I, who conquered Halab and raided Bablyon, and Telipinu, who issued a law code Hittites
Famous New Kingdom rulers included Suppiluliuma and Hattusilish III Hittites
Perhaps their most famous victory in battle came under the king Muwatalli in 1274 BCE Hittites
FTP, identify this people who fought the Egyptians to a draw at the Battle of Kadesh. Hittites
According to Celsus, his master made him permanently lame by twisting his leg, as this man calmly noted, "You will break it." He wrote nothing, but Flavius Arrian used careful notes of his lectures to compile the Handbook and four books of discussions Epictetus
He earlier learned from the Stoic Musonius Rufus, and he described his school in Nicopolis as a hospital to cure the ills of daily life, guiding his students toward happiness through living virtuously and according to nature Epictetus
FTP, name this 2nd century Stoic, the author of the Discourses. Epictetus
Belonging to the Alcmaeonid family, this man's great-grandfather had brought about a public curse on the family by executing the followers of the would-be tyrant Cylon in 632 BCE Cleisthenes
The son of Megacles, he restructured the four ancient tribes into ten, and organized the boule to consist of 500 members Cleisthenes
He was chief archon of Athens from 525-524 BCE following the death of the Peisistratus, after which his power briefly declined until 508 BCE Cleisthenes
FTP, name this Athenian statesman who allied himself with the Assembly against the nobles in 508 BCE, thus imposing democratic reform. Cleisthenes
Supposedly a mystic told him that he would attain greatness and die at the very height of his fortune Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix
After he gained power, he was appointed Dictator under the Lex Valeria and for the first time in Roman history the duration of his dictatorship wasn't limited Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix
His career began as a quaestor under his rival in 107 BCE, who he later would feud with over his capture of King Jurgurtha of the Numidians Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix
FTP, name this Roman statesman who gave himself the name Felix, victor of a Roman civil war from 88-82 BCE, defeating Gaius Marius. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix
According to some reports, his mother was Abrotonon of Thrace or Euterpe of Caria, but it was certain that he was related to the Lycomedea through his father Neocles Themistocles
As archon, he sponsored the first efforts to make the defensible rock bays of Piraeus into harbors, but in general suffered from a reputation as a slick politician willing to profit through war Themistocles
Unlike many older Athenians, he had the foresight to realize that the battle of Marathon would not end the war against the Persians, prompting him to urge for expansion of the navy and the building of triremes Themistocles
FTP, name this general who tricked Xerxes into initiating the naval engagement at Salamis. Themistocles
He was raised by Cato the Younger, his mother's half-brother, and when Cato died, he asked Cicero to write a eulogy, but rejected it as "effeminate and spineless." Although he hated Pompey for killing his father, he allied with Pompey until after Pharsalu Marcus Junius Brutus
For 10 points, name this man who was beaten by Antony and Octavian at Philippi after plotting against Caesar. Marcus Junius Brutus
His early writings include 20 books on Etruscan history and a treatise on dice playing Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus)
He extended rights to the colonies of Northern Africa and recognized the rights of Jews, and entrusted to Aulus Plautius the campaign to subjugate Britain that he began Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus)
He came to power when a soldier found him trembling in the imperial palace after the murder of his nephew and predecessor, Caligula Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus)
The subject of two novels by Robert Graves, FTP, identify this Roman emperor from 41 to 54 AD who was poisoned to make room for Nero. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus)
In his eighties he served as prefect of Italy, but was very unpopular and was recalled from Ravenna when he was almost 90 Narses
At Casilinum, he used archers and infantry to beat the Alemanni Franks, two years after his great heavy infantry defeat of Totila and the Goths at Taginae Narses
FTP, name this rival of Belisarius, one of the great generals of Justinian. Narses
This city lost its influence when Fustat was founded nearby Memphis
Home to two colossal statues of Ramses the Great and a famous alabaster sphinx, the necropolis of Sakkara to its west contains the Serapeum, a burial site for this city's mythical guardian, Ptah Memphis
It became the seat of the satraps during the Persian period centuries after its founding by the legendary King Narmer Memphis
FTP, what is this Old Kingdom capital of Egypt that shares its name with a city of southwestern Tennessee? Memphis
Oenops, Alcidamas of Caunas and Eurypylus were among the men slaughtered by this warrior who later defeated king Harpalycus of Thrace on his return to Buthrota Neoptolemos or Pyrrhus
He granted his mother Deidamia as wife to the seer Helenus, and in Scyros helped trick Philoctetes out of the arrows of Heracles Neoptolemos or Pyrrhus
More despicable acts during the war include tossing Astyanax over the walls of Troy and sacrificing Polyxena to the shade of his father, Achilles Neoptolemos or Pyrrhus
FTP, name this warrior who slaughtered Priam on an altar of Zeus. Neoptolemos or Pyrrhus
He would meet his end at the hands of Queen Tomyris, who stuffed his head in a jar of blood to satisfy his craving for it Cyrus II or Cyrus the Great
He was ordered exposed as a baby because his grandfather Astyages dreamed that the shoot from his daughter's genitals would overshadow his empire, but in a reversal he was allowed to live Cyrus II or Cyrus the Great
He did in fact supplant Astyages, and went on to defeat the Lydians at Pteria and Thymbra before conquering Nabonidus and taking Babylon Cyrus II or Cyrus the Great
FTP, name this man who overthrew the Medians and established the Persian empire, nicknamed "the Great" Cyrus II or Cyrus the Great
In the early fifth century BC, this city was defeated by Hippocrates of Gela, returning to power its social elite, the gamoroi Syracuse
Founded in 734 BC by Corinthians led by Archias, it was frequently at war with Carthage, winning a major 480 BC battle at Himera under Gelon Syracuse
Its later years were marked by the successful reigns of Dionysius the Elder and Younger, but it was finally conquered by Rome in 211 BC, when it became the provincial capital of Sicily Syracuse
FTP, what is this city that successfully resisted a 415-413 siege by Athens with the help of Archimedes? Syracuse
An inscription found at this site records its 10th century BC occupation by Sheshonk I (Tel) Megiddo (prompt on Armageddon)
Found on the southern edge of the Plain of Esdraelon, excavations of it have revealed its namesake "Ivories", one of the best examples of Canaanite art, as well as Solomon's chariot stables (Tel) Megiddo (prompt on Armageddon)
General Edmund Allenby's WWI victory was the most recent in a long series of battles fought there due to its strategic location at the crossing of two military and trade routes (Tel) Megiddo (prompt on Armageddon)
Also known for a 1468 BC victory for Thutmose III, FTP, what is this town of ancient Palestine that probably served as the source of the term "Armageddon"? (Tel) Megiddo (prompt on Armageddon)
He died due to a coup led by the head of his Praetorian Guard, Macrinus Caracalla or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
Remembered in part for his sumptuous baths whose impressive remains can still be seen in Rome, he promulgated the constitutio Antoniniana, which made virtually all the free men in the Roman Empire full citizens Caracalla or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
Earlier, he killed his brother Geta so that he could rule alone Caracalla or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
FTP, name this son of Septimius Severus named for the long, flowing cloak he preferred to wear. Caracalla or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
The Legend of the White Hair-Pin relates how when this monarch courted a young woman whose husband died on their wedding day working for him, she jumped into the Bohai Sea Qin Shihuang or Shihuang-ti (accept early buzz of First Emperor)
Extending his empire's control over the Ordos Steppes, he ordered the "Burning of the Books", after consolidating control in the time following the Spring and Autumn Periods Qin Shihuang or Shihuang-ti (accept early buzz of First Emperor)
Eventually buried with a bunch of slaves and terra cotta statutes, during his life he began the building of the Great Wall Qin Shihuang or Shihuang-ti (accept early buzz of First Emperor)
FTP, name this monarch who founded the Chin dynasty and was known as First Emperor Qin Shihuang or Shihuang-ti (accept early buzz of First Emperor)
. Qin Shihuang or Shihuang-ti (accept early buzz of First Emperor)
He learned battle tactics while leading an army under Scipio Aemilianus in the siege of Numantia Jugurtha
To ensure power he had his half-brother Heimpal assassinated, and then moved against his other half-brother Adherbal Jugurtha
The nephew and later adopted son of Miscipsa, he bribed the Consular legation sent to negotiate in 116 BCE, precipitating a war in which he initially outwitted Metellus Jugurtha
FTP, namet his Numidian ruler, who fought a namesake war with Rome. Jugurtha
Much of our knowledge of it comes from inscriptions on animal bones and tortoise shells Shang (PROMPT on either "Li" or "Yin.")
Its king also acted as a pries in a veneration of the chief god of the period, Di Shang (PROMPT on either "Li" or "Yin.")
Its early history includes the introduction of bronze working from Iran and the movement of the capital from Zhengzhou to Anyang by its Yin nationality Shang (PROMPT on either "Li" or "Yin.")
It began when its founder T'ang defeated king Chieh, a possible ruler of the Hsia kingdom Shang (PROMPT on either "Li" or "Yin.")
Succeeded chief record the Yen ben Zhi, successful control of flooding on the Yangtze was first attained by by the Chou, FTP, name this first historical Chinese dynasty. Shang (PROMPT on either "Li" or "Yin.")
He captured his greatest enemy by turning King Bocchus after his agent Bomilcar failed in betrayal Gaius Marius
He was the first to recruit soldiers from the Head Count and their loyalty to him is signified by the fact that they were known as his "mules." He used those troops to great effect by crushing Teutobod and Boiorix successeively at Aqua Sextiae and Vercel Gaius Marius
However jealousy over a subordinate led to a civil war and eventually his seventh consulship Gaius Marius
FTP, name this superior of Sulla and victor over Jugurtha. Gaius Marius
One side established camp on the northern side of the Epineus River, while the other deployed near Mt Battle of Pharsalus
Dogandzis Battle of Pharsalus
The loser planned to attack the enemy flank supported by archers under Lasienus, but this move was defended against, forcing flight into Egypt and assassination at the court of Ptolemy XII Battle of Pharsalus
The victor would also be assassinated, just four years later Battle of Pharsalus
Fought somewhere in Thessaly, FTP, name this August 48 BC battle at which the forces of Pompey were crushed by Julius Caesar. Battle of Pharsalus
The death of the popular Masistius in a skirmish, and unfavorable omens on both sides, delayed the start of this battle for eight days Battle of Plataea [pluh-TEE-uh]
Then the poisoning of the Gargaphia spring forced the Greeks to move Battle of Plataea [pluh-TEE-uh]
The subsequent retreat into the foothills of Mount Cithaeron prompted the Persians to attack, but the Spartan line held, and the Persian general was killed Battle of Plataea [pluh-TEE-uh]
That general, Mardonius, was killed by Pausanius' forces in, FTP, what decisive Greek victory over the Persians in 479 BC? Battle of Plataea [pluh-TEE-uh]
They initially responded to a call to fight against Duke Svatopluk from Emperor Arnulf Magyars (prompt on early buzz of "Hungarians")
This was made easier because the Pechenegs had already forced them west Magyars (prompt on early buzz of "Hungarians")
The Byzantines bribed them to fight Simeon I after they destroyed the Moravian empire and occupied Pannonia Magyars (prompt on early buzz of "Hungarians")
They had initially crossed the Carpathians under the leadership of Arpad Magyars (prompt on early buzz of "Hungarians")
Finally forced to settle after defeat at Lechfeld to Otto the Great, they would convert to Christianity under Arpad's son, Saint Stephen Magyars (prompt on early buzz of "Hungarians")
FTP, name this indigenous people of Hungary. Magyars (prompt on early buzz of "Hungarians")
He was brought up at the estate of Macellum in Cappadocia and as a youth converted to Neoplatonism Julian the Apostate
Ammianus Marcellinus describes him as a stocky, athletic type, which is confirmed by his statue in the Louvre Julian the Apostate
He defeated and expelled the Alemanni and the Franks, and was set to take on Constantius II, when Constantius died Julian the Apostate
After assuming power in 361, he ruled for only twenty months Julian the Apostate
FTP, identify this nephew of Constantine the Great who gained his nickname when he renounced Christianity and became a pagan. Julian the Apostate
He named his sword Azoth after he cured the paralyzed daughter of an innkeeper with a teaspoonful of wine and his "azoth of the red lion." His opposition to the Galeno-Arabic system of medicine, his burning of Avicenna's writings in a public square, and Paracelsus or Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim
He maintained that disease is caused by agents outside of the body and became associated with the Rosicrucian movement Paracelsus or Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim
FTP, name this bombastic occultist, who claimed to know more than the great Roman doctor Celsus. Paracelsus or Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim
This ruler's final years were spent near Tivoli in a life of relative comfort Zenobia
That life was made possible because this ruler's rebellion was laid at the hands of a secretary, Longinus, a faithful servant of Lord Odenathus, his master's spouse Zenobia
Upon Odenathus' death, this leader took advantage of the weakness of Gallienus and waged war for five years, before finally succumbing to the forces of Aurelian in 272 AD Zenobia
FTP, name this thorn in the side of Rome, a famous queen of Palmyra. Zenobia
After the death of both his successors, the Greeks gained power over his kingdom under General Horemheb Akhenaton or Ikhnaton or Amenhotep IV
His situation was unusual as he was born from a commoner Tiy, and he changed succession procedures by deeding control to his son-in-law Smenkhkare Akhenaton or Ikhnaton or Amenhotep IV
Much of our knowledge of him comes from excavation around his new capital city at the present day site of Tell-el-Amarna Akhenaton or Ikhnaton or Amenhotep IV
FTP, name this father of Tutankhamen and husband of Nefertiti, who promulgated worship of one god, Aton. Akhenaton or Ikhnaton or Amenhotep IV
Today, it is a small city of about fifteen thousand people situated near an oasis Jericho or Ariha
Among its notable structures are Hisham's Palace and the Byzantine structure of St Jericho or Ariha
George's monastery Jericho or Ariha
Recent developments include a cable car built to access the nearby Mount of Temptation Jericho or Ariha
In 1994, it became the first autonomous town in the West Bank under the agreement of Israel and the PLO Jericho or Ariha
FTP, name this city dating from about 7000 BC which was once destroyed by Joshua. Jericho or Ariha
This man was appointed king of the empire upon the death of his father in battle against the Massagetes Cambyses II
He served as king of Babylon for a year, but later resigned after a faux pas at a religious festival and was made satrap of Bactria Cambyses II
After marrying Phaidymia, daugther of Otanes, it is said that he slew is brother Smerdis in order to protect his reign Cambyses II
He went on to fight Samos under Polycrates, who was allied with the Egyptians under the pharaoh Amasis in 525 BCE Cambyses II
FTP, identify this second Achaemenid king and successor to Cyrus the Great. Cambyses II
The victor struck a special legionary denarius depicting the aquila and two vexillae, and known as the Aegypta Capta, to commemorate this battle Battle of Actium
One side amassed their forces in the Ambracian Gulf, while the other gathered near the promontory that gave this battle its name Battle of Actium
The defeated side's navy consisted of massive quinqueremes, while the victor's were the more maneuverable Liburnian vessels Battle of Actium
With troops commanded by Agrippa, the combined Roman and Egyptian force was destroyed Battle of Actium
FTP, identify this 31 BCE battle that saw the victory of Octavian against Antony and Cleopatra. Battle of Actium
The site at which this battle occurred was first excavated by Sir Leonard Wooley and T Battle of Carchemish
E Battle of Carchemish
Lawrence in 1912 Battle of Carchemish
This battle was precipitated when one side moved its capital to Haran, and then later to this site Battle of Carchemish
Lying on the Euphrates about sixty-five miles northeast of Aleppo, one army was delayed at Riblah, prior to which King Josiah was defeated at Megiddo Battle of Carchemish
Necho finally reached this site to find Nebuchadnezzar had already conquered it, and promptly slew the approaching Egyptians Battle of Carchemish
FTP, identify this 605 BCE battle that saw the end of the Assyrian Empire by the Babylonians. Battle of Carchemish
The first group under this name was formed for mutual protection against pirates, though not much else is known Achaean League
This group's second and more famous incarnation was founded in order to free Sicyon from tyranny and fell under the leadership of Aratus Achaean League
It fell into conflict with Cleomenes III of Sparta and sought Macedonian aid against the Aetolian League in 227 BCE Achaean League
Later, the Romans deported this organization's leaders, including Polybius, and defeated them at the Battle of Corinth Achaean League
FTP, identify this group of Greek city-states whose goal was Greek liberty. Achaean League
One side represented Orthodoxism, while the other side represented the Monophysites and tradesmen, though the two groups formed a truce in order to rebel during this event Nika Riots
On the fifth day of this event, the nephews of Anastasius were dismissed from the palace, where the mob fell upon them and led them to the Forum of Constantine, where Hypatius was proclaimed the new emperor Nika Riots
This rebellion's name came from the word meaning "to conquer" and the generals Narses and Belisarius were sent to repress it Nika Riots
FTP, identify this 532 CE rebellion fought by the Blues and the Greens against Justinian. Nika Riots
The earliest references in Babylonian and Assyrian texts to this kingdom call it Anshan Medes or Media
According to Herodotus, its most famous capital was supposedly established by Deiokes, who was succeeded by Phraortes Medes or Media
The city of Nineveh was captured by his successor Cyaxares, who extended this kingdom's borders to the Halys river in Asia Minor Medes or Media
This kingdom fought a famous war with Nabonidus of Babylon, but it is perhaps most famous for seeding the Persian Empire Medes or Media
With capital at Ecbatana, FTP, identify this ancient kingdom whose leader Astyages was overthrown by Cyrus the Great. Medes or Media
After being ostracized, he fled to Argos, then to Corfu, and then to the court of Artaxerxes, who supposedly thanked the gods upon his arrival and gave him 200 talents and rule over some cities of Asia Minor Themistocles
As archon, he established the first public works project to convert the bays of Piraeus into harbors, and he may have aided Miltiades in his flight from Gallipoli, but he is better remembered for increasing the size of the Athenian navy in anticipation of Themistocles
FTP, name this man, the victor over the Persians at Salamis. Themistocles
He unleashed the First Coalition War after falling foul of the regent Perdiccas, and then took command of the campaign against Eumenes of Cardia Antigonus Monophthalmus or Antigonus the One-Eyed
His 316 BCE victory at Gabiene gave him control of all the land between the Aegean and the Hindu Kush Antigonus Monophthalmus or Antigonus the One-Eyed
The Peace of the Dynasts temporarily solidified his position, and he tried to revive Philip's Corinthian League as a defense against Cassander and his other enemies, but he was finally killed in 301 BCE at the battle of Ipsus Antigonus Monophthalmus or Antigonus the One-Eyed
FTP, name this general under Alexander the Great, a rival of Ptolemy and Seleucus. Antigonus Monophthalmus or Antigonus the One-Eyed
Only Augustus and Valerius Corvinus had held the consulship at a younger age than this man, and no one had been awarded a triumph younger than when he received one in 38 BCE Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
He first gained recognition for putting down an Aquitallian uprising in Gaul Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
A notoriously jealous Augustus ordered that a banner always be carried in front of him proclaiming that he had never suffered defeat in response to this man's brilliance at Actium Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
The progenitor of three Roman emperors and effectively co-ruler with Augustus until his death in 12 BCE, FTP, name this builder of the Pantheon. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Herodotus mentions a diplomatic incident in which this people caused the Medean-Lydian Wars, and their interference under their king Madyas during Cyaxares' siege of Nineveh led to their namesake interregnum Scythians
Originally from the area around Pazaryk, their move west displaced tribes like the Urarteans and Cimmerians Scythians
The Haumavarga branch was conquered by Persia in 545 BCE, though Cyrus II was killed in battle with their Massagetes subtribe Scythians
Eventually displaced by the Sarmatians, FTP, name this ancient nomadic people of Central Asia named after a curved tool. Scythians
Located on the confluence of the Turja and Mantza rivers, the Greeks called it Uksadama and held that it was founded by Orestes Adrianople or Edirne
After its 1360 conquest by Ainurat, it functioned as the Ottoman capital until the 1453 fall of Constantinople Adrianople or Edirne
This city served as the meeting place for a namesake 1827 treaty between Russia and Turkey which guaranteed Greek autonomy, and was the site of a 323 CE defeat of Licinius by Constantine Adrianople or Edirne
FTP, name this city founded in 125 CE by a Spanish-born emperor, the site of a 378 CE victory of the Goths over Valens. Adrianople or Edirne
He secured the banishment of Hyperbolus and after inheriting a family fortune rose to prominence by arguing against the policies of Cleon Nicias
His final campaign was thwarted by the arrival of Gylippus, the death of Lamachus, and a loss at the river Assinarus Nicias
He is a character in Plato's Laches and is paired in Plutarch's Parallel Lives with Crassus Nicias
FTP, name this very superstitious Athenian who opposed Alcibiades over the Sicilian Expedition but ended up leading that expedition, and who gave his name to a peace agreement in the middle of the Peloponnesian War. Nicias
Beginning his career as part of an outcry against Scipio Nasica, he served as land commissioner and realized the potential of the Roman Knights Caius Gracchus or Gaius Gracchus
He instituted judicial reform with the Lex Judiciaria and proposed to extend citizenship to all Latins Caius Gracchus or Gaius Gracchus
In 121 BCE, his supporters held a mass demonstration on the Aventine Hill that was broken up by Lucius Opimius, but not before he committed suicide Caius Gracchus or Gaius Gracchus
FTP, name this Roman tribune, grandson of Scipio Africanus and brother of Tiberius. Caius Gracchus or Gaius Gracchus
Early on he gained the enmity of the senate by executing four ex-consuls, including Gaius Avidius Negrinus, for plotting against him Hadrian (or Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus)
As a young man he was called "Graeculus" for his Hellenic studies and he was ridiculed for his sexual relationship with the Greek youth Antinous, who was made a god upon his death by drowning Hadrian (or Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus)
He put down the revolt of Bar Kokhba in Jerusalem in 135 and chose his Antoninus Pius as his successor Hadrian (or Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus)
FTP, identify this Roman emperor who succeeded Trajan and built a namesake wall to protect Britain. Hadrian (or Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus)
When it was first written, it dealt primarily with monetary compensations, or wehrgeld Salic Law or Lex Salica
However it was Clause 6 in title 59 that became the most important part of it, particularly after it was amended by Chilperic Salic Law or Lex Salica
It was lost until 1328, and in 1410 it was used to weaken the arguments of Henry IV of England Salic Law or Lex Salica
Doubts about its secret repeal in 1789 in Spain fueled the Carlist agenda and Napoleon would adopt it for ascension to the Imperial Throne Salic Law or Lex Salica
FTP, name this legal code written in the time of Clovis, whose most important portion became a rule of succession that forbade females from ascending to the throne. Salic Law or Lex Salica
In Plato's Timaeus, Critias acknowledges this man as the ultimate Greek source for the Atlantis myth having heard it while in Egypt Solon
Among his accomplishments was the seisachtheia or the "shaking off of burdens" which cancelled debt and he was also responsible for ending debt-slavery as well as dividing his fellow citizens into four property classes Solon
He wrote several poems about his life and works and a story in Herodotus has him rebuking Croesus for assuming that wealth equates with happiness Solon
FTP identify this early 6th century Athenian reformer and one of the Seven Sages who revised Draco's harsh laws and paved the way for future democracy. Solon
He fought his last battle at Eurymedon, where he led a Seleucid fleet Hannibal
He fought to a draw at Crotona, and was recalled after his side's defeat at Bagbrades, a few years after his brother's death at Metaurus River Hannibal
This was a far cry from such early victories as Trebia and Lake Trasimene Hannibal
His greatest victory came when he encircled the forces of Paulus and Varro at Cannae, but utter defeat followed fourteen years later at Zama in 202 BC Hannibal
FTP, name this son of Hamilcar Barca and great Carthaginian general of the Second Punic War. Hannibal
Among the battles in the later part of this war were Cynosemma and Cyzicus 2nd Peloponnesian War
The eventual losers reached a high point after Sphacteria but following defeats at Delium and Amphipolis signed a peace ending the first phase, called the Archidamian War 2nd Peloponnesian War
Beginning with a fight between Corcyra and Corinth, it ended with crushing defeat at Aegospotami, though the climax had occurred nearly a decade earlier with the disastrous Sicilian Expedition 2nd Peloponnesian War
FTP, name this long war recorded by Thucydides in which a Spartan coalition defeated Athens. 2nd Peloponnesian War
In the last years of his reign he put down the usurper Eugenius defeating him at the River Frigidus while earlier he had defeated the usurper Magnus Maximus Theodosius the Great or Theodosius I
Although he had gone into retirement following the execution of his father, two years later he was recalled to service by Gratian after the death of Valens at Adrianople in 378 Theodosius the Great or Theodosius I
In response to a riot he massacred much of the populace of Thessalonica but was forced to do penance by Ambrose of Milan Theodosius the Great or Theodosius I
Upon his death the Roman Empire was split into Eastern and Western halves by his sons Arcadius and Honorius Theodosius the Great or Theodosius I
FTP, name this emperor who made Christianity the official religion of the Roman state. Theodosius the Great or Theodosius I
From the drawings of Jacques Carrey done in 1674 we can tell that it once had a minaret on top while at another time it was a Byzantine Church of the Theotokos the Parthenon
Highlights of its east pediment include Helios driving his chariot and a group of three women - Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite - watching the birth of a god the Parthenon
Among other things its metopes show the Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs while the inner frieze shows a Panathenaic Procession the Parthenon
Designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates it has eight columns rather than the traditional six the Parthenon
FTP, identify this temple, the centerpiece of the Athenian Acropolis. the Parthenon
Early events in this philosopher's life include his father Icesias involving him in the debasing of the metal in his hometown, for which he was banished, and his subsequent abandonment by his slave Manes Diogenes of Sinope
Late in life he was kidnapped by pirates and sold to the nobleman Xeniades Diogenes of Sinope
Famous anecdotes involving him include his plucking of a fowl to demonstrate Plato's claim of man being a "featherless biped" and his famous anachronistic meeting with Alexander the Great, described by Plutarch Diogenes of Sinope
FTP, identify this philosopher said to have used a lamp in broad daylight to search for an honest man, a man considered to be the founder of Cynicism. Diogenes of Sinope
He began construction on a number of aqueducts including the Anio Novus which were completed under his successor Caligula or Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
Among the casualties of his reign was the joint heir at his succession, Gemellus, and the prefect of the Praetorian Guard Macro Caligula or Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
Another prefect, Marcus Clemens, joined a band of conspirators including his assassin Cassius Chaerea Caligula or Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
He dined with and showered gifts upon Incitatus who, unfortunately, was a horse Caligula or Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
With a name meaning "little boots", FTP, name this son of Agrippina the Elder and Germanicus who ruled as Roman emperor from 37-41 A.D Caligula or Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
after succeeding Tiberius. Caligula or Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
Among the lowlights of his reign was the exile and subsequent execution of Helvidius Priscus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus or Titus Flavius Vespasianus
His rise to emperor was due mainly to the military success of Antonius Primus and the support of Mucianus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus or Titus Flavius Vespasianus
His reign saw the re-building of the Capitol, which had been burned during a conflict between his supporters and those of his predecessor Vitellius, whom he rebelled against while commander in Judea Caesar Vespasianus Augustus or Titus Flavius Vespasianus
Succeeded by his son Titus, FTP, name this Roman emperor who began construction of the Colosseum and who founded the Flavian dynasty in 69 AD. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus or Titus Flavius Vespasianus
His early successes included the defeat of Domitius Ahenobarbus and King Iarbas in Africa Pompey the Great or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
He reinforced Caecilius Metellus Pius against Sertorius in Spain and the lex Gabinia gave him a special command against Mediterranean pirates Pompey the Great or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
He ended the war of Spartacus and the final revolt of Mithridates VI, but his military success came to an end approximately fifteen years later when he fought to a draw at Dyrrachium and was crushed at Pharsalus in 48 BC by his greatest rival Pompey the Great or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
FTP, name this member of the first triumvirate and chief rival of Julius Caesar. Pompey the Great or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
His final ruling stint came after his victory near Mount Hymettus Peisistratus
He extended influence by recovering Sigeum, thereby controlling the Hellespont, and by acquiring the Thracian Chersonese Peisistratus
His second time in power came after he married the daughter of Megacles, although he was later forced out by Megacles and Lycurgus Peisistratus
This son of Hippocrates had first come to power with much difficulty but peacefully passed rule to his son Hippias Peisistratus
FTP, name this man who unified Attica as the 6th century BC tyrant of Athens. Peisistratus
His first known action was the negotiation of a treaty at Margus that gained his people a sum of 700 pounds of gold a year Attila
He died during the reign of Marcian and came to power after the death of his uncle Rua and after he killed his intended co-ruler, his brother Bleda Attila
His rule was already on the decline before Aetius and a confederation of troops defeated him at Catalaunian Plains, or the Battle of Chalons in 451 Attila
FTP, name this so-called "Scourge of God" and feared ruler of the Huns. Attila
His lesser victories included Lyginus where he defeated the Triballi and the Jaxartes where he defeated the Scythians Alexander the Great or Alexander III of Macedon
Among his less honorable acts were the destruction of Thebes and the slaying, in a fit of anger, of Cleitus the Black who saved his life at the Granicus Alexander the Great or Alexander III of Macedon
The commander of the companion cavalry at Chaeronea, his major victories came at the Hydaspes - against Porus - and Issus and Guagamela against Darius III Alexander the Great or Alexander III of Macedon
After his death, his generals Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus divided up his kingdom Alexander the Great or Alexander III of Macedon
FTP, name this Macedonian prince who conquered much of the known world before dying in his 30s. Alexander the Great or Alexander III of Macedon
This empire often had trouble keeping its great families such as Karin, Gev, and Suren in check and its administration has often been described as "feudal." Notable rulers include Vologeses I, who sought to put a puppet ruler up in Aremnia and earned the Parthians or Parthia (accept Arsacids before mentioned).
Ruled by the Arsacid dynasty, this empire was defeated in campaigns by Trajan and Septimius Severus, but did succeed in defeating and killing Crassus a Carrhae Parthians or Parthia (accept Arsacids before mentioned).
FTP, name this Middle-Eastern empire, which preceded the Sassanids as rulers of Persia. Parthians or Parthia (accept Arsacids before mentioned).
One early victory was over the Merkit who had kidnapped his wife Borte Genghis Khan or Jenghiz Khan or Chaangyus Khan or Temujin
In this fight and in his later rise to power he was greatly aided by Togril, a friend of his father Yekusai, whom he later turned against Genghis Khan or Jenghiz Khan or Chaangyus Khan or Temujin
He succeeded in consolidating his people and gaining rule over them at the khuriltai of 1206 and went on to lead them against the Kwarezm Empire as well as the Hsia and Ch'in kingdoms Genghis Khan or Jenghiz Khan or Chaangyus Khan or Temujin
He died while on campaign in China and was succeeded by his son Ogadai Genghis Khan or Jenghiz Khan or Chaangyus Khan or Temujin
FTP, identify this great Mongol ruler, the grandfather of Kublai. Genghis Khan or Jenghiz Khan or Chaangyus Khan or Temujin
He owned a herd of magnificent oxen that he kept on Mount Ida and his grandfather, Tros, deeded him a team of matchless horses that he offered as a reward to save his daughter Laomedon
Eventually Telamon took his golden veiled daughter, Hesione, away to Salamis after Heracles, who had slain the sea monster plaguing this man's city, killed him for his treachery Laomedon
This was not the first time this father of Tithonus and Priam had run afoul of the gods Laomedon
Earlier he had failed to pay Apollo and Poseidon for helping to build up his city's defenses Laomedon
FTP identify this monarch, the son of Ilus, under whose reign the walls of Troy were constructed. Laomedon
Hers is the first name in the subtitle of Camille Paglia's Sexual Personae Nefertiti (or Nefretete)
While debates rage whether she was of royal blood, her father was probably an official named Ay Nefertiti (or Nefretete)
What is more reliable is that in the twelfth year of her husband's reign, she either fell from favor or died, and although she bore him six girls, his two sons, including Smenkhare, were probably from his second wife Kiya Nefertiti (or Nefretete)
Her face is well known from numerous statues and carvings of the Amarna period, although her mummy has not been found Nefertiti (or Nefretete)
FTP, name this Egyptian queen, aunt of Tutankhamun and wife of Akhenaten. Nefertiti (or Nefretete)
They were divided into three types: those in the military commanded bodyguard and auxiliary units, and usually each legion included six of them tribunes
The second type usually collected tribute, distributed soldier's pay, and afer 168 BCE, formed a distinct order below the equestrian class tribunes
The most famous type, however, could invalidate acts of lower magistrates as well as consuls through their veto, and some, like the Gracchi brothers, championed social causes like land reform, although under the empire, their power was usurped by the empe tribunes
FTP, name these Roman officials who presided over the plebian assembly and often agitated for plebian demands. tribunes
Leading figures in their society included the eran spahbod, their military leader; and the mobadan mobad, the head of the priests that served as the main authority over the empire's official form of Zoroastrianism Sassanids
Before the fall of their final ruler Yadzagird III, they rose to prominence by conquering the Parthians and gaining territory from the Romans in a war that even saw the capture of emperor Valerian by Shahpur I Sassanids
Finally falling 400 years later as a result of war with the Byzantines and the rise of Islam, FTP, what is this Persian dynasty with capital at Ctesiphon that ruled from 224 to 651 AD? Sassanids
Around 130 B.C Bactria
it became part of the Kushan empire Bactria
One satrap of this ancient country, Bessus, briefly tried to organize resistance to Alexander the Great after the defeat of Darius III, and it was later under the rule of Perdiccas and Antigonus Bactria
After becoming a kingdom, its rulers included Eucratides and Euthydemus, but Greek rule was later challenged by the Indo-Scythians and the Tochari Bactria
FTP, name this kingdom founded around 250 BC when the Seleucid satrap Diodotus conquered Sogdiana and made himself an independent ruler, and which also lends its name with a certain type of camel. Bactria
They developed Africa's only indigenous written script, Ge'ez, which has evolved into modern Amharic script, and the first coinage used in sub-Saharan Africa Aksum
Key cities included Yeha, Mantara, and its port of Adulis on the Red Sea, and their namesake capital, which covered 75 hectares during this kingdom's height Aksum
Notable for constructing enormous stone monoliths over the graves of their leaders, they appear to have discontinued this practice in the fourth century CE, possibly as a result of their conversion to Christianity Aksum
FTP, name this civilization of the Ethiopian plateau. Aksum
The son of either Ikunum or Laibum, his humble origins included his service as cup-bearer to Zababa Sargon I or Sargon of Akkad
His intervention in a merchant's dispute in Pur-sha-handa brought him to the height of his career, which included an invasion of Cyprus Sargon I or Sargon of Akkad
Kassala and Subartu fell to him after his victory at the Battle of Nippur, leading him to become the first ruler of his people to govern a multi-ethnic state, which included the Elamites, whose capitol city of Susa he burned Sargon I or Sargon of Akkad
FTP, name this successor of Lugal-za-gesir who established the world's first historical empire in Mesopotamia. Sargon I or Sargon of Akkad
This language used short vertical lines to separate words and did not distinguish between voiced, voiceless, and aspirated stops Linear B (at no point prompt on Linear A).
It was syllabic and had no signs for lone consonants making closed syllables cumbersome to write Linear B (at no point prompt on Linear A).
It also employed logograms which may explain why it was initially believed to be a pictographic language by Sir Arthur Evans Linear B (at no point prompt on Linear A).
Deciphered in 1953 by John Chadwick and Michael Ventris, FTP, identify this language found on clay Tablets in many Mycenaean cities, the earliest known form of written Greek. Linear B (at no point prompt on Linear A).
The third led a revolt based in Britain and was briefly recognized by Honorius before being suppressed Constantine
The second died in a civil war with his similarly-named brothers Constantine
The fifth was nicknamed Copronymus and continued the iconoclastic policies of his father Leo II Constantine
The last was the eleventh and was also the last emperor of Byzantium Constantine
All these men shared their name with, for 10 points, what emperor who fought Licinius and Maxentius on his way to becoming the first Christian Roman emperor. Constantine
It was originally composed of two independent kingdoms which were separated by the Tees River Northumbria
It was united by Aethelfrith of Bernicia, who was later defeated by Edwin of Deira Edwin added Scottish and Welsh territory to this kingdom and established its superiority in England Northumbria
The Danes invaded it in 867 with their victory at York, and Canute installed Danish earls, of whom Siward was the last and most powerful FTP, name this kingdom of northern England. Northumbria
By the end of this encounter one side's lack of supplies caused all civilians and wounded to be expelled at the base of Mount Auxois where many starved to death Alesia
Preceded by a skirmish at Vingeanne, which allowed them to hunker down, the defenders were ordered to dig a trench north-south between the Ose and Oserain rivers along the namesake town Alesia
The aggressors responded by digging their own series of trenches and setting up a 12 foot high wall, with observation towers every 130 feet Alesia
This technique allowed the Romans to beat back attacks from both sides and trapped the Chief of the Averni and his men in the town Alesia
But after capturing Avaricum, Lutetia, and Gergovia, Labienus and his general were feeling confident that the Gauls would fold Alesia
FTP identify this 52 B.C Alesia
battle which saw Caesar defeat Vercingetorix. Alesia
In 147 B.C.E Tiberius Gracchus
he served on the staff of his cousin Aemilianus during the attack on Carthage, and was given an award for being the first to mount the walls of a minor town being stormed Tiberius Gracchus
In 137 B.C.E Tiberius Gracchus
he negotiated a surrender settlement with the Numantines, but was humiliated when the Senate rejected it Tiberius Gracchus
Cicero later argued that this episode spurred him, while Plebeian Tribune, to propose land reform measures unfavorable to the ruling oligarchy Tiberius Gracchus
FTP, identify this man who was killed in 132 BC near the Capitol, during an armed confrontation with political enemies. Tiberius Gracchus
According to one legend this historical figure received a signet ring from Honoria, the sister of Valentinian III, which he assumed was a marriage proposal Attila the Hun
The leader of forces assembled by his uncle Rua, he killed the Visigothic king Theodoric I at a 451 battle near the Marne river, though in the end his forces were defeated by Aetius Attila the Hun
Said to have been convinced by Pope Leo I not to sack Rome the following year, FTP, name this loser at Chalons, the legendary king of the Huns usually referred to as the "Scourge of God." Attila the Hun
This man first gained fame during the Megarian war, and organized a new party to vie with the factions of Lycurgus and Megacles, whose daughter he married Peisistratus
After twice briefly holding power and being expelled, he gathered allies and wealth before defeating the Athenian army during a surprise attack at Pallene Peisistratus
In addition to purifying Delos and gaining control of the Hellespont, he encouraged Miltiades to set up a tyranny over Chersonesus Peisistratus
Identify this tyrant succeeded by his sons Hippias and Hipparchus, who was, FTP, ruler of Athens from 561-527. Peisistratus
During the reign of the eleventh and last king with this name, Herihor, high priest of Karnar, effectively ruled at Thebes and was succeeded by Smendes, a merchant prince Ramses or the Ramesside kings
Libyan marauders were present in Thebes during the ninth and tenth ruler's reigns, while the fourth and fifth completed great projects like the two temples at Dayr al-Bahri Ramses or the Ramesside kings
The third saved Egypt for the confederation of the sea peoples, while the first ruled for only two years and was succeeded by his son Seti Ramses or the Ramesside kings
FTP, identify these Egyptian kings of the 19th and 20th dynasties, the second of whom built temples at Luxor and Abu Simbel. Ramses or the Ramesside kings
The lex Plautie Papiria was passed as a result of this conflict Social War or Marsic War of War of the Allies (accept Italic war before "Italians")
After forming a republic with capital at Corfinium, the insurgents won victories in the northern sector until Marius and Strabo managed to suppress them, but Lucius Julius Caesar suffered reverses in the south that forced him to pass a law to dissuade the Social War or Marsic War of War of the Allies (accept Italic war before "Italians")
Spurred by the assassination of Livius Drusus, FTP, identify the 91-88 BC conflict in which the Marsi, Samnites, and other disenfranchised Italians fought for independence from Rome. Social War or Marsic War of War of the Allies (accept Italic war before "Italians")
This emperor executed Eprius Marcellus, one of his earlier supporters, late in his reign, and banished Helvidius Priscus Titus Flavius Vespasianus
Legate in Judaea, he gained power after defeating his predecessor's forces at the second battle of Bedriacum and at Rome with his brother's and Mucianus' support Titus Flavius Vespasianus
His cousin Cerealis broke a revolt in the Rhineland, and Romans reached their furthest extent into Britain at Mt Titus Flavius Vespasianus
Graupius during this man's reign Titus Flavius Vespasianus
FTP, identify this emperor who erected a temple of peace, restored the Capitol, and was succeeded by his son Titus. Titus Flavius Vespasianus
The first evidence of their existence are the Kultepe tablets and their archive at Bogazkoy has yielded some early inscriptions Hittite
Their mythology centered on the Illuyankas stories, the missing god tales of Telipinus and the Storm-god, Teshub, and the consorts Kumarbis and Ullukummis Hittite
Labarnus founded their Old Kingdom and under Suppilulimas they successfully assimilated the Hurrians Hittite
Most famously defeated under King Muwutallis at Kadesh by Ramses, this is, for 10 points, what ancient people who ruled the land of Hatti and apparently first used iron weapons? Hittite
He died in pitched battle at Pistoia while fleeing for his life Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina
He made his name during the Social War, while serving with Pompey under the forces of Pompeius Strabo Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina
It was actually the ambassadors of the Celtic Allobroges tribe and his mistress that would prove his undoing Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina
These details are mostly found in the biography of him written by Sallust Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina
Sallust also relates that after serving as governor of Africa, this man was barred from running for consul and how his attempt to circumvent the ban led to Cicero's series of orations against him Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina
For 10 points - identify this namesake of a 63 BC conspiracy to seize the consulship. Catiline or Lucius Sergius Catilina
Their settling pattern seems to have been marked on the southern end by the Acari Valley Nazca
They survived the coastal desert by bringing in water through a large series of underground aqueducts Nazca
Much of that water came from their namesake river, the south bank of which was the site of their capital, Cahuachi [KA-wa-chee] Nazca
They arose from the Paracas culture, and their chief contribution remains their immense and cryptic namesake "Lines," carved across numerous edifices Nazca
For 10 points, name this first millennium CE Peruvian culture that gave way to the Incas and whose name survives in a South American tectonic plate. Nazca
They were divided into six tribes, including one called the Magi, and, according to Herotudus, Deioces united them in the 8th century BC Medes or Media
A total solar eclipse on May 28, 585 BC, caused an army from this country led by Cyaxares to abort a battle with the Lydians and negotiate a peace treaty Medes or Media
An alliance with the Babylonian ruler Nabopolassar culminated in the conquest of the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in 612 BC Medes or Media
For ten points, identify this horse breeding people subjugated by Cyrus the Great, who had their capital at Ekbatana. Medes or Media
The groundwork for this battle was laid by a successful surprise attack during the siege of Utica Zama
The Roman force arranged itself in columns with hastati in front, separated by velites Zama
Laelius' cavalry quickly succeed on the Roman left in this battle whose site Livy identified as Naraggara Zama
Nevertheless, a timely maneuver by the Numidian cavalry under Masinissa allowed the Romans to outflank and destroy the Carthaginians in - for 10 points - what 202 BCE battle in which Scipio Africanus neutralized Hannibal's war elephants, deciding the Seco Zama
Tarquinius Priscus was the subject of the first one recorded by Livy, while Valerius was the first to be given one by the Republic Triumph or Triumphus
The subject wore the gold embroidered toga picta and would be followed by a slave reminding him he was merely a mortal Triumph or Triumphus
The criteria for one included the killing of 5,000 enemies in a public war which expanded Roman territory Triumph or Triumphus
The subject's soldiers followed him often ridiculing him while his conquered foes were led before him in humiliation Triumph or Triumphus
For 10 points - identify this procession awarded to victorious Roman generals. Triumph or Triumphus
Hroswitha of Gandersheim claims to have written her plays so that her nuns would spend less time reading this author Publius Terentius Afer or Terence
Lucius Turpio, a leading actor of the time, promoted the author's early career, but his help was not enough to twice prevent the failure of the work, The Mother-in-Law Publius Terentius Afer or Terence
The most famous member of the "Scipionic Circle," none of his extant work is original, but works like Adelphi and Eunuchus, are notable for the quality of their latin Publius Terentius Afer or Terence
The author of six extant works including The Maid of Andros and Phormio -- for 10 points -- name this Carthaginian whose adaptations of source material by Menander affected his release from slavery. Publius Terentius Afer or Terence
The losing commander had been defeated at Mytilene and won a decisive battle at Arginusae a year before this battle Aegospotami
After trying to unsuccessfully engage the opposing side for four days, since the namesake town was too small to have a market, the troops under Conon scattered to look for food Aegospotami
Only the Paralus and about ten other ships survived the subsequent destruction once the Spartans realized the Athenian fleet was unguarded Aegospotami
FTP, identify the 405 BC battle in which Lysander decimated the Athenian fleet. Aegospotami
He was succeeded by his brother Smenkhkare, who was co-regent with him during the final years of his reign Akhenaten or Amenhotep IV
Like his father, who married a non-royal woman named Tiy, he married a woman who was not of royal blood, the daughter of a vizier named Ay Akhenaten or Amenhotep IV
After changing his name in the fifth year of his reign, he moved the capital in the following year to a site in Middle Egypt which is now known as el-Amarna Akhenaten or Amenhotep IV
FTP, name this pharoah of the 18th dynasty who was married to Nefertiti and introduced the cult of a son god named Aten. Akhenaten or Amenhotep IV
One person by this name was exiled to Tremerius, while another was sent to Rhegium after being kept on the island of Pandataria for five years Julia Caesaris
Septimius Severus married the one called Domna Julia Caesaris
One was the mother of Mark Antony, and Gaius Marius launched his political career by marrying another Julia Caesaris
At the age of 12, the future Emperor Augustus eulogized one, and another, once betrothed to Sulla's heir, was married to Pompey the Great, cementing Pompey's alliance with her father Julia Caesaris
FTP, give this common name of Roman females, one of whom was Augustus's daughter, whose proclivities led to the banishment of Ovid. Julia Caesaris
Under the command of Aulus Plautius, he captured twenty hill-forts, including the Maiden Castle in Dorset, as well as the Isle of Wright in A.D Caesar Vespasianus Augustus [or Titus Flavius Vespasianus]
43 Caesar Vespasianus Augustus [or Titus Flavius Vespasianus]
Two decades later, he was appointed to quell the Great Jewish Revolt Caesar Vespasianus Augustus [or Titus Flavius Vespasianus]
His reign as emperor saw the Batavian rebellion and the campaigns of Agricola in Britain, as well as the start of construction on the Colosseum Caesar Vespasianus Augustus [or Titus Flavius Vespasianus]
His ten year rule was followed by reigns by both of his sons, Titus and Domitian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus [or Titus Flavius Vespasianus]
FTP, name this founder of the Flavian dynasty who emerged victorious from the Year of the Four Emperors. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus [or Titus Flavius Vespasianus]
The oldest surviving one is known as Sialk and is located in the suburbs of Kashan Ziggurats
Robert Koldewey found one in Borsippa which dates back to the 5th century BC, and the largest of them, known as Chogha Zanbil, was created in Dur Untashi, near Susa, around 1200 BC under the direction of Untash-Gal Ziggurats
Koldewey also found one that he took to be a temple to Marduk, the name of which, Etemenanki, translates as "The Foundation of Heaven and Earth." Having no interior chambers, it typically possessed a mud-brick core and an exterior covered with baked brick Ziggurats
With about 25 remaining today, FTP, name these step-pyramids of ancient Mesopotamia. Ziggurats
It gives permission to use white linen for saddlecloths and is dated to the consulate of Galligano Donation of Constantine [or Donatio Constantini; or Constitutum Constantini]
Expressing gratitude for the end of worshipping "mute and deaf images made by hand," it contains an out-of-place reference to satraps and makes pledges regarding a city that had not yet been founded Donation of Constantine [or Donatio Constantini; or Constitutum Constantini]
Commissioned by Stephen II, it was based on legends surrounding St Donation of Constantine [or Donatio Constantini; or Constitutum Constantini]
Sylvester Donation of Constantine [or Donatio Constantini; or Constitutum Constantini]
Questioned as early as the tenth century by Otto III, it was finally discredited in 1440, when analysis of Latin styles by Lorenzo Valla proved that it was a forgery Donation of Constantine [or Donatio Constantini; or Constitutum Constantini]
FTP, name this document, purportedly a grant of temporal authority to the Pope by a Roman Emperor. Donation of Constantine [or Donatio Constantini; or Constitutum Constantini]
He ordered a woman named Cornificia to be killed after she was caught weeping for this man's dead brother, and the same punishment was given to this man's wife, Publia Flavia Plautilla Caracalla
This man gained popularity when he marched on foot while touring the German borders with his soldiers, and after a victory over the Agri Decumates he was given the title "Germanicus Maximus." While he was fighting the Parthians in the east, a conspiracy a Caracalla
FTP, name this Roman emperor who was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus, who murdered his brother Geta in 211 to become sole ruler after they succeeded Septimius Severus. Caracalla
From 260 to 273, this province was the namesake of an independent empire centered on Trier Gaul [or Gallia]
Narbo Martius was founded here, while its native religious center of Lugdunum became the capital Gaul [or Gallia]
It was the home of the Insubres and the Cenomani, who allied with Carthage, while the help of Aedui helped conquer the Allobroges and the Arverni here Gaul [or Gallia]
After the Suevi and Helvetii settled here and Vercingetorix launched a revolt, a series of wars in the 50s BCE under the command of Julius Caesar brought the whole region under Roman control Gaul [or Gallia]
FTP, name this ancient land, divided into Cisalpine and Transalpine portions, which corresponds to present-day France. Gaul [or Gallia]
Their terms could receive the prorogatio, extending them for a year, and the prefix "pro" appended to this title identifies the governor of a Senatorial province consul
Cambacères [kahm-ba-SEHR] and Lebrun were two of the three men who held it during the five years when it was an executive office in Republican France consul
Under the Empire, twelve or more men a year could hold it, mostly on a "suffect" rather than "ordinary" basis consul
Caesar in 59 BC and Marius consecutively from 104 to 100 had the year named in their honor as holders of, FTP, what principal executive magistracy of the Roman Republic, held by two persons at one time? consul
Its tenth ruler ordered that solar temples and houses for acllas be built in Tumi Pampa, Hatun Colla, and Charcas Inca empire or Tiwantinsuya
Originating in the village of Pagari-tampu, it extended its influence under Yupanqui, and the earliest date that can be assigned to its timeline is 1438, when Pachacuti Yupanqui usurped the throne from his brother Urcon Inca empire or Tiwantinsuya
Under its eighth ruler, Viracocha, it first instituted its policy of establishing permanent garrisons among the conquered, which included such peoples as the Chacanas, the Chimu, and the Quechua Inca empire or Tiwantinsuya
The death of Huayna Capac resulted in civil war between Huascar and his brother, and this empire collapsed when its last emperor was captured at Cajamarca Inca empire or Tiwantinsuya
FTP, name this South American empire whose last ruler was Atahualpa and which was destroyed by Francisco Pizarro. Inca empire or Tiwantinsuya
Part of the losing army thought that an opposing general was slaughtered by spearing his tent repeatedly during this engagement, while another part tried to build a dam across the River Strymon Battle of Philippi
After the initial skirmishes, one commander ordered his shield-bearer Pindarus to kill him, not knowing that his compatriot had broken into the camp of Octavian Battle of Philippi
Twenty days later, a re-engagement resulted in a decisive victory over the Republican forces Battle of Philippi
FTP, name this battle at which Cassius and Brutus died and the Second Triumvirate secured its power in Rome. Battle of Philippi
It occurred simultaneously with conflict against Philip V in the First Macedonian War The Second Punic War [accept Hannibalic War until Hannibal is read; accept Second Carthaginian War before Carthage is read; prompt on Punic War; prompt on Carthaginian War]
It began with the breaking of the Ebro River treaty, and at the end Massinissa gained territory by supporting the victors The Second Punic War [accept Hannibalic War until Hannibal is read; accept Second Carthaginian War before Carthage is read; prompt on Punic War; prompt on Carthaginian War]
Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator [kunk-TAH-tor], the "Delayer," gained his name by advocating a policy of attrition in this conflict The Second Punic War [accept Hannibalic War until Hannibal is read; accept Second Carthaginian War before Carthage is read; prompt on Punic War; prompt on Carthaginian War]
Notable battles of this seventeen year war are Lake Trasimene, Cannae [KAHN-nee], and Trebbia, which marked the last European appearance for some time of war elephants The Second Punic War [accept Hannibalic War until Hannibal is read; accept Second Carthaginian War before Carthage is read; prompt on Punic War; prompt on Carthaginian War]
FTP, name this war in which Hannibal invaded Italy on behalf of Carthage. The Second Punic War [accept Hannibalic War until Hannibal is read; accept Second Carthaginian War before Carthage is read; prompt on Punic War; prompt on Carthaginian War]
The position for this battle was chosen for proximity to Carystus and Eretria, and one side hoped that Rhamnus to the north would serve as a rallying point for Hippias Marathon
The losers sailed around Cape Sounion afterwards, after issuign a shower of arrows from troops recently arrived out of Euboea Marathon
The victors were forced to run to their targets, and their flanks were reinforced to trap the enemy in a circle Marathon
Leading to defeat of Datis and Artaphernes (ar tuh FURR neez), it saw the Athenians and Plataeans overwhelm the Persians before the cavalry could participate Marathon
FTP, name this victory for Miltiades at the plains of Attica, mythically associated with the runner Phidippides. Marathon
Plutarch, in his Life of Pelopidas, writes that it was created by Gorgidas in the tradition of Iolaus, and Xenophon observed in his Constitution of Sparta that cultural traditions of Boeotia were favorable to its formation the Sacred Band
It first proved its worth at Tegyrae, when it overcame a Spartan force twice its size, but its most famous exploits came in the victory over the forces of Cleombrotus in 371 BCE the Sacred Band
Although its most famous leader, Epaminondas, was killed at Mantinea, after Chaeronea, Phillip of Macedon is reported to have said, "Perish miserably they who think that these men did or suffered aught disgraceful," in reference to, FTP, what elite unit o the Sacred Band
One branch of this people carved the "horseman of Madara" and captured Greek masons to build a stone palace at Pliska Bulgars (grudgingly accept: Bulgarians)
The other, the followers of Bayan, founded the fur-trading city of Suvar Bulgars (grudgingly accept: Bulgarians)
Though they were subjugated by the Golden Horde, their descendants survive today as the Chuvash, Turkic-speakers of the Volga valley Bulgars (grudgingly accept: Bulgarians)
Khan Krum killed the Emperor Nicephorus and drank from his skull, but his successors almost converted to Catholicism and gradually adopted the language of their Slavic subjects Bulgars (grudgingly accept: Bulgarians)
FTP, name this people famously slain by Emperor Basil II. Bulgars (grudgingly accept: Bulgarians)
Born with the name Codomannus, he distinguished himself in single combat against the Cadusians and was rewarded with rule over Armenia Darius III
He came to the throne with the help of the eunuch Bagoas, who poisoned his predecessors, Arses and Artaxerxes III Ochus Darius III
He was deposed by his satrap Bessus, who then ordered his assassination in an attempt to slow the advance of an invader who had defeated this man at battles on the banks of the Pinarus and Granicus rivers Darius III
FTP, name this last Achaemenid emperor who lost the battles of Issus and Gaugamela to Alexander the Great. Darius III
In the Middle Ages, it was widely believed that this man was buried at Susa Daniel
He was taken to court as a boy during the fourth year of the reign of Joakim, where he was assigned the eunuch Asphenez as his tutor Daniel
Later, he changed his name to Baltassar at the same time that his friends Misael, Ananias, and Azarias changed their names Daniel
Later still, the prophet Habbakuk was carried by the hair from Judea to feed him lunch when he was in captivity Daniel
Many of his prophecies concern Antiochus Epiphanes, who appears as the "little horn" in the prophecy of the four beasts Daniel
One portion of his book features the Song of the Three Children, while others concern the rescue of Joachim's wife and the episode of Bel and the Dragon Daniel
FTP, identify this companion of Shadrach, Mesach, and Abednego who was thrown into the lions' den. Daniel
After his sudden death, Salutius refused the throne, and Victor successfully conspired to have the army proclaim as his successor a drunk who suffocated to death seven months after taking office Flavius Claudianus Julianus the Apostate
In the first year of his reign, he chose Mamertinus and Nevitta as consuls, causing a scandal with the latter selection because he had chosen a Frank Flavius Claudianus Julianus the Apostate
His predecessor lost the city of Amida to Sapor, which caused this man to lead a campaign against the Persians that cost him his life Flavius Claudianus Julianus the Apostate
He was appointed Caesar by Constantius, whom he succeeded upon the latter's death in 361 Flavius Claudianus Julianus the Apostate
FTP, name this Roman emperor who issued a proclamation of religious tolerance during his brief reign, which earned him the nickname "the Apostate." Flavius Claudianus Julianus the Apostate
Towards the end of his life George Dumezil wrote a book on this Roman hero, noting that his battles involving sudden assaults at daybreak may suggest that he was actually a solar deity made mortal Marcus Furius Camillus
Builder of the Temple of Concordia later in life to celebrate the Sexto-Licinian laws in 367, he was paired with Themistocles by Plutarch because like him he won a great victory for his community and was later exiled, though unlike the Greek this man retu Marcus Furius Camillus
FTP name this Roman who defeated and reclaimed the spoil taken by Brennus and the Gauls and was revered as a second Romulus for his direction of the rebuilding of the city. Marcus Furius Camillus
His first military success drove the Ligurians into the Alps, while his last was the capture of Tarentum Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator
His opponents, such as the people's tribune Metilius, denounced his prisoner-exchange scheme and promoted his deputy, Minucius Rufus, Master of the Horse, to command the first and fourth legions Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator
Although he then saved Minucius from ambush, his policies proved unpopular and were abandoned under Terentius Varro and Aemilius Paullus Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator
He later opposed the invasion of Africa by his most prominent political and military rival Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator
FTP, name this Roman general nicknamed "the delayer," the namesake of a gradualist form of socialism. Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator
Most modern scholars accept that it was located on Mount Auxois in Burgundy, though a few still prefer a location in the Jura Alesia
The threat to this oppidum of the Mandubii encouraged Commius and Viridomarus to raise a 250,000 man relief force, which was repulsed by Caius Trebonius and Marcus Antonius defending the redoubts along the lines of circumvallation Alesia
Toward the end of the conflict the defenders expelled their civilians and wounded to conserve food for the soldiers still within the besieged city Alesia
FTP, name this conflict that saw the final defeat of Vercingetorix by Julius Caesar. Alesia
He was chosen by Vespasian to serve as the latter's fellow consul in 71, six years after he was honored by Nero for helping to suppress the conspiracy of Piso Marcus Cocceius Nerva
At the lowest point of his reign, he was imprisoned in the palace by the commander of the Praetorian Guard, Casperius Aelianus, who executed Parthenius and Petronius, the men who were chiefly responsible for the assassination of this man's predecessor Marcus Cocceius Nerva
Two months before he died of fever he adopted his successor, who was serving as governor of Upper Germany at the time Marcus Cocceius Nerva
According to Suetonius, this man in his younger days molested his predecessor in office, but upon the murder in 96 of Domitian this man was asked to replace him Marcus Cocceius Nerva
FTP, name this emperor who ruled for a mere 28 months before being succeeded by Trajan. Marcus Cocceius Nerva
His liaison with the sister of Agrippa II fueled his subjects' fears of Oriental despotism Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
Despite his lavish generosity, which completed the Temple of the Capitoline Jupiter, Cassius Dio reported that he was "frugal in money matters and made no unnecessary expenditure." His work in the empire's eastern provinces included negotiations with Gaiu Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
His reign saw the completion of the Flavian Amphitheatre and the burial of Pompeii Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
FTP, name this Roman emperor, whose brutal siege of Jerusalem is celebrated in his "Arch." Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus
His most famous serious of utterances begins with a consideration of the quote "Drink a little wine for thy stomach's sake," while the 21st and last was given upon the return of the aged Flavian Saint John Chrysostom or Saint John of Antioch
Along with a sermon which attacked the practice of women signing at funerals, "Against the Games and the Theaters," his best-known addresses were the homilies "On the Statues." Following the death of Nectarius, the emperor's chamberlain Eutropius suggest Saint John Chrysostom or Saint John of Antioch
After he was said to have called the Empress a "Jezebel," Theophilus of Alexandria and Eudoxia conspired to remove him from his post in Constantinople Saint John Chrysostom or Saint John of Antioch
He is one of the Three Holy Hierarchs of the Orthodox Church and a Doctor of the Church to Catholics, and most Orthodox and Eastern Rite churches use his Divine Liturgy Saint John Chrysostom or Saint John of Antioch
FTP, name this Byzantine theologian who after his death was given a name meaning "Golden Mouthed." Saint John Chrysostom or Saint John of Antioch
Ameinius of Pallene came close to collecting the 10,000 drachma bounty for capturing this ruler, but the unfortunate King Damasithymus of Calynda afforded a means of escape Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus
Another ruler of this name employed the sculptors Leochares and Scopas for a project completed around 350 BC Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus
Herodotus's frequent praise for this commander of the men of Cos and Nisyra is probably hometown patriotism Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus
The sinking of Damasithymus' ship supposedly prompted Xerxes to exclaim, "My men have turned into women, my women into men," on the mistaken assumption that this woman had rammed a Greek ship Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus
FTP, identify this participant in the battle of Salamis, a queen of Halicarnassus whose shares her name with a painter whose surname is Gentileschi. Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus
In 1893 Max Klinger sculpted a "new" version of this figure, while a bronze depiction was produced in 1930 by Friederic Storck Salome
A 1510 painting by Sebastiano del Piombo depicts her, and she is the subject of one of the Scalzo cloister paintings of Andrea del Sarto Salome
She appears holding a swatch of pink fabric in each hand and showing a lot of belly in a 1909 painting by Robert Henri, while she is almost nude and pointing with her outstretched left arm in 1876's The Apparition Salome
She is seen "dancing" in another painting of that year by Gustave Moreau, and the controversy about seventeen drawings of her which began to appear in 1894 in The Yellow Book forced their artist, Aubrey Beardsley, to flee England Salome
FTP, name this daughter of Herodias and Herod, whose naughty dance procured the decapitation of John the Baptist. Salome
His mother's lover Gallys conspired to raise him to power by secretly conducting him to the camp of the Third Legion, which proclaimed him emperor Elagabalus or Heliogabalus
Later, that Legion grew dissatisfied with him and tried to make its commander Berus emperor, but the coup failed, as did another led by Seleucus Elagabalus or Heliogabalus
His first wife was Julia Cornelia Paula; his third wife was Annia Faustina, a descendant of Marcus Aurelius; but it was his second wife, Julia Severa, who scandalized the people, as she was a Vestal Virgin when he married her Elagabalus or Heliogabalus
After succeeding Macrinus, he stayed at Antioch for months before travelling to Rome, where he attempted to institute a monotheistic religion based on the Syrian sun god whose priest he was Elagabalus or Heliogabalus
FTP, name this last of the Antonine emperors, who was born Varius Avitus Bassianus and was succeeded in 222 by Alexander Severus. Elagabalus or Heliogabalus
He covered his face in blood to avoid being recognized by his opponent's army after suffering a major defeat in the Valley of the Maidens Arminius or Hermann
At that battle on the Idistaviso plain, his wife Thusnelda was captured Arminius or Hermann
Seven years earlier, he had won a major victory in the aftermath of which a number of prisoners were nailed to trees while still alive Arminius or Hermann
As a youth, this son of Segimer served as an auxiliary in the army he would later oppose Arminius or Hermann
His great victory was achieved near Detmold, and led to the suicide of a former governor of Syria who had married the grand-niece of Augustus Arminius or Hermann
FTP, name this chief of the Cherusci, who in 9 AD defeated three Roman legions led by Varus in the Teutoberg Forest. Arminius or Hermann
Its late period saw the rise of the Gutians, and the invasion of the Amurrus hastened its decline the Akkadian Empire
Its fourth ruler took the title "king of the four quarters of the earth," and modestly had himself called a god the Akkadian Empire
That king's two predecessors, Manushtusu and Rimush, were both murdered, as was Naram-Sin the Akkadian Empire
The last of its five major rulers was Shar-kalli-sharri, while the first started out as a cupbearer at the court of King Ur-Zababa of Kish the Akkadian Empire
This empire reached its greatest extent after seizing the kingdom of Magan, and its people spoke a Semitic language whose Babylonian dialect replaced Sumerian as the common tongue, paralleling the defeat of Luggalzaggisi of Uruk that gave rise to the esta the Akkadian Empire
FTP, name this empire spanning all of southern Mesopotamia which was founded by Sargon the Great. the Akkadian Empire
The one at Napata selected Aspelta to be king, while the one at Elaius was popular with sailors and was associated with Protesilaus oracles
The one at Tefenni involved the throwing of dice, while the one at Thalamae was connected to Ino and involved incubation oracles
At Oropus, one slept on the skin of a ram, while the one at Antissa was associated with a famous severed head oracles
The one at Telmessos was visited by a messenger from Croesus, but he returned home too late to do any good oracles
One in Epirus was home to a sacred oak-tree, while the most famous one started out in the Korykian Cave before moving to a stone temple designed by Trophonius oracles
That one was the site of a conflict between a great dragon and Apollo, who possessed the Pythia who spoke there oracles
FTP, name these places at which people got advice from the gods, some of which were at Dodona and Delphi. oracles
One of them was ordered by a man who had defeated Kashtiliashu IV, though he would later be murdered by his own son, who felt he had brought evil on the empire through it the sacking of Babylon (accept reasonable equivalents)
A few years later, it was done again by the father of Shilkhak-in-Shushinak, Shutruk-Nahhunte the sacking of Babylon (accept reasonable equivalents)
It happened as a result of a revolt led by Shamash-Shuma-Ukin, during which the locals were forced to resort to cannibalism the sacking of Babylon (accept reasonable equivalents)
A few years earlier, it had been done in retaliation for the murder of Ashur-Nadin-Shumi the sacking of Babylon (accept reasonable equivalents)
Murshili I of the Hittites traveled a very long distance to do it in 1595 BC the sacking of Babylon (accept reasonable equivalents)
It was done without a battle in 539 BC, when Cyrus had his troops enter through a dried river bed the sacking of Babylon (accept reasonable equivalents)
FTP identify this action also performed by Sennacherib, one of which featured the theft by the Elamites of the Code of Hammurabi. the sacking of Babylon (accept reasonable equivalents)
It had three major parts, Munichia [moo-NIK-yuh], Zea [ZEE-uh] and Cantharus, the first two of which were exclusively military, while the last was mainly commercial Piraeus
It was designed by a man who was said to be the first non-statesman to speculate about the best form of government Piraeus
After being destroyed, it was rebuilt by a man who was coming off a big victory at Cnidus Piraeus
Its street plan was laid out by Hippodamus of Miletus, who may not have intended for it to contain a disproportionate number of its city's foreign residents Piraeus
This place is the site of an all-night religious festival to which Socrates is going when he gets waylaid and taken to Cephalus' house in Plato's Republic Piraeus
In 393 Conon undid the destruction by the Spartans from 10 years earlier and rebuilt Themistocles' long walls to, FTP, what triple harbor that was the main port of fifth-century Athens? Piraeus
At one point, it was ruled by the brothers Abreha and Atsbeha, who were notably visited by Frumentius Axum (or Aksum)
Athanasius recorded a letter which was sent to its king Ezana by Constantius II, while Procopius noted its struggle with a Yemeni ruler named Abreha Axum (or Aksum)
Its King Bazen has been claimed to be one of the Three Magi, while its last great ruler was known as Kaleb Axum (or Aksum)
Endubis was the first of its rulers to oversee the minting of coins, and Gedara is mentioned in its language, Ge'ez, as the "king of kings," a title inherited by all of its rulers, including one whose fourth-century invasion of Meroe made it the most powe Axum (or Aksum)
FTP, name this empire, centered at a namesake capital on the Tigray Plateau, which flourished between 100 and 700 CE. Axum (or Aksum)
One commander sought the element of surprise by avoiding the Dryocephalai Road, but divided his force upon reaching Hisiai Battle of Plataea
A long impasse in this battle was broken by an attempt to poison the Gargaphia spring eleven days after the defenders redeployed on Pyrgos Hill following the slaying of Masistius Battle of Plataea
The taking of Megara Pass caused Amompharetus to retreat from the foothills of Mt Battle of Plataea
Cithaeron, but on the final day, the Tegean hoplites broke through and advanced on the River Aisopos while the Thebans failed to destroy the Athenian force near the namesake town Battle of Plataea
The Bactrian force retreated north after Artabazus observed the Spartan unhorsing of Mardonius Battle of Plataea
FTP, name this 479 BC victory for Pausanius which preceded the Persian withdrawal from Greece. Battle of Plataea
A lesser-known group of this name was written about by Trebellius Pollio and was said to exist during the reign of the Roman emperor Gallienus Thirty Tyrants
They were established by the decree of Drakontides of Aphidna during the archonship of Pythodoros and the failed campaign to restore them by Pausanias followed their being driven out by Thrasyboulos Thirty Tyrants
Their deeds included the murder of one of their own by hemlock for lack of ruthlessness and the removing of the laws of Ephialtes from the Areopagus Thirty Tyrants
FTP, name this group including Theramenes and the author of Sisyphus and uncle of Plato, Critias, established in Athens after the Battle of Aegospotami by Lysander; a group named for the quantity of men involved. Thirty Tyrants
A man from this family with the cognomen Laetus was a Hippo Regian knight in the service of Otho Suetonius (or Suetonii)
A Paulinus of this gens was governor of Britain during Boudicea's revolt Suetonius (or Suetonii)
The most famous man of this name was dismissed from secretarial service due to a mutual disgust for Vibia Sabina after having been aided into Imperial favor by Pliny the Younger Suetonius (or Suetonii)
His once-popular Prata has not survived and, though he's often considered the least rhetorical of the Silver Age authors, he recalls Julius Hyginus in his De Grammaticis Suetonius (or Suetonii)
FTP, name this family of Romans whose most famous member, with cognomen Tranquillus, was the author of De viris illustribus and De vita Caesarum, The Lives of the Caesars. Suetonius (or Suetonii)
They worshipped the god Huang Lo, a tradition that had originally been approved of by Emperor Xuan Yellow Turban revolt (or Yellow Scarves revolt or T'ai Ping Tao)
They believed in the Magic and Immortality Tradition and wore amulets to ward off an epidemic caused by flooding of a nearby river Yellow Turban revolt (or Yellow Scarves revolt or T'ai Ping Tao)
After being defeated at the battle of Yanzhou, their remnants were absorbed into the Qingzhou army Yellow Turban revolt (or Yellow Scarves revolt or T'ai Ping Tao)
Ts'ao Ts'ao then used this army to win the battle of Guandu and establish the Wei Kingdom Yellow Turban revolt (or Yellow Scarves revolt or T'ai Ping Tao)
Originally led by Chang Chueh, they were the partial cause of the foundation of the Three Kingdoms Yellow Turban revolt (or Yellow Scarves revolt or T'ai Ping Tao)
FTP, identify this group that rebelled in 184 against the Han and that took its name from the color of heaven that would replace the blue heaven, the color of their headdresses. Yellow Turban revolt (or Yellow Scarves revolt or T'ai Ping Tao)
This man changed sides after being ousted by a pretender and hiding out in the Lesser Syrtis region and he won an early victory when he came to the aid of Indibilis, Prince of the Ilergetes Masinissa
As the second-in-command to Laelius, he coordinated the burning of the camp of Syphax and led the left wing at the battle of the Great Plains Masinissa
Confirmed as king by the Senate in 203 BCE, this son of Gaia built on his predecessor's founding of Siga and Cirta to build his empire Masinissa
However, he is most famous for having led the right cavalry wing at a 202 BCE battle against Hannibal Masinissa
FTP, identify this chieftain of the Massyles and grandfather of Jugurtha; one of the victors at Zama and the founder of the Numidian kingdom. Masinissa
It initially experienced success when Tinius Rufus decided to evacuate a major city, after which Julius Severus was brought in to oppose it Bar-Kochba's Rebellion (accept Bar-Kochba's Revolt)
Its causes included the creation of a new coin that showed a certain province as a woman taken prisoner and a plan to build a new city called Aelia Capitolina Bar-Kochba's Rebellion (accept Bar-Kochba's Revolt)
In its aftermath, a group of wise men who had supported it were executed, after which they became known as the Ten Martyrs Bar-Kochba's Rebellion (accept Bar-Kochba's Revolt)
Its namesake leader had a name meaning "son of a star" though his advisor, Rabbi Akiba, announced that he was the anointed king Bar-Kochba's Rebellion (accept Bar-Kochba's Revolt)
FTP, name this uprising against Roman rule which began in 132 CE, when Jewish rebels captured Jerusalem. Bar-Kochba's Rebellion (accept Bar-Kochba's Revolt)
One man of this name was put to death along with the poet Lentulus Gaeticulus after conspiring to assassinate his brother-in-law Lepiduses (or Lepidi)
That man was married to Drusilla, the sister of the man who eventually had him killed, Caligula Lepiduses (or Lepidi)
Another man of this name made an unsuccessful assassination attempt in 30 BCE, becoming the first man to try to murder an Emperor when he failed to kill Augustus Lepiduses (or Lepidi)
The most famous man of this name served as consul in 46 BCE before becoming pontifex maximus and, after the battle of Mutina, he joined with Mark Antony to march on Rome Lepiduses (or Lepidi)
FTP, name these Romans, the last of whom later assisted Octavian against Pompey as the third member of the Second Triumvirate. Lepiduses (or Lepidi)
He appears second in the chronology carved by Khnum-ib-re, immediately following his father, Kanofer Imhotep
His name also appeared in the "Song of the Harper" next to that of Hardedef and he was said to have abated the Seven Years Famine Imhotep
He or one of his followers may be the author of the Edwin Smith papyrus and those devoted to him spent the night in his temples in Memphis hoping that he would reveal miracles in their dreams Imhotep
The temple of Edfu was thought to have been his work, but he is better known for his work with the pharaoh Djoser Imhotep
FTP, identify this man identified with the Greek Asclepius and sometimes even with Jesus; a twenty-seventh-century BCE Egyptian sage, doctor, and architect who designed the first pyramid, the step pyramid of Saqqara. Imhotep
Among those involved in his assassination was the chamberlain Aspamithres Xerxes I (or Khshayarshan I or Ahasuerus I or Achashverosh I)
After his death, the throne passed over his son Hytapses and his successor executed the primary assassin, Artabanus Xerxes I (or Khshayarshan I or Ahasuerus I or Achashverosh I)
In an inscription from his reign, he claims to have destroyed the den of the daivas, leading some to believe that this man was religiously intolerant Xerxes I (or Khshayarshan I or Ahasuerus I or Achashverosh I)
Earlier, he had gained notoriety for taking a statue of Bel from the temple in Babylon, but he is most famous for a grand expedition that set out from Sardis and included among its preparations the digging of a canal through the Chalcidice Xerxes I (or Khshayarshan I or Ahasuerus I or Achashverosh I)
FTP, name this man victorious at Artemisium and Thermopylae before a resounding naval defeat at Salamis; a Persian king whose reign saw the latter stages of the Persian Wars started by his father, Darius I. Xerxes I (or Khshayarshan I or Ahasuerus I or Achashverosh I)
This building contains the grave of its country's first king, who also has a grandiose monument in the same city that is colloquially referred to as "the typewriter." It also contains the graves of an eighteenth-century composer of concerti grossi and a s the Pantheon (accept the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda or the Church of Santa Maria ad Martyres until mentioned)
Its facade columns are disproportionately tall, apparently because its original planned height was greater than what was achieved the Pantheon (accept the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda or the Church of Santa Maria ad Martyres until mentioned)
Still, its most famous feature was the largest of its kind in the world until 1436, when a structure in Florence surpassed it the Pantheon (accept the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda or the Church of Santa Maria ad Martyres until mentioned)
FTP, the Church of Santa Maria ad Martyres is an alternate name for what structure on Rome's Piazza della Rotonda that was built first by Agrippa and then again by Hadrian as a temple to all the planetary deities of Rome? the Pantheon (accept the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda or the Church of Santa Maria ad Martyres until mentioned)
One ancient city of this name, in Pisidia, was the largest Roman veteran colony in Asia Minor Antioch or Antiochus or Antakya
In the Book of Acts, Paul preaches a sermon there on Jesus as the successor of David before the leaders of the synagogue run him and Barnabas out of town Antioch or Antiochus or Antakya
The larger one, on the Orontes, was captured three times by Persians, after itself having been annexed by Pompey in 64 BCE Antioch or Antiochus or Antakya
It had early served as the capital for the Seleucid kings, many of whom shared its name Antioch or Antiochus or Antakya
FTP, a college near Dayton, Ohio shares the name of what city now in Turkey that was the capital of Roman Syria; the third-largest city in the Empire and, according to Acts, the place where Paul and his associates were first called Christians. Antioch or Antiochus or Antakya
His mother, Mandane, was a princess and a famous inscription of his notes that his great-grandfather was Teipses and his father was a king of Anshan Cyrus II, the Great (or accept either underlined part after Cyrus so long as it's proceeded by Cyrus)
He defeated rulers, such as Amasis II of Egypt, Nabonidus and Croesus of Lydia, but he died while fighting against the Massagetae Cyrus II, the Great (or accept either underlined part after Cyrus so long as it's proceeded by Cyrus)
He defeated his grandfather, Astyages, and built his capital, Pasargadae at the site of that battle and he later attacked his father-in-law and captured Ecbatana Cyrus II, the Great (or accept either underlined part after Cyrus so long as it's proceeded by Cyrus)
Believed to be the ideal king by Xenophon, his Stele tells how he captured Babylon without a battle and, according to the Bible, Daniel presented him with an ancient scroll of Isaiah on his entrance into Babylon Cyrus II, the Great (or accept either underlined part after Cyrus so long as it's proceeded by Cyrus)
FTP, identify this son of Cambyses I and first king of the Medo-Persian empire. Cyrus II, the Great (or accept either underlined part after Cyrus so long as it's proceeded by Cyrus)
The primary source of information for this battle is the writings of Tjaneni in the Hall of Annals of the victor Megiddo
After the aggressing army assembled at Sile, it set out for the city of Yehem, from which it launched an attack on the under-defended city of Aruna Megiddo
The opposing army, strengthened by forces from Mitanni, was concentrated largely to the north at Zefti and the south at Tanaach in the Jezreel valley, and had to scramble back to the river Qinah to face the aggressors Megiddo
The defending forces were routed, but the King of Qadesh escaped, leading to a seven-month siege Megiddo
FTP, name this battle won by Thutmose III in the fifteenth century BCE, the oldest known battle in history. Megiddo
It first occurred after the Praeneste campaign at the urging of Valerius Flaccus and was announced in the Temple of Bellona proscriptions or proscriptiones
A later example was carried out by Quintus Pedius and Plutarch writes of it happening to the gentleman Quintus Aurelius proscriptions or proscriptiones
Descendants of anyone subjected to this procedure were barred from public office for two generations and Catiline became notorious for killing his brother-in-law in the one that happened in 82 BCE proscriptions or proscriptiones
Formulated during a Senate discussion between Gaius Metellus and Sulla, this activity returned during the Second Triumvirate, when Cicero fell victim to it proscriptions or proscriptiones
FTP, name this practice in which a Roman ruler posted lists of opponents to be stripped of property and killed. proscriptions or proscriptiones
This polity originally comprised twelve tinkurus that were subjugated in the Kouroukan Fouga, which also established the Great Assembly, or Gbara Mali Empire (accept equivalents)
The empire also had three allied states, including Mema, which was ruled by a fama, and Wagadou Mali Empire (accept equivalents)
Wali Keita's rule followed that of the empire's founder, a magician whose rise to power and victory at the battle of Kirina over Sumanguru is traced in its Epic of Sundiata Mali Empire (accept equivalents)
The latter's grandson, a patron of Sankore University, had to take out a loan to return from his hajj since he gave away so much gold on the way Mali Empire (accept equivalents)
FTP, name this empire whose rulers, or Mansas, included Musa. Mali Empire (accept equivalents)
His family name and given name were Ying Zheng, and it is rumored that his real father was Lü Buwei since his mother had been Lü's concubine before marrying his father Zichu Qin Shihuangdi (Pron. approx.: Tchin Shuh-hwongdee)
Born in Handan in the State of Zhao where his father was a hostage, he survived an assassination attempt by Jing Ke Qin Shihuangdi (Pron. approx.: Tchin Shuh-hwongdee)
From his capital at Xianyang (pron Qin Shihuangdi (Pron. approx.: Tchin Shuh-hwongdee)
approx.: Hsyienyang), he conquered the state of Qi, as well as the area corresponding to modern Guangdong province in the south Qin Shihuangdi (Pron. approx.: Tchin Shuh-hwongdee)
Assisted by his Chancellor Li Si (pron Qin Shihuangdi (Pron. approx.: Tchin Shuh-hwongdee)
approx.: Lee Suh), he implemented a Legalist program, eliminating feudalism and dividing his domain into commanderies ruled by centrally-appointed governors Qin Shihuangdi (Pron. approx.: Tchin Shuh-hwongdee)
Buried in a tomb near Xi'an (pron Qin Shihuangdi (Pron. approx.: Tchin Shuh-hwongdee)
approx.: Hsyee-an) with an army of life-size terracotta warriors, FTP, name this first emperor of a unified China. Qin Shihuangdi (Pron. approx.: Tchin Shuh-hwongdee)
An inscription above the First Cataract describes a seven-year famine during this man's reign and a dream in which he was promised an end to the famine in return for rebuilding the temple of Khnum at Elephantine Djoser or Zoser
This subject of the oldest life-sized statue ever found was briefly succeeded by Sekhemkhet Djoser or Zoser
His name was discovered on the burial seal at the tomb of his predecessor, Khasekhemwy, who built a mysterious rectangular wall near one of this man's constructions found on the Saqqara plateau set atop a maze-like necropolis Djoser or Zoser
FTP, name this founder of the third dynasty whose architect Imhotep built him a stepped structure recognized as the world's first pyramid. Djoser or Zoser
This man was dispatched, along with Sentius Saturninus, to attack king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni Tiberius Caesar Augustus or Claudius Nero
He retained the astrologer Thrasyllus after a correct prediction of good news from the ship that brought word he could return to Rome Tiberius Caesar Augustus or Claudius Nero
He crowned Tigranes of Armenia, and delayed celebrating his triumph over the Pannonians during the mourning for Varrus's disaster Tiberius Caesar Augustus or Claudius Nero
Suetonius states that he had trained young boys nibble between his legs when he went swimming, one of many debaucheries he supposedly indulged in after he retired to Capri, leaving Sejanus in charge Tiberius Caesar Augustus or Claudius Nero
FTP, name this Julio-Claudian who succeeded Augustus as the second emperor of Rome. Tiberius Caesar Augustus or Claudius Nero
Soon after its last ruler was assassinated by one of his generals, that general faced an invasion led by the Bactrian King Demetrius I Mauryan dynasty
The Greeks referred to one of its rulers as Amitrochates, and to his father as Sandrocottos Mauryan dynasty
Sandrocottos was a party to the treaty known as the Epigamia and gave 500 elephants, which proved very useful at Ipsus, to Seleucus I Mauryan dynasty
It was followed by the Sunga dynasty and preceded by the Nanda dynasty Mauryan dynasty
Its emperors included the victor at the battle of Kalinga, and his father Bindusara Mauryan dynasty
FTP, name this ancient Indian empire whose rulers included Chandragupta and Ashoka. Mauryan dynasty
Leopordo Batres excavated a major building at this site, but its investigation was initially carried out by Manuel Gamio, who founded a dig campaign here in 1917, and its mapping project was headed by René Millon Teotihuacan
The Ciudadela is the main complex at the center of this site, which is bisected by the Avenue of the Dead, and the Adosada Platform was a later addition to its Feathered Serpent Pyramid Teotihuacan
The Pyramid of the Moon and the massive Pyramid of the Sun sit at the north and eastern ends Teotihuacan
Translated from the Nahuatl as the "City of the Gods," FTP, name this Mesoamerican metropolis of the 2nd-3rd centuries CE, which was apparently sacked by Toltecs in the 7th century, and sits in the valley outside of Tenochtitlan. Teotihuacan
One man of this name planted swords in a tent to ensure the execution of Turnus Herdonius Tarquins (accept Lucius Tarquinius Superbus until "Attus Navius" is read; accept Lucius Tarquinius until "Gabii" is read)
One man of this name forced the augur Attus Navius to cut a whetstone with a razor, and once had his cap taken and then replaced by an eagle Tarquins (accept Lucius Tarquinius Superbus until "Attus Navius" is read; accept Lucius Tarquinius until "Gabii" is read)
A third man of this name killed or drove off Gabii's leaders after hearing that his father had cut off the heads of the tallest poppies in his garden Tarquins (accept Lucius Tarquinius Superbus until "Attus Navius" is read; accept Lucius Tarquinius until "Gabii" is read)
The earliest married Tanaquil, his son married Servius Tullius's daughter, and his grandson Sextus raped the wife of Collatinus, Lucretia Tarquins (accept Lucius Tarquinius Superbus until "Attus Navius" is read; accept Lucius Tarquinius until "Gabii" is read)
FTP, give the family name of the 5th and 7th kings of Rome, the latter of whom was nicknamed "the Proud." Tarquins (accept Lucius Tarquinius Superbus until "Attus Navius" is read; accept Lucius Tarquinius until "Gabii" is read)
Juan de Urtubia led the sacking of this city by the Navarrese Company 68 years after it was captured by the Catalan Company following the battle of Halmyros Thebes
It is generally assumed that this city gained control of two additional districts in a confederacy following its 427 BCE capture of Plataea Thebes
Cassander repaired the damage this city suffered following its unsuccessful revolt against the League of Corinth, which came 3 years after its defeat alongside Athens at Chaeronea Thebes
Philip II of Macedon spent time as a captive in this city, giving him an opportunity to study the improved phalanx tactics developed by Epaminondas Thebes
FTP name this polis which enjoyed a few decades of hegemony on the strength of its Sacred Band. Thebes
This ruler issued a "divine pragmatic sanction" nullifying certain donations, and was influenced by the theological advisors Domitian of Ancyra and Theodore Askidas Justinian I (the Great) or Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus
His armies were defeated at the Battle of Callinicum, after which his minister Peter Barsymes devised a set of fiscal reforms Justinian I (the Great) or Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus
His theological quarrel with Pope Vigilius is sometimes called the Three Chapters dispute Justinian I (the Great) or Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus
A year after he negotiated the so-called "Endless Peace" with the Persians, his army won at Tricamerum over Gelimer and the Vandals and he commissioned Tribonian to supervise the creation of the Digesta, the Institutiones, and the Novels, all components o Justinian I (the Great) or Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus
FTP, name this great Byzantine emperor from 527-565 CE. Justinian I (the Great) or Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus
He stated that he only vomited once in his life and confessed that his breast was shaggy in the self-satirical Misopogon, or Beard-Hater Julian the Apostate or Julian II or Flavius Claudius Iulianus
His Gallic campaign saw victory at Strasbourg, and ended when he was ordered to put down the siege of Amida, which led the Petulantes to revolt and crown him in Paris Julian the Apostate or Julian II or Flavius Claudius Iulianus
He ordered Alypius of Antioch to rebuild the second temple of Jerusalem and promulgated the School Edict, which prevented Christian schools from using pagan texts Julian the Apostate or Julian II or Flavius Claudius Iulianus
He also reversed the policies of his predecessor, Constantius II, declaring freedom of religion in a 362 edict Julian the Apostate or Julian II or Flavius Claudius Iulianus
Known for attempting to revive Hellenism, FTP name this Roman Emperor whose moniker came from his rejection of Christianity. Julian the Apostate or Julian II or Flavius Claudius Iulianus
In 1839, John Lloyd Stephens bought this city from someone claiming to be the rightful owner for fifty dollars Copán
Its rulers included Smoke Squirrel and Smoke Monkey, who came to power after its golden age as the center of the Xukpi kingdom came to an end with the death of 18 Rabbit, who is believed to be Waxaklahun Ubah K'awil Copán
Its ruins include the hieroglyphic staircase and a series of portrait stelae Copán
Located in western Honduras on the border with Guatemala, FTP name this cultural and scientific center of the classical Maya. Copán
Prior to the initial engagement at Aphetae, the defector Scyllias warned one side in this battle of a trap Artemisium
That side's commanders included Ocytus's son Adeimantus and the overall commander Eurybiades, who led a delaying action to allow evacuation of Euboea Artemisium
After the arrival of 53 more Athenian ships, the main phase of the battle took place on August 11, 480 BCE, and both the Greeks and the Persians suffered heavy casualties Artemisium
FTP name this battle, traditionally believed to have taken place simultaneously with the land battle at Thermopylae. Artemisium
Artifacts bearing the name of Meskalamdug and Akalamdug were found in Early Dynastic II tombs in this city Ur (do not prompt on or accept Uruk)
Its King Shulgi is considered the author of the first law code, and Messanepadda founded this city's first dynasty Ur (do not prompt on or accept Uruk)
Its most prominent period, which followed Utu-Hegal's expulsion of the Gutians and preceded the Isin Larsa Period, was its third dynasty Ur (do not prompt on or accept Uruk)
This site includes the remains of a temple to Nanna, and was the subject of excavations led by Sir Leonard Woolley Ur (do not prompt on or accept Uruk)
FTP identify this city once located on the west side of the Euphrates River about 150 miles southeast of Babylon, famous for its well-preserved ziggurat and for being the hometown of Abraham. Ur (do not prompt on or accept Uruk)
This city became a center of the final flourishing of the dynamic monarchianism heresy by granting harbor to Paul of Samosata Palmyra or Tudmor
One of its kings was given the title "corrector totius Orientis" after defeating Quietus and becoming a bulwark against the Sassanians Palmyra or Tudmor
Later, its princes Herennianis and Timolaus were marched in a triumph after its destruction following the assassinations of Herodes and Odaenathus Palmyra or Tudmor
Its nominal then crown passed to Vaballathus and this city then seized Egypt before being defeated at Antioch and Emesa by the forces of Aurelian Palmyra or Tudmor
For 10 points, name this seat of power for the regent Zenobia. Palmyra or Tudmor
Paintings created during it are found in the caves of Ajanta, and its sculpture is in the temples of Ellora Gupta Dynasty
Its lands were divided into provinces known as desa or bhukti, and were governed by kumaramatyas Gupta Dynasty
The reign of its third ruler was detailed in the writings of the Chinese monk Fa Hsien, and the Iron Pillar of New Delhi was erected during it Gupta Dynasty
Its capital was Pataliputra, and one of its greatest rulers, Samudra, conquered Nepal and was known to be a musician Gupta Dynasty
For 10 points, name this dynasty in power from 320 to 550 CE, a Northern Indian lineage that was founded by Chandra. Gupta Dynasty
One early victory for this man came against his grandfather at Echbatana, and this man's general Gubaru conquered Opis, giving him control of a vast canal system Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II; or Cyrus the Elder]
He suffered a draw in the Battle of Pteria against Croesus, but managed to catch up to him near Sardis and soundly defeated him at Thymbra Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II; or Cyrus the Elder]
He promulgated the Edit of Restoration, which ended the Babylonian captivity of Jews Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II; or Cyrus the Elder]
He was succeeded by Cambyses II after his death near the Syr Darya during a campaign towards Egypt Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II; or Cyrus the Elder]
For 10 points, name this Achaemanid ruler and conqueror from Persia, whose namesake cylinder is one of the earliest charters of human rights. Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II; or Cyrus the Elder]
In the Byzantine period, this city became renowned for its silk industry, and served as the capital for the Catalan Company Thebes
Thucydides has representatives from this city argue that they were not responsible for siding with the Persians because they were then ruled by a tyrant Thebes
They secured their hegemony over Greece when Epaminodas lead them to victory over the Sparta at Leuctra in 371 BCE Thebes
The most famous unit from this city, the Sacred Band, was destroyed by the Macedonians at Chaeronea Thebes
For 10 points, name this Boetian city which ruled Greece before the arrival of Alexander the Great and was the setting for the myths of Cadmus, Polyneices, and Oedipus. Thebes
This man's first military campaign came against Aristobolus in Judea Mark Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
Under command of his own troops at Forum Gallorum and Mutina, he lost decisive battles despite killing the two consuls he opposed Mark Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
In 37 BCE, he returned to Judea and captured Jersualem, installing Herod the Great as king Mark Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
His strife with Rome included an open distribution of territory among his children after conquering Armenia Mark Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
It was because he gave a title to a child that was not his own, Caesarion, that his onetime confederate went to war against him Mark Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
For 10 points, name this man who helped win the Battle of Philippi with Octavian and Lepidus, but was later defeated alongside Cleopatra. Mark Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
His daughter, Enheduana, composed the earliest extant poetry written by a woman, and a treaty between this man's grandson and the Elamite ruler Hita is the earliest extant Elamite document Sargon I or the Great [or Sharru-Kinu]
He defeated Lugal Zaggisi of Umma in his early career, and he was succeeded by his sons Rimush and Manishtushu Sargon I or the Great [or Sharru-Kinu]
One text claims his father was a gardener, while another text mentions that despite having a name which means "true king," he usurped the throne of Ur-Zababa of Kish Sargon I or the Great [or Sharru-Kinu]
The grandfather of Naram-Sin, his empire was ended by an invasion of Gutian Barbarians Sargon I or the Great [or Sharru-Kinu]
For 10 points, identify this founder of the Akkadian Empire. Sargon I or the Great [or Sharru-Kinu]
He married off his son to his gay lover's beautiful daughter Myrrhina, and Myrrhina's brother became the first man ever to be ostracised Peisistratus
He schemed to return himself from exile by hiring a tall woman to pretend to be Athena Peisistratus
While he was traveling in disguise, he heard a farmer complaining about his taxes and was so impressed that he gave the farmer a tax exemption for life Peisistratus
Although he married Megacles's daughter, he wanted his sons from his first marriage to succeed him, and needed the help of Lygdamis of Naxos to return a third time to his most famous post Peisistratus
For 10 points, name this eromenos of Solon, father of Hipparchus and Hippias, and Athenian tyrant. Peisistratus
Linguist Jan Persons has noted a unique characteristic of these people's languages, in which one denotes respect by speaking in a falsetto voice Zapotecs
They speak a family of languages related to Papabuco and Chatino, and this group defeated the Zoquean to take control of Tehauntepec Zapotecs
These producers of the Mask of the Bat God had a religious pantheon led by the rain god Cosijo Zapotecs
A large ruin in Oaxaca with 170 tombs was taken over by the Mixtec after being inhabited by these people Zapotecs
For 10 points, name this indigenous Mesoamerican group, the first certainly known inhabitatants of Monte Albán. Zapotecs
After persuading the emperor to marry his daughter, he took the title Duke of AnHan Wang Mang
He was made regent during the reign of Ru-zi by his aunt, the widow of Emperor Yuan-di Wang Mang
He attempt to gain support from the peasants, unsuccessfully, by establishing a number of land redistribution and loan repayment reforms Wang Mang
Claiming intellectual legitimacy for his reforms from some supposedly recently discovered texts of Confucius that were destroyed Wang Mang
he came to power during the rule of Ping-Di Wang Mang
His short lived Xin Dynasty, founded in 9 CE, was then toppled by the Red Eyebrows Wang Mang
For 10 points; name this usurper, an official who interrupted the Western Han Dynasty. Wang Mang
This future governor of Syria repaired strained relations with one of his political allies at the Luca conference Marcus Licinius Crassus
Early in his life, he had to flee to Hispania to avoid a purge Marcus Licinius Crassus
He profited heavily from some proscriptions to the point that he was nicknamed dives Marcus Licinius Crassus
During the Spartacus uprising, he raised and train troops at his own expense and led them to victory Marcus Licinius Crassus
He accused Pompey of stealing the victory from him, and he later lost the Roman standards and was captured at the Battle of Carrhae, where he enjoyed a refreshing beverage of molten gold as he was killed by the Parthians Marcus Licinius Crassus
For 10 points, who was this member of the first triumvirate? Marcus Licinius Crassus
One early leader of this empire was Mari Djata the first, who conquered the cities of Oualata and Audaghost Malinke Empire
Other rulers included Uli, Qu, and Sakura, a freed slave who deposed Khalifa Malinke Empire
It exploded after its defeat of the Susu chief Sumanguru at the Battle of Kirina, arising out of the Kangaba state, whose inhabitants had helped transport gold from Ghana Malinke Empire
Its first leader was Sundiata, but it reached its apex under a guy who destroyed the price of gold, Mansa Musa Malinke Empire
For 10 points, name this West African empire whose name lives on in a large French-speaking country. Malinke Empire
This man distinguished himself under Aulus Plautius, capturing twenty oppida in Britain and setting up a headquarters at Isca Dumniorum Titus Flavius Vespasianus
He later became a patrion of Flavius Josephus after aiding Licinius Mucianus in quelling the Great Jewish Revolt Titus Flavius Vespasianus
At the Battle of Bedriacum, his forces under Marcus Antoninus Primus defeated the forces of Vitellius, allowing him to become emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus
For 10 points, name this Roman who began building the Colosseum and ruled at the end of the Year of the Four Emperors, before he was succeeded by his sons Titus and Domitian. Titus Flavius Vespasianus
For a brief time as a teenager, this emperor was married to the daughter of prefect Plautianus Plautilla Caracalla [or Lucius Septimius Bassianus]
He was named Caesar after his father was victorious at the Battle of Lugdunum over Clodius Albinus Caracalla [or Lucius Septimius Bassianus]
He is reputed to have allowed his army to slaughter citizens of Alexandria in retribution for mocking him and he was assassinated while traveling to a lunar shrine in Carrhae by Julius Martialis Caracalla [or Lucius Septimius Bassianus]
His reign famously saw passage of the Constitutio Antoniniana, granting Roman citizenship to all freemen, and he was succeeded by Macrinus six years after killing his half-brother Geta Caracalla [or Lucius Septimius Bassianus]
For 10 points, name this emperor who ruled from 211 to 217 and built some baths. Caracalla [or Lucius Septimius Bassianus]
Cleon added a mysterious "diateichisma" to them Long Walls
Xenophon writes of the girls who played flutes during the first destruction of these things, which were ultimately a casulaty of catapults during the First Mithridatic War An extension of this structure terminated at Phaleron Long Walls
In 394 BCE, a Persian fleet under Conon helped rebuild this structure, which was originally planned after the battle of Plataea Long Walls
Though a Spartan army defeated their builders at Tangara during their construction, they were completed in time for Pericles to advise the Athenians to stay behind them Long Walls
For 10 points name these fortifications, stretching over 6 miles, which connected Athens to the port at Piraeus. Long Walls
He left Rome after losing his first case as prosecutor against the notable defense attorney Quintus Hortensius, leading to the acquittal of Gnaeus Cornellius Dolabella Gaius Julius Caesar
He then sailed to Rhodes to study rhetoric under Molon, but he was captured by privateers Gaius Julius Caesar
After being ransomed, he gathered a private army and crucified the entire band of pirates Gaius Julius Caesar
Suetonius records that in this man's first consulship, "he stole three thousand pounds of gold from the Capitol, replacing it with the same weight of gilded bronze," and that Bibulus attacked him for an alleged homosexual relationship with Nicomedes IV, l Gaius Julius Caesar
FTP, name this victim of Cassius and Brutus's conspiracy on the Ides of March. Gaius Julius Caesar
Its latter part, beginning with the rule of Pankang, is known as the Yin period, and it had several early capitals such as Chengchou Shang Dynasty
The three-legged "li" cooking pot and "xien" steaming dish date from this era, as do symbols which Fu Xi discovered on the back of a tortoise and Wenwang compiled into the I Ching Shang Dynasty
Its longest-surviving government was centered in what is now northern Henan in the Yellow River valley, around Anyang Shang Dynasty
There, marble and jade relics as well as "oracle bones" provide solid evidence for this dynasty, which was succeeded after Wuwang's uprising by the Zhou, and which followed the legendary Xia Shang Dynasty
FTP, name this Chinese dynasty which ruled from around 1760 to 1100 BCE, the first dynasty to be historically attested. Shang Dynasty
The Temple of Concordia was refurbished following the death of this man, the first student of Greek philosophy to hold office in Rome Gaius Sempronius Gracchus [prompt on Gracchus; accept C. Gracchus]
He shocked the Senate by returning from his Sardinian quaestorship without a formal request, and he later gave independent juries to the "extortion court" and proposed giving suffrage to all Italian speakers of Latin Gaius Sempronius Gracchus [prompt on Gracchus; accept C. Gracchus]
More far-reaching versions of his initiatives were proposed by Marcus Livius Drusus, his co-tribune Gaius Sempronius Gracchus [prompt on Gracchus; accept C. Gracchus]
After illegally protesting against the dissolution of a colony at Carthage, whose establishment he had led, he withdrew to the Aventine Hill, where Lucius Opimius attacked him, causing his suicide Gaius Sempronius Gracchus [prompt on Gracchus; accept C. Gracchus]
FTP, name this man who was tribune from 123 to 122 and attempted to re-institute the agrarian reforms of his elder brother Tiberius. Gaius Sempronius Gracchus [prompt on Gracchus; accept C. Gracchus]
Their succession law is codified in the Edict of Telipinus, which alludes to their legendary first king, Labarnas Hittites
The oldest evidence for this empire is found in the Kultepe and Anitta tablets, which tell of the conquests of Nesa and Zalpuwa Hittites
Their king Mursilis destroyed the Amorite dynasty in Babylon, and this group's later resurgence began with a defeat of Arzawa under their king Suppiluliumas Hittites
Their name means "towards the north," derived from their description relative to Canaan in the Bible Hittites
An account found at Boghazköy provides their side of events which unfolded under Muwatallis, who led them against Egypt at the Battle of Kadesh Hittites
FTP, name this group which long ruled Anatolia and whose capital was Hattusa. Hittites
Ctesiphon's attempt to award this man a gold crown led to a libel suit Demosthenes
He was later betrayed by his friend Demades, who successfully prosecuted a death sentence against this man shortly after he was convicted, in a separate matter, of stealing twenty talents from Harpalus Demosthenes
After unsuccessfully seeking sanctuary from Antipater, he committed suicide by sucking poison out of a pen while pretending to address a letter to his family Demosthenes
His major works include On the Peace, On the Embassy, and On the Crown, which is a fierce attack on his rival Aeschines Demosthenes
He became prominent with "On the Navy Boards"and targeted the sculptor Antenor after suing Aphobus for embezzling his inheritance Demosthenes
The name of another series of his compositions was adopted by Cicero for an attack on Antony Demosthenes
FTP, name this ancient orator who reputedly practiced speaking with pebbles in his mouth and wrote the Olynthiacs and Philippics. Demosthenes
It was originally known as the dinat mišarim and discusses pay rates in gurs of corn Hammurabi's Code [accept clear equivalents; accept the literal translation of "dinat mišarim, Verdicts of the Just Order]
It prohibits the adopted sons of prostitutes from questioning their paternity, and another section orders that innocent women accused of adultery should throw themselves into a river Hammurabi's Code [accept clear equivalents; accept the literal translation of "dinat mišarim, Verdicts of the Just Order]
Most of its contents have separate provisions for the awilum, muškenum, and wardum classes, but it is united by the principle of lex talionis Hammurabi's Code [accept clear equivalents; accept the literal translation of "dinat mišarim, Verdicts of the Just Order]
Jean-Vincent Scheil discovered most of it at Susa in 1901, on a stela which also depicts its namesake on the Shamash throne and is written in cuneiform Hammurabi's Code [accept clear equivalents; accept the literal translation of "dinat mišarim, Verdicts of the Just Order]
Noting that striking one's father is punishable by the loss of a hand, and that eyes and teeth are to be exchanged on an equal basis, it replaced the Laws of Eshunna and the Code of Lipit-Ishtar Hammurabi's Code [accept clear equivalents; accept the literal translation of "dinat mišarim, Verdicts of the Just Order]
FTP, name this document first promulgated around 1750 BCE by the fifth Amorite king of Babylon. Hammurabi's Code [accept clear equivalents; accept the literal translation of "dinat mišarim, Verdicts of the Just Order]
One of this man's colleagues was a son of Gesco who bore the same name as he, and who married his daughter Sophoniba to the Numidian king Massinissa Hasdrubal Barca
This man left the front lines to deal with the rebellion of Syphax and left Mago in charge of his sphere of responsibility in modern Spain Hasdrubal Barca
After his fleet was destroyed at Tarraco, he resumed his ground campaign, fighting unsuccessfully at Dertosa after putting down an uprising of the Turdetani Hasdrubal Barca
He lost at Baecula but was responsible for victory at Upper Baetis, which killed the elder generation of Scipios Hasdrubal Barca
However, he met a final defeat at the Metauras River, after which Gaius Claudius Nero ordered this man's head thrown into his brother's camp Hasdrubal Barca
FTP, name this Carthaginian general in the Second Punic War who was the second son of Hamilcar Barca and the brother of Hannibal. Hasdrubal Barca
The Athlit ram, recovered near Haifa, is considered to be a relic of the losing side's fleet at this battle, whose victory was commemorated by the founding of Nicopolis Battle of Actium
One side had hoped to gain a defensive position by blocading the Gulf of Ambracia with quinqueremes, but was forced to action after attacks by the other side on the Peloponnesian coastline Battle of Actium
While attempting to stop a flanking maneuver by the opposing Liburnian vessels, Lucius Policola's wing became separated from the rest of his army in this battle Battle of Actium
By the end, Agrippa burned over 300 ships while the losers fled to Egypt Battle of Actium
FTP, what is this 31 BCE battle in which Octavian defeated Antony? Battle of Actium
He overruled his military advisors in deciding to trek through the Arunah Pass before one of his most noted victories Menkheperre Thutmose III [accept Tuthmosis III or Thothmes III; prompt on partial answer]
His accession may have been accelerated by the disappearance of the architect Senemut Menkheperre Thutmose III [accept Tuthmosis III or Thothmes III; prompt on partial answer]
Among projects undertaken during his reign was the reconstruction of a canal built by Sensuret III to ease movement of returning armies Menkheperre Thutmose III [accept Tuthmosis III or Thothmes III; prompt on partial answer]
He was perhaps better known for his acts of destruction, such as those directed at monuments to his predecessor at Dier-al-Bahri, though he may only have erased his predecessor's name from records Menkheperre Thutmose III [accept Tuthmosis III or Thothmes III; prompt on partial answer]
FTP, name this pharaoh, nicknamed the "Napoleon of Egypt," who fought at Megiddo and reigned following his stepmother, Hatshsepsut. Menkheperre Thutmose III [accept Tuthmosis III or Thothmes III; prompt on partial answer]
This man's grandson, who was known as "Gonatas" or "knock-kneed," established himself as the head of the Thessalian League and defeated Sparta during the Chremonidean War Antigonus I
During this man's service under Antipater he beseiged Eumenes, an ally of Perdiccas, at Nora, and following his occupation of Syria this man formed the League of the Islanders Antigonus I
He sent his son Demetrius against the governor of Athens, who had been appointed by Cassander, but suffered his last and only defeat when he was abandoned by Docimus following the invasion of Lysimachus from Asia Minor, Seleucus from Babylonia, and Ptolem Antigonus I
Defeated and killed at Ipsus, FTP, name this Macedonian general, a member of the Diadochi sometimes known as Monopthalmos or Cyclops. Antigonus I
An Annibale Carracci painting shows Christ appearing to Saint Peter here the Appian Way or Via Appia
According to Martianus Capella, its namesake removed the letter "Z" from the alphabet because it looked like a corpse's teeth; that namesake ended his career by opposing peace with Pyrrhus, and won the support of the Senate despite his blindness the Appian Way or Via Appia
Its restoration was decreed by Pope Pius VI in 1784, and under the empire its care was entrusted to a curator of praetorian rank, even before Trajan decided to add his name to it the Appian Way or Via Appia
In the 2nd century BC, Marcus Cornelius Cathegus had an alternative built to part of it which was made unsavory by the Pontine March the Appian Way or Via Appia
The Samnite Wars necessitated an alliance between Rome and Capua, forcing the Romans to cut through the Alban Hills and to import gravel for the construction of this "queen of roads." FTP, name this Roman highway which, according to an immortal NAQT lead the Appian Way or Via Appia
In an attempt to imitate Agamemnon, he planned to offer a sacrifice to the gods at Aulis before an expedition to Ionia Agesilaus II
However, he was unsuccessful due to the intervention of the Thebans, who rankled under the dominance of his polis Agesilaus II
Once in Asia Minor, he met with great success in battle against the Persians, but in 395 BC he was called back to Greece, to defend his city against the allied forces of Athens, Thebes, and Corinth in the battle of Coronea Agesilaus II
Despite being the Eurypontid king of Sparta, this son of Archidamus II later led a mercenary army to aid the Egyptians against Persia Agesilaus II
FTP name this king who saw the decline of Sparta after her victory in the Peloponnesian Wars, a man who is paired with Pompey in Plutarch's Lives and who succeeded his brother Agis II. Agesilaus II
One of the armies involved in this battle spread a false rumor that it was at stationed at Haleb, while the other was augmented by Sherden mercenaries Kadesh
The leader of the latter army would have been captured if a group of soldiers from Amurru, whose defection to his side had originally caused the conflict, hadn't arrived to save his bacon Kadesh
One side was commanded by the son of Mursili II, while the other was commanded by the son of Seti I Kadesh
Fought near the Orontes River, it ended in a stalemate Kadesh
FTP, name this battle of 1274 BC, one of the greatest chariot battles ever fought, which pitted Muwatalli's Hittites against the Egyptians of Ramses II. Kadesh
Prior to it, one of the armies seized the city of Elateia Chaeronea
Most of the other side's generals had been killed, leaving Chares, who was allegedly incompetent, to command the army Chaeronea
In its aftermath, the victorious king held a council at Corinth and invited his erstwhile opponents to join him in a war on the Persians, though he was assassinated by Pausanius before he could carry that out Chaeronea
Fought in Boeotia, it was a defeat for the Sacred Band of Thebes and their Athenian allies Chaeronea
FTP, name this battle of 338 BC by which Philip II's Macedonians secured control of Greece. Chaeronea
According to one legend, a king of this people was attacked by Sarus and Ammius after he had their sister Sunilda torn apart by horses the Ostrogoths
A later ruler of this people was killed at the battle of Taginae, while many of his followers were slaughtered at Mons Lactarius the Ostrogoths
After the capture of Widin in the 560s, this people more or less vanished the Ostrogoths
Its greatest ruler won the battle of Isonzo and was succeeded by his daughter Amalasuntha after establishing his capital at Ravenna the Ostrogoths
FTP, name this Germanic tribe whose notable figures include Ermanaric and Theodoric the Great. the Ostrogoths
At this site, a governor of Syria who tried to usurp the throne following the death of Pertinax was routed Issus
In addition to that defeat of Pescennius Niger, this was the site of a 1266 battle at which King Hethum I of Armenia was defeated by Baibars Issus
Another battle fought here saw the defeat of Chosroes at the hands of Heraclius, though it is more famous for an earlier engagement fought near the river Pinarus, at which the winning army advanced through the Pillar of Jonah and a force led by Parmenion Issus
FTP, name this town in modern-day Turkey, the site of a 333 BC battle at which the Persians of Darius III were defeated by Alexander the Great. Issus
The war named for this place was ended when Clazomenae and Cyprus were transferred to Persia through the Peace of Antalcidas, which was put forth by Artaxerxes II Corinth
A league named for this place was brought back into existence by Demetrius Poliorcetes, but it didn't have anything to do following the battle of Ipsus Corinth
This city joined the Achaean Confederation after being captured by Aratus in 243 BC, and was destroyed by Lucius Mummius in 146 to teach the Greeks a lesson Corinth
Its early rulers include Cypselus and Periander, though it is better known for the action it took against Megara which set off the Peloponnesian War Corinth
FTP, name this city on the isthmus joining the Peloponnesus and central Greece, whose citizens were the lucky recipients of a couple of epistles from Saint Paul. Corinth
The father of this name was known for founding the Proculian school of thought in Roman jurisprudence, although he is more famous for starving himself to death in 33 AD, apparently out of disgust with the Emperor Tiberius Marcus Cocceius Nerva (prompt on "Cocceius")
The son of this name wrote poetry which was admired by Nero, who therefore promoted him politically Marcus Cocceius Nerva (prompt on "Cocceius")
When that man became emperor he faced a revolt started by Casperius Aelianus, who forced him to execute the murderers of his predecessor Marcus Cocceius Nerva (prompt on "Cocceius")
This emperor then adopted the governor of Upper Germany as his son and upon this emperor's death a few months later, that governor succeeded him Marcus Cocceius Nerva (prompt on "Cocceius")
FTP, name this man who was placed on the throne in 96 after the assassination of Domitian and was very quickly followed by Trajan. Marcus Cocceius Nerva (prompt on "Cocceius")
Cicero charactized one of its causes as metus iudiciorum, possibly referring to a corrupt quaestio stationed in Cisalpine Gaul Social War or Italic War or War of the Allies (accept Marsic War before "Marsi," prompt otherwise)
Its first strike was led by Pompaedius Silo, and though this was stopped by Caius Domitius, Varius Hybrida presided over an inquiry concerning the event Social War or Italic War or War of the Allies (accept Marsic War before "Marsi," prompt otherwise)
It was crushed militarily by Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo and politically by Lucius Caesar's creation of the Julian Law Social War or Italic War or War of the Allies (accept Marsic War before "Marsi," prompt otherwise)
Triggered by the assassination of Marcus Livius Drusus, Mithridates used it as a distraction to enable his invasion of Bithynia, and Sulla first came to prominence as a general during it Social War or Italic War or War of the Allies (accept Marsic War before "Marsi," prompt otherwise)
Involving mostly Marsi and Samnites, FTP, name this rebellion which began in 90 BC, in which the other Italian peoples rose up against, and were crushed by, Rome. Social War or Italic War or War of the Allies (accept Marsic War before "Marsi," prompt otherwise)
The last ruler of the dynasty named for this man enjoyed successes against the Avars along the Danube and gained concessions from the Sassanids by placing Khurso II on that throne Justinian Dynasty
The third emperor of this namesake dynasty suffered from bouts of insanity after the loss of Dara and named Tiberius II as his co-ruler and successor Justinian Dynasty
In addition to the founder of the exarchate of Ravenna, the emperor Maurice, this dynasty included a namesake founder, who sent such generals as Narses and Belisarius to conquer parts of Italy, North Africa, and Spain and put down the Nika revolt Justinian Dynasty
FTP, name this Byzantine dynasty, whose namesake was the husband of Theodora and the author of a famed legal code. Justinian Dynasty
A work called the Suda claims that this person's parents were Lyxes and Dryo and also that he assisted in the ouster of Lygdamis of Samos Herodotus of Halicarnassus
In an article about this thinker "Speculat[ing] About Egypt," T.S Herodotus of Halicarnassus
Brown discussed his opposition to Hecataeus' rationalism Herodotus of Halicarnassus
The Life of Homer is falsely attributed to this writer Herodotus of Halicarnassus
Book 1 of Cicero's On the Laws discusses the veracity of his best-known work, which is traditionally divided into books named for the muses Herodotus of Halicarnassus
FTP, name this writer from Halicarnassus who is called the "Father of History" for having written the first narrative history, The History of the Persian War. Herodotus of Halicarnassus
An expert on this entity, K.C the Shang Dynasty [accept Yin Dynasty before "Yin"]
Chang, promoted the idea that it was partly contemporaneous with what are generally considered its predecessor and successor the Shang Dynasty [accept Yin Dynasty before "Yin"]
Concentrated in the middle of the Sandai, this period was characterized by bronze li and hsien cookware, including those found at Ao the Shang Dynasty [accept Yin Dynasty before "Yin"]
Yin served as its major capital and is an alternative name for it the Shang Dynasty [accept Yin Dynasty before "Yin"]
Its rulers included Tang the Sage, Dì Yi, and Wu Ding, who promoted the use of oracle bones the Shang Dynasty [accept Yin Dynasty before "Yin"]
Succeeding the semi-legendary Hsia, this Dynasty ruled from around 1600 to around 1100 BCE the Shang Dynasty [accept Yin Dynasty before "Yin"]
FTP, name this first dynasty of China. the Shang Dynasty [accept Yin Dynasty before "Yin"]
Quintus Sertorius sought recognition from this man for his revolt in Spain, while Appuleius Saturninus insulted an embassy from him, resulting in a trial on capitol charges Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus
From his base in Aesernia, Poppaedius Silo requested aid from this man during the Social War without success Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus
He dispatched armies under Archelaus to take Athens, but these were defeated at Chaeronea and Orchomenus Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus
A second namesake war was sparked by the aggressions of Lucius Licinius Murena, while a third and final one was caused by the Roman annexation of Bithynia and Cyrene and saw him beat Lucius Licinius Lucullus, before his ultimate defeat Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus
FTP, name this king of Pontus, against whom both Sulla and Pompey won much of their renown. Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus
Near its end, neighbors invaded Thebes, and for a while, the high priest Herihor, also a viceroy of Kush, became leader of that area New Kingdom [accept Twentieth Dynasty on a buzz off the first sentence]
Earlier in this timeframe, Horemheb was part of a dynastic transition, and a temple at Abydos was constructed in honor of Seti I, who had used the military rule tactics of previous rulers during this period, including Thutmose III New Kingdom [accept Twentieth Dynasty on a buzz off the first sentence]
Numerous Ramses, Akhenaton, and Tutenkhamen ruled during, FTP, what period of ancient Egyptian history encompassing the 18th, 19th, and 20th Dynasties, which followed the Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate period? New Kingdom [accept Twentieth Dynasty on a buzz off the first sentence]
He ascended to the throne by defeating a usurper who pretended to be this man's murdered uncle Darius I (accept Darius the Great; prompt on partial answer)
In one of his notable administrative acts, he reorganized his empire into 20 sections Darius I (accept Darius the Great; prompt on partial answer)
Near the end of his life, he ordered a large limestone rock to be inscribed with his genealogy in three languages; that inscription was translated into English in 1849 Darius I (accept Darius the Great; prompt on partial answer)
He also led an expedition against the tribes of the Danube River in 516 BC, put down a rebellion of Ionians in 499 BC, and attempted to subjugate Greece with his son-in-law Mardonius, but his forces were defeated at Mt Darius I (accept Darius the Great; prompt on partial answer)
Athos and Marathon Darius I (accept Darius the Great; prompt on partial answer)
FTP, name this Persian emperor who was succeeded by his son Xerxes I. Darius I (accept Darius the Great; prompt on partial answer)
Lesser kings to rule from this city include Shar-Kali-Sharri and Manishtushu, who succeeded his younger brother Rimush Akkad or Agade
Its language was Semitic, though it adopted the writing system of the people it conquered, and it was probably destroyed after the Gutians invaded its namesake empire Akkad or Agade
At its height, this location stretched from the Taurus Mountains to the lands of the Elamites in the east Akkad or Agade
It is recorded that its first ruler washed his hands in the waters of the Persian Gulf to signify his conquest of all of Sumer Akkad or Agade
Located to the northwest of Kish, its precise location has never been determined Akkad or Agade
FTP, name this ancient Mesopotamian city, whose most famous king was Sargon the Great. Akkad or Agade
One of this people's two major groups was led by Godegisel until he was killed in battle by the Franks, after which they united with King Respendial and the Alans and Suebi to plunder Gaul before being driven out by British troops under Constantine III Vandals (prompt on "Asding" before the word "Asding")
Their two main groups, the Asding and Siling, occupied Gallaecia and Baetica before being pushed further south by the Romans and Visigoths Vandals (prompt on "Asding" before the word "Asding")
In 429, they sailed to a territory in the west from which, 25 years later, they would attack Italy Vandals (prompt on "Asding" before the word "Asding")
Belisarius would eventually defeat Gelimer, the last king of, FTP, this East Germanic people which ruled North Africa for 100 years and under Gaiseric sacked Rome in 455, doubtless committing many of their namesake acts of wanton property destruction. Vandals (prompt on "Asding" before the word "Asding")
This city, which may have been founded in the early 7th century BC as a colony of Megara, was besieged by Septimius Severus in AD 193 Byzantium (prompt on "Constantinople" or "Istanbul")
He tore down its walls, which may have helped the Goths in their invasion fifty years later Byzantium (prompt on "Constantinople" or "Istanbul")
After being liberated from the Persians in 478 BC, it acquired territory in neighboring Mysia and Bithynia Byzantium (prompt on "Constantinople" or "Istanbul")
Its revolts against Athens were critical because of its importance to Athens' food supply; it revolted again in 411 but was recaptured along with neighboring Thasos and Chalcedon [cal-SEE-dunn] Byzantium (prompt on "Constantinople" or "Istanbul")
FTP, name this city whose remains have largely vanished because, in AD 330, its location on the Golden Horn was selected as his namesake city and capital by Constantine the Great. Byzantium (prompt on "Constantinople" or "Istanbul")
This man famously purified the shrine at of Apollo at Delos, and was also associated with that god's cult at Delphi, while in his own city he was remembered for the Enneakronous fountain-house and the Porch of the King-Archon Pisistratus
One legend claims that he created a standard text of Homer by comparing then-extant variants from all over Greece Pisistratus
His military achievements included controlling Naxos and Sigeum and winning the Battle of Pallene, which was his third attempt at bringing tyranny to his previously oligarchic city Pisistratus
FTP, name this man who in 546 BC founded a dynasty that ruled until the Spartans under Cleomenes I put Isagoras and Cleisthenes in charge of Athens in place of this man's son Hippias. Pisistratus
Notable for its people's use of reliefs in funerary art, its citizens worshipped a tripartite version of Baal Palmyra
Its first important ruler was rebuffed by Shapur I and decided to throw his lot in with Gallienus Palmyra
His loyalty was put to the test in a war against Quietus, but after the latter was defeated at Emesa, the ruler of this city was given the honorary title "Governor of the East." Although its ruler had a son named Vaballathus, on the death of Odenathus his Palmyra
FTP, name this city which lies in Syria and, for a brief time, was led by Queen Zenobia. Palmyra
This man came into conflict with Cicero when Cicero refused to let him use the Roman army in Cyprus to collect the debts and massive interest owed him by the city of Salamis Marcus Junius Brutus
Later he asked Cicero to write a laudatory biography of Cato, and another of Cicero's works, an extended history of Roman oratory, is named for this man, who famously favored the "Attic" style of rhetoric Marcus Junius Brutus
He was made pontifex in 47 and praetor in 44 despite being married to Porcia, the daughter of Cato, and having been on the losing side at Pharsalus Marcus Junius Brutus
FTP, name this man who jointly led an army of more than 100,000 to defeat at Philippi two years after he led the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar. Marcus Junius Brutus
The definitive modern work on this people was written in 1967 by E.T the Samnites
Salmon, who describes their Oscan dialect, their practice of the Sacred Spring, and their role in engineering a defeat on P the Samnites
Cornelius Rufinus at the Cranite Mountains the Samnites
They were slaughtered in great numbers after their surrender at the Colline Gate and Praeneste, which led to their decline, and many of them were killed at Bovianum and Beneventum despite the efforts of C the Samnites
Papius Mutilus and later Pontius Telesinus, the latter a descendant of the man who performed their most famous exploit against the Romans in 321 BC the Samnites
FTP, name this Italian people, perhaps best known for defeating the Romans and compelling them to go under the yoke at the battle of the Caudine Forks. the Samnites
Its decline began with the rebellion of Abraha, the general in charge of Himyar, which fell under Sassanid influence Aksum or Axumite Empire
The port of Adulis connected its inland center on the Tigray Plateau with the outside world Aksum or Axumite Empire
Their namesake capital city is the end of Queen Makeda's voyage in the Kebra Nagast Aksum or Axumite Empire
Early versions of that work may date to the time of Frumentius, the first Bishop of their capital city, who converted Emperor Ezana to Christianity Aksum or Axumite Empire
They defeated their western rivals at Meroë in the 4th century AD, and extended their power across the Red Sea to Yemen 200 year later, but the rise of Islam eventually isolated the Ge'ez speaking residents Aksum or Axumite Empire
FTP, name this entity whose founder, Menelik I, created the first Christian empire in Ethiopia. Aksum or Axumite Empire
This area became autonomous under the Turkish pasha Ali Tepelenë in the late 18th century, 500 years after it was ruled by Theodore Ducas as an independent "despotate." Alexander the Great's mother Olympias came from here, while a notable ruler of this st Epirus
That king of this region ignored his advisor Cineas and came to the aid of Tarentum, leading to a defeat at Beneventum Epirus
Earlier, that king had won at Asculum and Heraclea but lost a third of his soldiers in the process, commenting that "another such victory would undo him." FTP, name this area to the north of Greece which was ruled in antiquity by Pyrrhus. Epirus
One figure by this name asserted that Carneades never revealed a preference for any one epistemological system and wrote the lost treatise On the Witholding of Assent Hasdrubal (accept Cleitomachus before "daughter")
Another secured a military alliance that would ultimately be defeated at Souk El Kremis Hasdrubal (accept Cleitomachus before "daughter")
Yet another figure fought on land at Dertosa and Baecula and at sea at Tarraco, and later killed both Gnaeus and his brother Publius Cornelius Hasdrubal (accept Cleitomachus before "daughter")
He was defeated in 207 BC by Gaius Claudius Nero at the Metauras River, and subsequently had his head catapulted into his brother's camp Hasdrubal (accept Cleitomachus before "daughter")
FTP, name this Carthaginian general, the second son of Hamilcar and brother of Hannibal. Hasdrubal (accept Cleitomachus before "daughter")
His legate Corelius Palma annexed the Nabataean kingdom in preparation for his campaign to reinstate the king of Armenia, during which he took Bostra and named it for himself Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (or Caesar Filius Nerva Trajanus Optimus Augustus)
He took only half the money given upon accession of new emperors and established the alimenta funds for poor children Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (or Caesar Filius Nerva Trajanus Optimus Augustus)
He captured Sarmizegethusa, which led to the suicide of Decebalus, and made his cousin his successor because he had no children with his wife Plotina Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (or Caesar Filius Nerva Trajanus Optimus Augustus)
Letters to Pliny the Younger reveal the ambitions of this optimus princeps who conquered Dacia and Parthia Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (or Caesar Filius Nerva Trajanus Optimus Augustus)
FTP name this emperor who was succeeded by Hadrian, best known for commissioning his namesake column. Marcus Ulpius Trajanus (or Caesar Filius Nerva Trajanus Optimus Augustus)
According to Plutarch, this man appeared in full armor at the Battle of Tanagra ready to fight for Athens but was not allowed to take part Cimon, son of Miltiades
He died while besieging Citium, and his place as main leader of the aristocratic opposition was taken by Thucydides, son of Melesias Cimon, son of Miltiades
The Spartans decided to send the Athenians home, which hurt this man's prestige and led to his ostracism in 461, which was revoked early, perhaps due to negotiations between Pericles and this man's sister Elpinice [ell-PINN-uh-see] Cimon, son of Miltiades
He worked to expel King Pausanias of Sparta from Byzantium and became the main commander of the Delian League after 478 Cimon, son of Miltiades
FTP, name this man who crushed the Persians at sea at the Eurymedon about 25 years after they were beaten on land at Marathon by his father Miltiades. Cimon, son of Miltiades
The first skirmish in them was fought on Mount Scorobas, and was followed by battles at Orchomenos and Chaeronea, both defeats for the general Archelaus Mithridatic Wars (or wars of Mithridates VI, I suppose)
The second of them saw Lucius Murena take over the armies of Flavius Fimbria, after the first of these contests had been ended by the Treaty of Dardanus Mithridatic Wars (or wars of Mithridates VI, I suppose)
The third saw an alliance with Tigranes the Great and battles at Cyzicus and Lycus Mithridatic Wars (or wars of Mithridates VI, I suppose)
That conflict involved a commander named Lucius Lucullus, who was replaced by Pompey Mithridatic Wars (or wars of Mithridates VI, I suppose)
FTP, name this series of three wars against the Romans beginning around 90 B.C., named for the King of Pontus who instigated them. Mithridatic Wars (or wars of Mithridates VI, I suppose)
One conflict of this name saw the commander Philomelos throw himself off a cliff after the Battle of Neon, after which Onomarchos took control of the army Sacred Wars
But he was soon defeated and his brother Phayllus took command after the Battle of the Crocus Field Sacred Wars
The final one of these conflicts was fought against the Locrians of Amphissa while the semi-legendary first one arose when Kirrha attempted to collect a tax; its aftermath saw the complete destruction of the plain of Krissa, as approved by the members of Sacred Wars
The second one saw Phocis set up as the ruling power by the Athenians after being chased out by the Spartans, while the third and fourth of these conflicts were won by Philip II of Macedon Sacred Wars
FTP, give this series of four wars so named because they were fought over control of the oracle of Delphi. Sacred Wars
One person who took this name is known for conquering king Bituitus of the Arverni, and because of his victories against Gallic tribes, he was known as Allobrogicus (Quintus) Fabius (Maximus)
Another person by this name commanded alongside Decius Mus at the Battle of Sentinum, the key battle of the Third Samnite War (Quintus) Fabius (Maximus)
Another man of this name painted the temple of Salus at Rome and his same-named grandson was an annalist who wrote a history extending from Aeneas to the Second Punic War; both of these men were known as "Pictor." The most famous man by this name was cond (Quintus) Fabius (Maximus)
FTP, give this name held by a Roman commander known as Cunctator for his strategy of constantly delaying the attacks of Hannibal. (Quintus) Fabius (Maximus)
The last book of this work tells of Medosades, who was sent on behalf of king Seuthes, in order to protest the pillaging of villages Anabasis Kyrou (prompt "The Persian Expedition" or some equivalent)
At the very beginning of this 7-book work, we are told that Tissaphernes conspired to oust a central figure who turned to his mother Parysatis for aid and set about raising an army, first recruiting the warrior Clearchus Anabasis Kyrou (prompt "The Persian Expedition" or some equivalent)
The climax sees a group emerge on top of a great sand dune at Madur and declare "thalassa, thalassa," signifying their arrival at the sea after that mercenary force known as the Ten Thousand had been left stranded following defeat at the Battle of Cunaxa Anabasis Kyrou (prompt "The Persian Expedition" or some equivalent)
FTP, name this historical work which tells of the clash between Artaxerxes II and Cyrus the Younger, the most famous work by the Greek historian Xenophon. Anabasis Kyrou (prompt "The Persian Expedition" or some equivalent)
This figure states, "Who cares to praise his enemy?" in Ovid's Metamorphoses and Homer refers to him as the "Gerenian horseman." This man states, "I seek no other vengeance than to ignore Heracles' mighty deeds" as Heracles killed his father Neleus as wel Nestor
Like many others, he was an Argonaut and participated in the Calydonian Boar hunt, but was better known for his role in the Trojan War, during which he led the Pylian troops and carried a solid gold shield Nestor
His son Antilochus is later killed by Memnon, and this man attempts to reconcile Agamemnon and Achilles Nestor
In the Odyssey, Telemachus is advised by Athena to visit this man after visiting Menelaus and Helen of Troy, who tells him of the fate of various Achaean leaders Nestor
For 10 points, name this king of a place often called "sandy," Pylos, who during the Trojan War, was too old to fight. Nestor
One ruler of this place had a wife Consingis who was reportedly bitten by a dog for her rowdy behavior Bithynia
For about a year, it was ruled by a female regent Etazeta, who was overthrown by her stepson Ziaelas Bithynia
Another ruler here was replaced for a time by his brother Socrates Chrestus, but then restored by the army of Manius Aquillius; that king was known as Philopator Bithynia
First established as a kingdom by Zipoites I, it attained wealth under two kings named Prusias Bithynia
Containing cities like Apamea, Heraclea, and Chalcedon, the last king of this region, Nicomedes IV, proved unable to defend its borders Bithynia
Pliny the Younger later served as governor here from 103 to 105 A.D., during which time it was jointly administered with the neighboring province of Pontus Bithynia
FTP, name this ancient kingdom in Asia Minor, the last refuge of Hannibal. Bithynia
This man commanded troops at the Battle of Ad Decimum, or Ten Mile Post, where he nearly saw defeat until the fall of Ammatus allowed his troops to triumph, and after that he won an easy victory at the Battle of Tricameron Belisarius
Earlier, this commander's army had seen defeat at the hands of Azarethes in the Battle of Callinicum, after which the emperor signed the "Endless Peace." He was ordered to depose Pope Silverius in favor of Vigilius, an act for which he later repented, and Belisarius
Along with Mundus, he reported to the Hippodrome to suppress a certain disturbance, and he was later replaced with the eunuch Narses Belisarius
FTP, name this great Byzantine general who re-conquered lots of the Roman empire for Justinian. Belisarius
This ruler had a daughter named Deinomache who came to marry Cleinias and have a famous son Cleisthenes
His own mother was Agariste, a daughter of a tyrant of Sicyon who shared this ruler's name, and his father was Megacles Cleisthenes
This man ascended to power only after the expulsion of an aristocrat, Isagoras, who ran on a platform of revoking citizenship and was supported by king Cleomenes I Cleisthenes
This ruler divided the land into city, shore, and inland regions and set up a system of ten trittyes composed of demes Cleisthenes
He also increased the size of the boule to 500, discouraged the use of the patronymic, and supposedly introduced ostracism Cleisthenes
FTP, name this Alcmaeonidae ruler who came to power in 508 B.C Cleisthenes
and reformed the Athenian democracy. Cleisthenes
One ruler by this name set up the usurper Priscus Attalus and served as Master of the Foot under him, but later deposed him for not complying with his demands, after which his army was ambushed by the general Sarus Alaric
Another ruler of this name was killed at the Battle of Vouille, where his people surrendered much of their territory; he also compiled a collection of law called the Breviary Alaric
The more famous one initially suffered defeat at the Battle of Pollentia at the hands of the general Stilicho, but after Stilicho was put to death, he set up residence in Epirus and then launched an attack which captured the sister of the emperor Honorius Alaric
Augustine Alaric
FTP, name this king of the Visigoths who sacked Rome in 410 A.D. Alaric
This ruler aborted his attempt to use the campaign of his brother-in-law Petilius Cerialis in the Rhineland for his own triumph; instead his first triumph was awarded for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, a victory which some called a sham Titus Flavius Domitianus
After the assassination of the Moesian governor, Oppius Sabinus, he sent commanders to fight in two battles at Tapae - after the second battle, Tettius Julianus secured a treaty Titus Flavius Domitianus
This emperor also fought two Pannonian Wars and died while planning a third, after having little success fighting in the first two Dacian Wars against Decebalus Titus Flavius Domitianus
He was also revolted against by Saturninus and accused of jealous motives when, after the Battle of Mons Graupius, he recalled Agricola from his post as governor of Britain Titus Flavius Domitianus
FTP, name this emperor who was succeeded by Nerva, the last of the Flavian dynasty who came to power after his brother Titus. Titus Flavius Domitianus
This ruler's architect Rabirius built his private residence, the Domus Augustana, and he reinstituted the Ludi Capitolini Domitian [or Titus Flavius Domitianus]
He celebrated a triumph over the Chati and gave himself the title Germanicus, and later he formally added the provinces of Upper and Lower Germania to the empire Domitian [or Titus Flavius Domitianus]
This man declared himself censor for life, and his prefect Cornelius Fuscus oversaw a disastrous war with Dacia Domitian [or Titus Flavius Domitianus]
More notably, he recalled Agricola from Britain and after a revolt led by Saturninus, began to purge the senate Domitian [or Titus Flavius Domitianus]
He was assassinated in 96 CE and succeeded by Nerva Domitian [or Titus Flavius Domitianus]
For 10 points, name this last of the Flavian emperors, who followed his elder brother Titus. Domitian [or Titus Flavius Domitianus]
One of its rulers traded blows with the Aetolian League before signing the Treaty of Phoenice, in which he renounced an alliance formed with Hannibal after Cannae Macedon [do not accept "Macedonia"]
Lucius Aemilius Paulus defeated another of its rulers at Pydna after his aforementioned father had lost at Cynoscephalae Macedon [do not accept "Macedonia"]
Another ruler of it introduced the sarissa, a twenty foot pike, which allowed him to win at Crocus Field and Chaeronea before being killed by his bodyguard Pausanias Macedon [do not accept "Macedonia"]
His son would expand this place's control at battles like Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela, where he defeated Darius III and conquered Persia Macedon [do not accept "Macedonia"]
For 10 points, name this kingdom home to Phillip II and Alexander the Great. Macedon [do not accept "Macedonia"]
The most important source for this man's life is Priscus, and the Battle of Nedao saw one his sons killed by Ardaric, who had earlier allied with this ruler as leader of the Gepids Attila the Hun
His other allies included Valamir, leader of the Ostrogoths, and he planned to attack the Visigothic kingdom of Tolouse with Valentinian III Attila the Hun
He succeeded his uncle Rua with his co-ruler and brother Bleda, and trouble started when Honoria sent this man an engagement ring and he demanded half the Western Roman Empire as a dowry Attila the Hun
He was defeated by Theodoric I and Flavius Aetius at the Battle of Chalons Attila the Hun
For 10 points, name this "Scourge of God," the most famous leader of the Huns. Attila the Hun
He fled to Hispania after his father committed suicide, and he later commanded the right wing of the Sullan forces at the Battle of the Colline Gate Marcus Licinius Crassus
He refused the help of the king of Armenia on a notable campaign, which culminated when his testudo, or tortoise formation, was decimated by the enemy's horse archers Marcus Licinius Crassus
That campaign, which he undertook after his defeat of Spartacus and appointment as governor of Syria, was his invasion of Parthia, during which he was killed after his defeat at Carrhae Marcus Licinius Crassus
For 10 points, name this Roman politician known for his wealth and association with Pompey and Caesar in the first triumvirate. Marcus Licinius Crassus
This ruler was the first to settle Germanic barbarians in the Roman Empire, and he auctioned off many palace valuables to pay for the empire's wars Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [prompt on Marcus Annius Verus; prompt on Marcus Annius Catilius Severus]
His reign saw a great plague, and also saw Parthia invade Armenia, an action stopped by a man who would later declare himself emperor when this man was reported dead, Avidius Cassius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [prompt on Marcus Annius Verus; prompt on Marcus Annius Catilius Severus]
He was long advised by Fronto, the childhood tutor of this man and his co-emperor Lucius Verus Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [prompt on Marcus Annius Verus; prompt on Marcus Annius Catilius Severus]
He fought against the Marcomanni and died while on campaign in Germania, after which the war was ended prematurely by his son Commodus Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [prompt on Marcus Annius Verus; prompt on Marcus Annius Catilius Severus]
For 10 points, name this last of the five good emperors, the author of some Stoic Meditations. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [prompt on Marcus Annius Verus; prompt on Marcus Annius Catilius Severus]
In Rabbinic sources, this ruler's name is accompanied by "may his bones rot," and early in his reign he had Lusius Quietus and three other senators executed Hadrian [or Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus or Publius Aelius Hadrianus]
His original choice as successor was the tubercular Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who became Aelius Caesar Hadrian [or Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus or Publius Aelius Hadrianus]
He twice avoided war with Parthia and he put down Bar Kokhba's Revolt, but he also defified his drowned lover, the Greek youth Antinous Hadrian [or Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus or Publius Aelius Hadrianus]
He built an extensive series of palisades between the Rhine and Danube after ceding much of the land his predecessor had conquered Hadrian [or Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus or Publius Aelius Hadrianus]
For 10 points, name this emperor who was followed by Antoninus Pius, succeeded Trajan, and built a massive wall across Britain. Hadrian [or Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus or Publius Aelius Hadrianus]
This man set up a new military treasury to pay veteran bonuses, and he exiled Lucius Antonius after a protracted siege of Perusia Augustus [or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus; accept Gaius Octavius Thurinus]
He led the Mutina campaign, and established the urban cohorts to check the Praetorian Guard Augustus [or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus; accept Gaius Octavius Thurinus]
This man married Scribonia in an attempt to prevent future conflict with Sextus Pompeius, and a temple in Ankara contains his own account of his deeds, the Res Gestae Augustus [or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus; accept Gaius Octavius Thurinus]
At times it was unclear whether he would be succeeded by his nephew Marcellus or by his friend and military commander Marcus Agrippa, and he was victorious at Philippi, defeating Brutus and Cassius and avenging his adoptive father Augustus [or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus; accept Gaius Octavius Thurinus]
For 10 points, name this first Roman Emperor. Augustus [or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus; accept Gaius Octavius Thurinus]
In this man's role as a strategoi he was given command of a fleet based in Thasos Thucydides
His work was followed up by that of Cratippus and Theopompus, and he failed to keep Brasidas from conquering Amphipolis Thucydides
Part of his work involved character studies of Brasidas, Cleon, and Themistocles, and he described the disastrous siege of Syracuse and the funeral oration of Pericles Thucydides
While exiled from Athens, he wrote his major work, which was written before Lysander's victory at Aegospotami, though it does include the Sicilian expedition and the exploits of Alcibiades Thucydides
For 10 points, name this Greek historian of The History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides
This battle took place after the Peace of Antalcidas led one side to hope for deliverance against the arbitrary rule of the losers of Lechaion Battle of Leuctra
Before this battle took place, additional forces from the winning side had massed at both the Ciphesian Lake and Helikon with the intent of blocking off the path of the losers, and prior to this battle the winners had refused to sign the King's Peace with Battle of Leuctra
A tactical innovation that took place during this battle consisted of one side massing its hoplites to a depth of 50 against the other side's right wing, and raising a cavalry screen before smashing into the enemy under the leadership of the Sacred Band Battle of Leuctra
Resulting in the death of King Cleombrotus, for ten points, identfiy this 371 B.C.E Battle of Leuctra
battle which saw a victory over the Spartans by a Theban force led by Epaminondas. Battle of Leuctra
He explored the possibility of alliance with the Ilkhanate under Arghun, receiving the monk Rabban Bar Sauma, against the Mamluks Philip IV [or Philip the Fair; prompt on Philip]
A force he sent to Flanders was defeated at the Battle of Golden Spurs, and he later had the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar burned at the stake Philip IV [or Philip the Fair; prompt on Philip]
He collected all outstanding debt to Jewish moneylenders, rewarded one fifth of any Jewish treasure found to the discoverer and took the rest, and exiled the Jews from France, though they were invited back nine years later Philip IV [or Philip the Fair; prompt on Philip]
He stripped Edward I of his possessions in France when the latter refused to appear in court Philip IV [or Philip the Fair; prompt on Philip]
For 10 points, identify this Capetian king, whose nephew's reign saw the beginning of the Hundred Years War, and during whose reign the Babylonian Captivity began. Philip IV [or Philip the Fair; prompt on Philip]
This man led the "Thundering Legion" against the Quadi Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [or Marcus Annius Verus (need both)]
This leader instituted two different social classes, honestiores and humiliores, into criminal law, and assigned each group different penalties for identical crimes Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [or Marcus Annius Verus (need both)]
His predecessor as emperor, who was remarkable in his complete lack of involvement with the military, allegedly died from eating too much cheese; while his son was a coward of an emperor who named Rome after himself and frequently participated in gladiato Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [or Marcus Annius Verus (need both)]
For 10 points, name this last of the Five Good Emperors, the successor of Antoninus Pius and father of Commodus who is best known for his Stoic philosophy, found in the Meditations. Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus [or Marcus Annius Verus (need both)]
Fourteen years after this battle, Tithraustes, the illegitimate son of the commander of the losing side, would fight a similar type of battle at the Eurymedon River The Battle of Salamis
Prior to this battle, one side had dug a channel across the Isthmus of Actium to avoid the peaks of Mt The Battle of Salamis
Athos, and a side engagement following this conflict involved the forces of Aristides dispatching a garrison at Psyttaleia The Battle of Salamis
The victors at this battle had earlier suffered a defeat at Artemisium, and following this battle, the losers suffered a defeat at Mychale and another at Plataea The Battle of Salamis
The success of the winning side in this battle depended on a false message sent to the loser intimating that the winning commander was ready to betray his side The Battle of Salamis
For ten points, identify this 480 B.C.E The Battle of Salamis
naval battle, a victory for Themistocles over the forces of Xerxes. The Battle of Salamis
According to his wishes, an oratory was constructed at the present site of Santa Maria in Trivio, as reparation for his role in the installment of Vigilius, after the deposition and exile of his predecessor, Saint Silverius Belisarius
Earlier, he had refused the chance to be named the Western Roman Emperor as proffered by Witiges, a king he would go on to capture at Ravenna in the name of his emperor Belisarius
Further examples of this man's loyalty, as detailed by his chronicler Procopius in the Historia arcana include his defeat of Gelimer at the battles of Ticameron and Ad Decimum, his suppression of the Blues and Greens with the aid of Narses and Mundus and Belisarius
For 10 points, name this great Byzantine general who ended the Nika revolts and re-conquered North Africa for Justinian. Belisarius
This man is the primary subject of Ammianus Marcellinuis' Rerum gestarum libri, and after the death of his mother Basilina, this man was raised together with his half-brother Gallus by Eusebius of Nicomedia Flavius Claudius Julianus [or Julian the Apostate]
On succeeding to his highest office, this man invited Maximus of Ephesus to serve as his advisor, and his philosophical work can be found in a tract entitled "Against the Galileans." His success in Gaul against the Alemanni and the Franks frightened his c Flavius Claudius Julianus [or Julian the Apostate]
Among this man's domestic policies was an edict ordering religious tolerance, and he began a project to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem Flavius Claudius Julianus [or Julian the Apostate]
After converting to an Iamblichan version of Neoplatonism, this man proclaimed the cult of the Unconquered Sun engaged in persecution of Christians, but his death during a campaign against the Persians in 363 ended his 20-month long reign Flavius Claudius Julianus [or Julian the Apostate]
For ten points, identify this last pagan Roman emperor. Flavius Claudius Julianus [or Julian the Apostate]
An imposter named Gaumata took the identity of this ruler's son Bardiya to overthrow this ruler's rightful successor Cyrus II or the Great [accept just Cyrus after the end of the question; prompt otherwise; accept Kurus]
That successor fought at the Battle of Pelusium and defeated Psametik III, pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty Cyrus II or the Great [accept just Cyrus after the end of the question; prompt otherwise; accept Kurus]
Xenophon wrote a fictionalized biography of this ruler, whose head was supposedly placed in a jar of blood by the vengeful Queen Tomyris of the Massagatae Cyrus II or the Great [accept just Cyrus after the end of the question; prompt otherwise; accept Kurus]
He founded his capital at Pasargade, although the city that he conquered from his grandfather Astyages, Ecbatana, also served that function Cyrus II or the Great [accept just Cyrus after the end of the question; prompt otherwise; accept Kurus]
After having defeated the Neo-Babylonians under Nabonidus, he made the Jews happy by ending the Babylonian Captivity Cyrus II or the Great [accept just Cyrus after the end of the question; prompt otherwise; accept Kurus]
He is also known for defeating the Croesus, King of Lydia, and establishing his empire by overthrowing the Medians Cyrus II or the Great [accept just Cyrus after the end of the question; prompt otherwise; accept Kurus]
Father of Cambyses II, for 10 points, identify this founder of the Achaemenid dynasty of the Persian empire. Cyrus II or the Great [accept just Cyrus after the end of the question; prompt otherwise; accept Kurus]
One member of this group of people was depicted on the Ars Pacis, and had earlier served as a cavalry commander for Aulus Gabbinius Second Triumvirate [or Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae, or Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power, prompt on "Triumvirate"] (accept Caesars before *)
One of these people was the grandson of a High Priest (*) and censor of the same name, and tried to raise a revolt in Sicily against another of these people Second Triumvirate [or Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae, or Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power, prompt on "Triumvirate"] (accept Caesars before *)
That man was later confined to governance of Africa, after having had his possessions in Gaul and Spain taken away Second Triumvirate [or Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae, or Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power, prompt on "Triumvirate"] (accept Caesars before *)
Another of these people fought in Syria and lost the battle of Actium Second Triumvirate [or Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae, or Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power, prompt on "Triumvirate"] (accept Caesars before *)
This group first met at Bolonia and was enacted into law in 43 BCE, and was renewed 5 years later Second Triumvirate [or Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae, or Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power, prompt on "Triumvirate"] (accept Caesars before *)
For 10 points, identify this group of people that oversaw the execution of Brutus and was comprised of Marcus Lepidus, Marc Antony, and Octavian. Second Triumvirate [or Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae, or Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic with Consular Power, prompt on "Triumvirate"] (accept Caesars before *)
This man's neice Salonina Matidia was the mother of Rupilia Faustina and Vibia Sabina, and in one conquest, this figure also took advantage of the death of Rabbel II Soter Trajan or Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
He installed Parthamaspates after deposing Osroes II, and had no children with his wife Pompeia Plotina Trajan or Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
The city of Selinus was renamed for this figure, who commissioned Apollodorus of Damascus for several architectural works Trajan or Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
One of his conquests occurred after his victory at the battle of Tapae, where he defeated the forces of Decebalus Trajan or Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
For 10 points, name this Roman emperor and adoptive father of Hadrian, whose defeat of the Dacians is commemorated in his namesake column. Trajan or Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
Junianus Justinus attributed a combination of this ruler's "superior power of the mind" and "the speed of his own feet" as the reason for his early successes Chandragupta Maurya [or Sandrocottus before mention]
This ruler probably had the governors Nicanor and Philip assassinated, and toppled the empire of Dhana Nanda Chandragupta Maurya [or Sandrocottus before mention]
Sometimes known as Sandrocottus, he received the ambassador Megasthenes in his court, and sent a war gift that would later be decisive at the Battle of Ipsus Chandragupta Maurya [or Sandrocottus before mention]
After becoming a follower of Bhadrababu, he was said to have died fasting in a Jainist ritual, and his prime minister wrote the tract Arthashastra Chandragupta Maurya [or Sandrocottus before mention]
This man conquered Seleucus's eastern satrapies and was succeeded by his son Bindusara Chandragupta Maurya [or Sandrocottus before mention]
For 10 points, name this grandfather of Asoka and founder of the Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta Maurya [or Sandrocottus before mention]
This ruler patronized such poets as Romanus the Melodist Justinian I or Justinian the Great
This ruler took advantage of the death of Amalasuntha to invade Sicily Justinian I or Justinian the Great
This man's reign saw a loss to Gelimer at Ad Decimum, but at Tricamarum generals serving this ruler defeated the Vandals Justinian I or Justinian the Great
Another conflict occurring during this ruler's reign saw a major defeat at Callinicum, which was followed by a truce known as the Eternal Peace Justinian I or Justinian the Great
He put down unrest instigated by members of the Blue and Green factions, and one of his most important achievements, which was overseen by Tribonian, solidified the power of the emperor and outlawed certain religious practices Justinian I or Justinian the Great
For 10 points, name this Byzantine emperor, husband of Theodora and author of a revolutionary legal code. Justinian I or Justinian the Great
A focal point of engagements in this conflict was the fort at Labdalum, and it culminated in a slaughter at the Assinarus River The Sicilian Expedition [accept Siege of Syracuse before it is read; prompt on Peloponnesian War before it is read]
Walls of circumvallation were built outward from the Epipolae plateau, and Lamachus was killed during a raid on a counter-wall The Sicilian Expedition [accept Siege of Syracuse before it is read; prompt on Peloponnesian War before it is read]
Superstition over a lunar eclipse caused the attackers to fail to retreat when they had the chance, after which the survivors were left to die in nearby quarries The Sicilian Expedition [accept Siege of Syracuse before it is read; prompt on Peloponnesian War before it is read]
The official pretext of this conflict was to attack Selinus in support of Segesta The Sicilian Expedition [accept Siege of Syracuse before it is read; prompt on Peloponnesian War before it is read]
Led by Nicias, it began with the defection of its instigator to Sparta and ended with a disastrous siege of Syracuse The Sicilian Expedition [accept Siege of Syracuse before it is read; prompt on Peloponnesian War before it is read]
For 10 points, name this phase of the Peloponnesian War supported by Alcibiades, an Athenian expedition to an Italian island. The Sicilian Expedition [accept Siege of Syracuse before it is read; prompt on Peloponnesian War before it is read]
Theodotus the Currier, who was excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church for being an antitrinitarian, was a native of this place, and its first known bishop was Metrophanes Byzantium (prompt on Constantinople or Istanbul till mentioned)
This city held out for two years against the forces of Phillip of Macedon, but would later be razed by Septimius Severus after a three year siege Byzantium (prompt on Constantinople or Istanbul till mentioned)
Originally called Lygos, it was colonized by Megara in 658 BC and was named after the leader of that expedition Byzantium (prompt on Constantinople or Istanbul till mentioned)
This city had supported the loser of the Battle of Chrysopolis, Licinius, though it would later be renamed by that battle's victor, who had gained control of the Western Roman Empire at the earlier Battle of Milvian Bridge Byzantium (prompt on Constantinople or Istanbul till mentioned)
Also the site of the Comnenian dynasty, For ten points, name this city located on the Bosporus, which was later called Constantinople and Istanbul. Byzantium (prompt on Constantinople or Istanbul till mentioned)
These people collected outstanding debts from their neighbors at weddings as part of their gozana exchange Zapotecs
The last great king of these people withstood a long siege from this people's mountain stronghold of Giengola Zapotecs
They had ruins at Yagul, and are often credited with developing the 52-year religious calendar eventually used throughout their region Zapotecs
They inhabited a city sometimes referred to as Danipaguache, meaning "Sacred Mountain." They worshiped the rain god Cocijo, and reached their peak between 300 and 700 CE, when their terraced hilltop city of Monte Albán began to decline Zapotecs
For 10 points, name this Mesoamerican people who preceded the Mixtecs as the dominant civilization in Oaxaca. Zapotecs
This city was the original capital of a duchy ruled by Otto de la Roche, and along with Orchomenos, it was once inhabitated by the Minyan people Thebes
One commander from this city unprecedentedly used a reserve contigent of cavaliers in one battle and was named Pagondas Thebes
Another general from this city led a 1000 man force to defend the construction site of Megalopolis and later took care of a notable hostage to this city Thebes
It lost the battles of Coronea but was responsible for the killing of Lysander at the earlier battle of Haliartus, and three of its generals were killed despite its victory at the Battle of Mantinea Thebes
The most famous general from this polity gave Pelopidas control of the Sacred Band and fought in the Battle of Leuctra Thebes
Home of Epaminondas, for 10 points, name this Greek-city state that gained hegemony prior to the Macedonian conquest. Thebes
This clash was preceded by a so-called "impecable siege" of Pir-Sar at Aornos, and was decided after Coenus swept up the loser's right flank, defeating the losing army's cavalry away from their main line Battle of Hydaspes River
The assistance provided by Omphis prior to this battle prompted Malayketu lifelong hatred by for Taxila Battle of Hydaspes River
The experiences of the winning side here prompted wariness of Magadhan forces that led to a later event at the Beas Battle of Hydaspes River
In the wake of this battle, Nikaia was founded along with another city named for its most famous casualty, Bucephalus Battle of Hydaspes River
Pitting companion cavalry and phalanxes against a formidable array of war elephants, FTP, identify this victory over Porus by Alexander the Great, named for a body of water in India. Battle of Hydaspes River
He may have written an Invective Against a figure who he blamed for holding trials "under the Plautian law", while his support of the loser at the Battle of Gergovia won him a short term governorship in present day Algeria Sallust [also accept Gaius Sallustius Crispus]
A mostly lost work of his begins in 78 BC and takes over where Lucius Cornelius Sisenna left off, while more famous works than his Histories include one where this supporter of Julius Caesar criticizes Gaius Marius's policies Sallust [also accept Gaius Sallustius Crispus]
Another work is devoted to the same man that Cicero wrote an oration about, a politician who attempted to overthrow the Roman Senate and who ultimately died in battle near Pistoria Sallust [also accept Gaius Sallustius Crispus]
For 10 points, identify this Roman historian, who chronicled the Jugurthine War and the Catiline Conspiracy. Sallust [also accept Gaius Sallustius Crispus]
This man won a series of battles against the Rugians but did not annex their lands Odoacer [or Odovacar]
This man came to power after the clamoring of Scirian and Torcilingi mercenaries were denied land demands, and at Piacenza this figure captures the Roman general Flavius Orestes Odoacer [or Odovacar]
This man declared submission to Emperor Zeno, who later saw him as a rival and accused him of aiding the revolt of Illus Odoacer [or Odovacar]
This man lost battles at Aquileia and the Adda River, and his greatest rival killed him at a banquet that followed the Siege of Ravenna Odoacer [or Odovacar]
Eventually killed by Theodoric the Great, for 10 points, name this Germanic leader who ended the Western Roman Empire by deposing Romulus Augustulus. Odoacer [or Odovacar]
One phase of these conflicts was sparked by the garrison of Neapolis, a response to the occupation of Fregellae on the Liris by the other side Samnite wars
After taking Apulia and Lucania, that side is defeated at Lautulae, leading them to adopt the Manipular formation Samnite wars
One of them began with the relief of Campania by taking Capua, and is interrupted by a victory at Trifanum and the Latin war, in which allegiances switched Samnite wars
In the second one, an army is trapped in a canyon, and its defeat led to its soldiers having to march under a yoke of their own spears Samnite wars
Leading to the construction of Via Appia, it saw the battle of Claudine Forks Samnite wars
For 10 points, name these 343 to 290 BC wars fought by the Romans against a mountainous Oscan tribe. Samnite wars
The Codex Hermogenianus recorded precedents set during his rule, and during his reign, Carausius revolted and declared himself emperor of Britain and northern Gaul Diocletian
His Edict on Maximum Prices was a failed attempt to curb inflation Diocletian
Aristobulus defected from the forces of Carinus at The Battle of the Margus, the battle which made this man the successor to Numerian Diocletian
He gave the general Maximian the title of Herculius, and the two campaigned against the Alamanni together Diocletian
Later, he would adopt Galerius as successor and Maximian adopted Constantius, a division of power known as the Tetrarchy Diocletian
For 10 points, name this Emperor who made four edicts that, until overturned by the Edict of Milan, established the Great Persecution of Christians. Diocletian
During his reign, this king was opposed by an alliance between Matiel of Arpad and Tarkhulara of Gurgum, among others, and a primary source of information about his reign and campaigns are a collection of letters found at Calah Tiglath-Pileser III [prompt on Tiglath-Pileser]
The assassination of Pakaha allowed this ruler to secure Israel through his vassal Hoshea, and he came to the throne by deposing Mukin-zero, a Chaldean who had assumed power during the succession crisis generated by Nabonassar's death Tiglath-Pileser III [prompt on Tiglath-Pileser]
This ruler's major campaigns included the subjection of Urartu in 735 B.C.E., and the capture of Damascus during the rebellion of Rakhianu Tiglath-Pileser III [prompt on Tiglath-Pileser]
Various sources indicate that this man was the son of either Ashur-nirari V or Adad-nirari III, and he was succeeded by Shalmaneser V, who was then succeeded by Sargon II Tiglath-Pileser III [prompt on Tiglath-Pileser]
For 10 points, identify this Assyrian king, who ruled from 744 to 727 B.C.E. Tiglath-Pileser III [prompt on Tiglath-Pileser]
An inscription of this man claims that Gyges of Lydia was able to defeat the Cimmerians only after sending ambassadors to this ruler Ashurbanipal
The severed head of Te'uman hangs in a garden in a relief depicting this man, who defeated Humman-Haldash III before definitively shattering the Neo-Elamite state Ashurbanipal
Like Shulgi, he boasted of being able to read and write, and his son Sin-Shar-ishkun deposed the usurper Sin-Shumu-lisher, who had in turn deposed another of his sons, Ashur-etil-ilani Ashurbanipal
After the revolt of his brother Shamash-Shum-ukin, he installed Kandalanu as vassal ruler of Babylon Ashurbanipal
The latter part of his reign saw Psammetichus I reestablish the independence of Egypt Ashurbanipal
The successor of Esarhaddon, for 10 points, identify this last major king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, known for collecting an immense library of cuneiform tablets. Ashurbanipal
This man's grandfather of the same name was the ruler of Sicyon and fought in the first Sacred War Cleisthenes
His most important rival had him expelled with the help of Cleomenes I of Sparta, but this person was recalled after that rival, Isagoras, tried to dissolve the main governmental institutions of Athens Cleisthenes
He increased the size of the Boule to five hundred and the number of tribes from four to ten Cleisthenes
Little is known about his life after the introduction of his reforms, which he called the isonomia, and it has been theorized that his seeking aid from the Persians let him to be ostracized, a practice that he likely created Cleisthenes
For 10 points, name this reformer who overthrew Pisistratus's son Hippias and established the deme system in Athens. Cleisthenes
A stone statue of King Idrimi relates how Idrimi became a vassal of this polity after returning to the throne of Alalakh Mitanni [or Nakhrima; or Naharina; accept Hurrians before it is read]
This polity was given control of Alalakh by a neighboring power in exchange for relinquishing its coastal claims Mitanni [or Nakhrima; or Naharina; accept Hurrians before it is read]
Based on terms in the Kikkuli horse-training manual, the names of several rulers, and a list of deities found in a treaty, the rulers of this polity are argued to have been Indo-Europeans Mitanni [or Nakhrima; or Naharina; accept Hurrians before it is read]
Princesses of this polity include Gilu-Kheba and Tadu-Kheba and were used in marriage alliances between it and Egypt, and the murder of one ruler of this kingdom by his own son Kurtiwaza and others was regarded by Amartana of the "Khurri Land" as a sign o Mitanni [or Nakhrima; or Naharina; accept Hurrians before it is read]
Tushratta had overseen the destruction of this kingdom and the sack of its capital at the hands of the Hittite king Shuppiluliumash Mitanni [or Nakhrima; or Naharina; accept Hurrians before it is read]
For 10 points, identify this empire that ruled from the capital Washshukanni, held northern Syria and Mesopotamia, and was populated by ethnic Hurrians. Mitanni [or Nakhrima; or Naharina; accept Hurrians before it is read]
This state aided the Thessalians in a war with Alexander of Pherae, defeating that tyrant at the less-heralded first Battle of Cynoscephalae Thebes
One military victory for this polity saw it deploy fifty ranks of troops on its left wing to match twelve for the opponent, inventing the "oblique order" to great success in a battle against Cleombrotus Thebes
Forces of this city orchestrated the Arcadians' founding of Megalopolis and reformed the state of Messenia after allying with a helot revolt in Sparta, but this polity, which was victorious at Tegyra, declined following the death of its greatest general a Thebes
For 10 points, name this city which led the Boeotian League during the days of Pelopidas and Epaminondas and won at Leuctra before being defeated by Philip of Macedon at Chaeronea. Thebes
One man with this last name forced Gaius Popillius Laenas into exile, while another held a public feast which was painted and dedicated to the Aventine after he emerged victorious at the Battle of Beneventum Gracchus
Yet another man of this surname reportedly asked a slave to stab him after he was attacked by Lucius Opimius, thus meeting his death alongside his ally Marcus Fulvius Flaccus Gracchus
The previously mentioned man was clubbed to death on the orders of his cousin Scipio Nasica, after earlier negotiating a heroic peace treaty with the Numantines while serving as quaestor for Gaius Hostilius Mancinus Gracchus
He was the son-in-law of Appius Claudius Pulcher, while another figure of this surname notably proposed the Sempronian Laws Gracchus
For 10 points, give this cognomen shared by the two tribunes Tiberius and Gaius. Gracchus
This man entered cultural life by publishing a revision of Aratus's poem Phaenomena Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
During his time as commander of eastern provinces, this man elevated Zenon to the throne of Armenia as Artaxias III Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
At the death of Augustus, this man put down a mutiny among the troops in Pannonia, and he later supervised coastal operations during a campaign against Dalmatia Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
When he became commander of the eastern provinces, he was criticized for breaking the Augustan law against high-ranking Romans entering Egypt without permission Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
Plancina, the wife of the Syrian governor Piso, was soon thereafter accused of poisoning him, following his 19 A.D Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
death in Syria Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
This father of Agrippina the Younger and Caligula was, with his wife, Agrippina the Elder, viewed as a rival to Tiberius Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
For 10 points, name this likely successor to the Imperial throne who was nicknamed for his exploits across the Rhine. Germanicus Julius Caesar [or Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus; don't prompt on or accept anything else]
Early in this conflict, Boii and Insubrian revolts ruined Roman plans, and its first confrontation on Italian soil, the Battle of Ticinus, forced the Romans to retreat to Placentia Second Punic War
The disastrous defeat of Varro and Paullus at a more famous battle caused Philip V to forge an alliance with Rome's enemies, initiating the First Macedonian War Second Punic War
The Romans had better luck in this war's Spanish theater, expelling the opposing general's brothers, Mago and Hasdrubal Second Punic War
This allowed a final push into Africa by Scipio, and there, despite his elephants, the Battle of Zama saw the final defeat of Hannibal Second Punic War
For 10 points, identify this second war between Rome and Carthage. Second Punic War
This ruler set up vassal kings with the title Syenessis in Cilicia, and this ruler subjugated the Massagetai whose warrior queen Tomyris may have killed him Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II of Persia]
Harpagus defected to the army of this man, who won a victory over Nabonidus Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II of Persia]
This ruler won a battle against his grandfather, Astyages, at a site where he later founded the city of Pasargadae, and after the Battle of Thymbra he was able to capture Sardis from Croesus, the king of Lydia Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II of Persia]
This ruler freed the Jews from captivity when he conquered Babylonia, and he also overthrew the Medes. For 10 points, name this man who founded the Achaemenid Empire of Persia. Cyrus the Great [or Cyrus II of Persia]
This man was adopted by Glaukias, a king of the Taulantians, after his father Aeacides was deposed Pyrrhus of Epirus
This man's capital was Ambrakia, and he captured Eryx, the last stronghold of the Carthaginians in Sicily, for the Greeks Pyrrhus of Epirus
Lysimachus ended this man's short first reign as King of Macedon, but this man later regained that title shortly before he died in Argos Pyrrhus of Epirus
Although he was quite successful at the Battle of Heraclea, this man narrowly defeated the Romans under Publius Decius Mus at the Battle of Asculum during his invasion of Southern Italy Pyrrhus of Epirus
For 10 points, name this Greek ruler, a third century BC King of Epirus who is the namesake of a type of costly victory. Pyrrhus of Epirus
This ruler created the siglos and daric coins Darius I [or Darius the Great; prompt on Darius]
Economic administration in this ruler's domain was headed by his uncle Pharnaces, as recounted in the Fortification Tablets Darius I [or Darius the Great; prompt on Darius]
This ruler faced a revolt from Vahyazdâta, and he sent Scylax of Caryanda to explore the Indus Darius I [or Darius the Great; prompt on Darius]
This man's Behistun Inscription records how he killed the Magian usurper Gaumata, who was supposedly impersonating Smerdis Darius I [or Darius the Great; prompt on Darius]
This leader of an expedition against the Scythians divided his empire into twenty satrapies, and he built a noted network of roads Darius I [or Darius the Great; prompt on Darius]
This man successfully claimed the throne of Cambyses II Darius I [or Darius the Great; prompt on Darius]
He was the target of the Ionian Revolt, after which he launched an expedition under Datis that was defeated by Miltiades at Marathon Darius I [or Darius the Great; prompt on Darius]
For 10 points, name this Persian ruler who was succeeded by his son Xerxes I. Darius I [or Darius the Great; prompt on Darius]
In 2000, the “Bromeswell Bucket,” a bronze vessel suspected to be of Byzantine origin, was found at this place Sutton Hoo
The ornamentations found on a shield discovered at this site have been linked to similar ones found near Uppsala in Sweden Sutton Hoo
Another interesting find at this site includes the “equestrian grave,” a burial mound containing the remains of a young man and a horse Sutton Hoo
However, the site is best known for another burial mound, which is widely believed to be the final resting place of King Raedwald of East Anglia Sutton Hoo
For 10 points, identify this archaeological site in Suffolk, England, home to two Anglo-Saxon cemeteries as well as a famous undisturbed ship burial. Sutton Hoo
Cassius Dio scathingly reports that this man took the office of Gymnasiarch Marc Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
This man politically opposed the tribune Publius Cornelius Dolabella Marc Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
He was given the Eastern part of a partition created in the Pact of Brundisium Marc Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
This man's brother and wife fought the Perusine War, and another conflict started when this man attempted to seize control of Cisalpine Gaul from Decimus Brutus Marc Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
This loser of the War of Mutina attempted to grant land to his children in the Donations of Alexandria, and he had Sextus Pompeius executed without trial Marc Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
This man held power in Rome as Master of Horse, and he was the victorious commander at the Battle of Philippi Marc Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
For 10 points, name this right-hand man of Julius Caesar who lost the Battle of Actium during a civil war with Octavian. Marc Antony [or Marcus Antonius]
One ruler of this polity consolidated power by defeating Achyuta of the Ahichhatra Gupta Empire
That ruler of this polity issued gold coins commemorating his celebration of the ashvamedha, a horse sacrifice, and depicting himself playing the veena Gupta Empire
Another ruler of this polity built the Iron Pillar of Delhi and took a title meaning “Sun of Valour,” Vikramaditya Gupta Empire
The fall of this empire is attributed to invasions by the mysterious Hephtalites, also known as White Huns Gupta Empire
Its leaders included Skanda and Samuda and its capital was Pataliputra Gupta Empire
This empire patronized Kalidasa, developed the concept of zero, and produced the Kama Sutra Gupta Empire
For 10 points, name this empire that ruled India from around 320 to 550 AD, founded by Chandra. Gupta Empire
A speech of this ruler is recorded on the Lyon tablet, and Hadrian extended this ruler's effort to drain the Fucine Lake Claudius I [or Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus]
This ruler decreed that sick slaves left at the Temple of Aesculapius would be freed, and he upheld the rights of Egyptian Jews with his “Letter to the Alexandrians.” This ruler temporarily restored the autonomy of Judea, but reclaimed it as a provinc Claudius I [or Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus]
He used elephants to conquer Camulodunum, and this ruler pardoned the captured general Caratacus after sending Aulus Plautius to conquer Britain Claudius I [or Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus]
The freedman Narcissus wielded power under this man and helped to expose the plot of his wife Messalina Claudius I [or Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus]
He was poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina Claudius I [or Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus]
For 10 points, name successor to Caligula, the dice-playing fourth Roman emperor. Claudius I [or Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; or Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus]
According to a contemporaneous legend, a general of this ruler hid his men in two hundred sacks during his taking of Joppa; that general was Djehuti or Thuti Thutmose III [or Thutmosis III]
A stele depicting this ruler was found at Jebel Barkal in Napata Thutmose III [or Thutmosis III]
This man carried pontoon boats on oxcarts in order to cross the Euphrates when he attacked the Mitanni kingdom late in his reign Thutmose III [or Thutmosis III]
His first campaign was an attack on the kingdom of Kadesh, which culminated with a battle occurring after a march through the narrow Aruna Pass Thutmose III [or Thutmosis III]
His victories are commemorated with Cleopatra's needles Thutmose III [or Thutmosis III]
This ruler ordered the removal of all record of his predecessor, including the destruction of images depicting her Thutmose III [or Thutmosis III]
For 10 points, name the successor of Hatshepsut , a pharaoh of Egypt who won the battle of Megiddo. Thutmose III [or Thutmosis III]
One historian wrote that the victor of this battle later sought purification from a Spaniard named Aegyptus after locking his wife in a hot bath to die Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Another account says that the losing commander's body was sunk into the mud the following day, and the mere sight of his head convinced the people to turn away from him Battle of the Milvian Bridge
The events leading up to this battle include the death of Ruricius Pompeianus, the praetorian prefect who'd served as a key general for the loser Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Prior to the battle, the victor may have crafted a labarum – composed of a straight pike and transverse beam draped by a silken cloth – after witnessing the inscription “In hoc signo vinces” in the sky Battle of the Milvian Bridge
For 10 points, name this victory over Maxentius in 312 AD, which allowed the rise of Constantine the Great and is named for a structure near the Tiber River. Battle of the Milvian Bridge
It notes that the real disgrace of poverty is not merely in its fact, but in "declining the struggle against it", and defends the pursuit of knowledge "without effeminacy." A caustic passage proclaims that the audience goes perpetually without assistance The Funeral Oration of Pericles [accept anything about Pericles talking about Dead people]
More famously, it declares that "only love of honor" never grows old, and describes an administration favoring the many rather than the few, noting "this is why it is called democracy." Offering "comfort, not condolence" for men who "chose to die resistin The Funeral Oration of Pericles [accept anything about Pericles talking about Dead people]
This kingdom capitulated to client-state status, surrendering an annual roster of hostages per the Treaty of Apamea, in the wake of a crushing loss to the Attalid Euemenes II and Lucius Scipio Seleucid Empire
It descended into chaos after an ambitious Nabatean stab Alexander Balas, whose son was used to engineer the brief reign of Tryphon after conflicts with the Hasmonean dynasty destabilized this kingdom's rule Seleucid Empire
One of its greatest kings lost the Battle of Magnesia after earlier winning at Raphia over a ruler of this dynasty's major rival; that rival king bore the epithet "Philopator" Seleucid Empire
With the aid of Lysimachus, this kingdom's founder defeated Antigonus the One-Eyed and himself earned the epithet "Nicator" by winning the Battle of Ipsus, possibly thanks to selling his daughter to the Mauryans in exchange for elephants Seleucid Empire
For 10 points, identify this dynasty which warred with Ptolemaic Egypt to control the territory held by Alexander the Great. Seleucid Empire
This ruler won a major victory over Psamtik III with the assistance of Polycrates of Samos and the Greek general Phanes Cambyses II [or Kambujiya]
According to an inscription at Bisitun, this ruler was responsible for the death of Bardiya, which later inspired a revolt led by the Magian Gaumata, who impersonated Bardiya to usurp his throne Cambyses II [or Kambujiya]
This ruler's effort to expand his western border was halted by a gigantic sandstorm that eliminated an entire detachment now known as his "Lost Army" Cambyses II [or Kambujiya]
That expedition successfully captured Kharga Oasis but not Siwa Oasis after departing from Thebes Cambyses II [or Kambujiya]
The successor of this victor of the battle of Pelusium saw his forces lose the Battle of the Eurymedon to Cimon after responding to a revolt on the Ionian Isles Cambyses II [or Kambujiya]
Primarily known for conquering Egypt and stabilizing the Achaemenid empire, for 10 points, identify this Persian ruler who preceded Darius I and succeeded his father, Cyrus the Great. Cambyses II [or Kambujiya]
Gulbadam Begum was a major chronicler of this historical figure and emphasized his lenient personality, citing his forgiveness of his younger brother Hindal for killing the revered Sheikh Buhlul Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun [accept variants]
This man lost his empire in the wake of defeats at Baneres and Kanauj, and had to battle his other brothers Askari and Kamran to reclaim the capital won from Ibrahim Lodi by his father Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun [accept variants]
This man escaped his house arrest in Kabul and, backed by the Safavid Shah Tahmasp, regained much of the losses he suffered at the hands of the Pashtun warlord Sher Shah Suri Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun [accept variants]
The reclamation campaign was led by his son's tutor and eventual foe, Bairam Khan Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun [accept variants]
Ruling a reclaimed throne for merely a year before a fatal fall down his library steps, for 10 points, identify this successor of Babur and second Mughal emperor, the father of Akbar. Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun [accept variants]
Treaties named for Phoenice and Tempea brought brief respite from conflicts by this name Macedonian Wars
The son of one of the major antagonists of these conflicts, Perseus, started his own but was decisively smacked down at the Battle of Pydna Macedonian Wars
A conflict sometimes considered one of these was started by the Aetolian league and saw the defeat of Antiochus III at Thermopylae and Magnesia, while the fourth began with an uprising by the Achaean League against foreign occupiers Macedonian Wars
That conflict ended with the sacking of Corinth, the same year that Carthage was destroyed in the third Punic war Macedonian Wars
The first of these conflicts saw Rome taken on by Philip V, a ruler of the namesake region Macedonian Wars
For 10 points, name these wars fought in a seventy-five-year time span which eventually led to the Roman conquest of Greece, named for a kingdom most famously led by Philip II and his expansionist son Alexander. Macedonian Wars
This ruler sent an army to support a deposed leader of the Vandals named Hilderic against the usurper Gelimer Justinian I [or Flavius Justinianus; or Petrus Sabbatius; prompt on Justinian]
A treaty signed by this leader was broken eight years later by Khosrow I despite that treaty being named the Eternal Peace Justinian I [or Flavius Justinianus; or Petrus Sabbatius; prompt on Justinian]
This ruler briefly dismissed his advisors John of Cappadocia and Tribonian in the face of a revolt that attempted to name Hypatius emperor Justinian I [or Flavius Justinianus; or Petrus Sabbatius; prompt on Justinian]
That uprising against this man led by members of the Green and Blue factions was the Nika revolt Justinian I [or Flavius Justinianus; or Petrus Sabbatius; prompt on Justinian]
Procopius wrote a Secret History of this man's rule Justinian I [or Flavius Justinianus; or Petrus Sabbatius; prompt on Justinian]
For 10 points, name this husband of Theodora served by the general Belisarius, who updated the laws of the Byzantine Empire in his namesake code. Justinian I [or Flavius Justinianus; or Petrus Sabbatius; prompt on Justinian]
This man's forces supposedly searched fruitlessly for Carthaginian gold before defeating the forces of Domitius and the Numidian king Iarbas Pompey the Great [or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus]
This man was sent to Spain to help Metellus fight against the rebellion of Sertorius Pompey the Great [or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus]
The Lex Gabinia gave this general more power to complete the task of clearing out the Cilician pirates Pompey the Great [or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus]
This man fled to Greece when his rival moved on Rome, and later fled further to Egypt where he was assassinated by orders of Ptolemy XIII Pompey the Great [or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus]
For 10 points, name this Roman general who lost the Battle of Pharsalus during a civil war fought against a fellow member of the First Triumvirate, which was made up of Crassus, Julius Caesar, and this man. Pompey the Great [or Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus]
While serving as leader during his father's absence, this man put down an uprising of the Maedi tribe Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedonia; prompt on Alexander]
When an assassination plot became known, this ruler was forced to execute Philotas, the son of his general Parmenio, who was also executed Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedonia; prompt on Alexander]
In one battle, this ruler defeated the king Porus, but lost his horse Bucephalus Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedonia; prompt on Alexander]
This man also twice fought and defeated the Persian troops under Darius III when making a move into Asia Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedonia; prompt on Alexander]
This ruler was the victor in the Battles of the Hydaspes River, Gaugamela, and Issus Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedonia; prompt on Alexander]
For 10 points, name this man who was tutored by Aristotle and who succeeded his father, Philip II, as king of Macedonia. Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedonia; prompt on Alexander]
The Oxyrhynchus Epi-tome preserves a partial summary of this author's major work Livy or Titus Livius
A later writer championed free discourse and the conflict between upper and lower classes as sources of liberty in republics in a treatise that is nominally a commentary on part of this author's major work Livy or Titus Livius
The Periochae is a summary of this man's major work, which draws on writings of Quintus Fabius Pictor and the other Annalists, and on Polybius Livy or Titus Livius
In that major work, this man's account of a siege includes the stories of Cloelia and Mucius Scaevola, who impress Lars Porsena, a king of the Etruscans Livy or Titus Livius
That work by this man closes with the death of Claudius's father Nero Claudius Drusus, and opens with the arrival of Aeneas's arrival in Italy Livy or Titus Livius
For 10 points, name this historian whose Ab urbe condita is a 142-book history of Rome that inspired some Discourses by Machiavelli. Livy or Titus Livius
This man commanded an army that was wracked by the so-called "mutiny of the Usipi," which led to a voyage resulting in cannibalism Gnaeus Julius Agricola
In an earlier campaign, he reportedly forced the natives of the "island of Mona" to beg for peace through the swimming prowess of his auxiliary troops Gnaeus Julius Agricola
He served under Salvius Titianus after being appointed quaestor in Asia and after he shared a battle tent with his military tutor Suetonius Paulinus Gnaeus Julius Agricola
He commanded the victorious army at the Battle of Mons Graupius, leading the Twentieth Legion to a victory over Calcagus, the chief of the Caledonians Gnaeus Julius Agricola
For 10 points, name this man who drew the ire of the emperor Domitian according to the account of his life by his son-in-law Tacitus, and who served as a longtime governor of Britain. Gnaeus Julius Agricola
He was raised by his grandmother, from whose silver cup he would drink on festival days, and for a time he was so poor that he dealt in donkeys and was known as "the Muleteer." He was widowed before coming to power and lived with a freed-slave mistress na Titus Flavius Vespasianus
That power was bolstered by the oath of loyalty given by Tiberius Alexander as well as 40,000 archers from the Parthians Titus Flavius Vespasianus
However, he owed that power chiefly to the political skills of Mucianus and the military victory at Cremona of Antonius Primus Titus Flavius Vespasianus
His reign ended with him saying "Alas, I think I'm becoming a god" on his deathbed and began with the crushing of major revolts on the Rhine and in Judaea and saw the start of construction on the Forum of Peace and the Colosseum, the latter of which was f Titus Flavius Vespasianus
For 10 points, name this father of Domitian and Titus and Roman emperor from AD 69-79. Titus Flavius Vespasianus
This battle was preceded by a sack of Divodurum two months earlier, and Lupus, the Bishop of Troyes, saved that city from destruction by appeal to the invading army Battle of Chalons or Battle of Catalaunian Plains (or Fields) or Battle of the Campus Mauricacus
Two years after this clash, the losing force was decimated again at the Battle of Nedao Battle of Chalons or Battle of Catalaunian Plains (or Fields) or Battle of the Campus Mauricacus
Its initial stages saw the army of king Sangiban forced to support the winning side Battle of Chalons or Battle of Catalaunian Plains (or Fields) or Battle of the Campus Mauricacus
An account of this battle by Jordanes says that many were forced to drink their own blood at a brook Battle of Chalons or Battle of Catalaunian Plains (or Fields) or Battle of the Campus Mauricacus
Soon after its conclusion, the losing commander met with the pope, after he'd earlier been invited to take Honoria as his bride Battle of Chalons or Battle of Catalaunian Plains (or Fields) or Battle of the Campus Mauricacus
This battle saw forces under Valamir and others beaten back by a coalition of Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic troops of Theodoric Battle of Chalons or Battle of Catalaunian Plains (or Fields) or Battle of the Campus Mauricacus
For 10 points, name this major victory for the Western Roman Empire against the invading Huns in 451 C.E., which took place on an eponymous plain. Battle of Chalons or Battle of Catalaunian Plains (or Fields) or Battle of the Campus Mauricacus
A late king of this empire was defeated at the Battle of the Ulai River, shortly after which its king Khumma-Khaldash was captured Elam (or the Elamite Kingdom or Haltamti)
This kingdom apparently achieved great power under Shutruk-Nakhkhunte, who killed king Zababa-shuma-iddina and replaced him with his son Kutir-Nakhkhunte Elam (or the Elamite Kingdom or Haltamti)
A prominent architectural remnant of this kingdom is the Chogha Zanbil temple at its site of Dur Untash Elam (or the Elamite Kingdom or Haltamti)
Its early dynasties like the Avan and the Simash ruled from its capital at Anshan, though later kings of this empire frequently occupied Susa, up until it was brutally sacked by Ashurbanipal in 640 BC, reducing it to fragments Elam (or the Elamite Kingdom or Haltamti)
For 10 points, name this ancient kingdom to the east of Akkadia and Sumeria, which is represented by modern-day southwestern Iran. Elam (or the Elamite Kingdom or Haltamti)
This is the name of a historian from Syracuse who wrote the Colonizing of Italy and a history of Sicily that was one of the sources used by Thucydides Antiochus
This name was shared by a number of monarchs of Commagene, the first of whom was one of Pompey's allies in his war with Caesar Antiochus
Another ruler of this name defeated the Galatians in the so-called "Elephant Battle" and warred against Ptolemy II Philadelphus, whose daughter Berenice married the second ruler of this name Antiochus
The best-known ruler of this name fought a war with the Romans after taking in Hannibal at his court, and had a son nicknamed "Epiphanes" who reconquered Armenia but was rebelled against by Mattathias and the Maccabees Antiochus
For 10 points, give this name shared by the son of Seleucus who took over his empire. Antiochus
The losing force at this confrontation had plundered Lucania just before and was temporarily heartened after they fell for a ruse plotted by this battle's winner, who had switched armor with a hapless bodyguard Battle of Heraclea
This battle took place halfway between Pandosia and its namesake location at the River Siris, from which the losing force retreated after war elephants left it vulnerable to a Thessalian cavalry charge Battle of Heraclea
In the aftermath of this battle fought to protect the city of Tarentum, the winning commander was turned back at Anagni after realizing that Barbula's legions might decimate his army Battle of Heraclea
It occurred prior to the Battle of Asculum, where this battle's winning commander remarked "One more such victory and we shall be undone." For 10 points, name this earliest engagement between the Romans and Pyrrhus. Battle of Heraclea
This man won the Civic Crown for his service under Thermus during the siege of Mytilene Gaius Julius Caesar
He demanded that his captors ransom him for fifty instead of twenty talents while in the captivity of Cilician pirates Gaius Julius Caesar
This man recounted his victory at the Battle of Alesia, where he defeated Ambiorix and Vercingetorix, in his Commentaries on the Gallic War Gaius Julius Caesar
He won the Battle of Pharsalus against a former fellow member of First Triumvirate, Pompey Gaius Julius Caesar
For 10 points, name this man who crossed the Rubicon and became dictator of Rome, later assassinated by Brutus. Gaius Julius Caesar
This man's death triggered the Lamian War Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedon; or Megas Alexandros]
This man, who built a causeway to end a siege at Tyre, defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedon; or Megas Alexandros]
He was succeeded by a group of rival successors known as the Diadochi Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedon; or Megas Alexandros]
One city he founded was the site of a World Wonder known as the Pharos Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedon; or Megas Alexandros]
He commanded the left wing of his father's army while defeating the Sacred Band of Thebes at Chaeronea Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedon; or Megas Alexandros]
Aristotle tutored this son of Philip II who defeated Darius III of Persia at the Battles of Gaugamela and Issus Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedon; or Megas Alexandros]
For 10 points, name this “Great” Macedonian conqueror. Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedon; or Megas Alexandros]
This ruler earned the enmity of the Gabiniani while warring with a younger brother who ordered the beheading of Pompey Cleopatra VII Philopator
This leader had a sister named Arsinoe who was killed on the steps of a temple in Ephesus Cleopatra VII Philopator
Drinking pearls dissolved in vinegar apocryphally won a bet for this ruler, whose short-lived successor was Caesarion Cleopatra VII Philopator
Along with a Roman lover, this member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty committed suicide after losing the battle of Actium Cleopatra VII Philopator
For 10 points, name this last Egyptian pharaoh, a woman who famously loved Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Cleopatra VII Philopator
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