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Patho Keyterms 2

TermsDefinition
DNA – The nucleic acid that contains all of an individual’s genes. Found in the nucleus of every cell. Different cell are different because, though they contain the same DNA, they use different genes.
GENES – A region on DNA that contains the “code” for making one protein.
ALLELES – Different forms of a gene. (Example: The gene that determines eye color may have the brown allele, blue allele, ….)
DOMINANT – An allele that is always expressed.
RECESSIVE – An allele that will be expressed only when the person is homozygous. It is hidden or partially hidden in the presence of a dominant allele.
GENOTYPE – A two letter code that describes which alleles a person has. (AA, Aa, aa, ……)
HOMOZYGOUS – Having the same 2 alleles for a gene.
HETEROZYGOUS – Having different alleles for a gene.
EXPRESSED – The allele that we can see evidence of.ex if one has blue eyes its because blue allele is expressed.If one has hemophilia A its allele is expressed. If someone has normal hemoglobin it is because the normal alleles for hemoglobin are being expressed.
PHENOTYPE – Describes what characteristics are produced as a result of having a certain genotype. (sickle cell anemia, tall, short, colorblind, Type A blood, brown eyes are characteristics (phenotypes) cause by genetics)
CHROMOSOMES – The combination of DNA and proteins found in a cell that is going through mitosis. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which are visible under a standard light microscope.
AUTOSOMES Chromosome pairs 1-22
SEX CHROMOSOMES – The 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans.
KARYOTYPE – Describes the microscopic appearance of the chromosomes.
DIPLOID – Having the normal 23 pairs of chromosomes.
ANEUPLOID – Having an abnormal number of chromosomes.
MONOSOMY – Missing a chromosome. Monosomy 18, for example, means that the person has only one copy of chromosome #18 (Has the normal number of the other chromosomes)
TRISOMY – Having an extra copy of a chromosome.
HEMATOCRIT – The percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells.
MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME (MCV) – The average size of a red blood cell.
ANEMIAS – A group of diseases that decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
LEUKEMIAS – A group of diseases that results in a dramatic increase in the number of leukoblasts.
POLYCYTHEMIA – Having an abnormally high number of erythrocytes. (also called erythrocytosis)
PANCYTOPENIA – A decrease in the number of all normal blood cells.
ERYTHROCYTOPENIA – A decrease in the number of red blood cells.
LEUKOPENIA – A decrease in the number of white blood cells.
THROMBOCYTOPENIA – Having a low number of platelets.
HEMOPHILIA – A genetic decrease in the activity of one of the clotting factors.
THALLASEMIAS – A group of genetic anemias resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of globin chains.
INTRINSIC FACTOR (general definition) – Any factor from within the body.
INTRINSIC FACTOR (for pernicious anemia) – A protein secreted by gastric glands that is needed for the absorption of vitamin B-12.
EXTRINSIC FACTOR (general definition) – Any factor coming from outside of the body.
EXTRINSIC FACTOR (for pernicious anemia) – Vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamine)
AUSCULTATION – Any diagnostic procedure that listens to body sounds.
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY – An ultrasound of the heart.
STRESS TEST – An electrocardiogram performed while the heart rate is elevated.
ANGIOGRAPHY – A contrast x-ray showing circulation.
CARDIAC MARKERS – Proteins released from damaged cardiac tissue into the blood; used as a diagnostic indicator of myocardial infarction.
NORMAL SINUS RHYTHM – Having a normal heart rhythm established by the sinoatrial node.
BRADYCARDIA – Having a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute.
TACHYCARDIA – Having a resting heart rate of greater than 100 beats per minute.
VALVULAR INCOMPETENCE – The inability of valve to either open or close properly
VALVULAR STENOSIS – The inability of a valve to open completely.
VALVULAR PROLAPSE – When one of the AV valves swings up into the atrium when it should be closed.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS – The build up of fatty deposits (plaque) within blood vessels.
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS – Hardening of the arteries.
ARTERIOSTENOSIS – Narrowing of the arteries.
ISCHEMIA – A local decrease in blood flow due to obstruction.
ANGINA PECTORIS – Chest pains as a result of myocardial ischemia.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTIONS – Ischemic necrosis of heart muscle. Commonly called a heart attack.
TIA – A temporary decrease in cerebral function as a result of ischemia. Can affect sensory, integrative, or motor functions, usually lasting less than 48 hours. (Transient Ischemic Attack)
CEREBRAL INFARCTION – Ischemic necrosis of the cerebrum. (AKA a cerebrovascular accident or stroke)
SECONDARY HYPERTENSION – Chronic high blood pressure that is a complication of another condition.
PRIMARY (ESSENTIAL) HYPERTENSION – Chronic high blood pressure of unknown origin.
ANEURYSM – Localized dilation of an artery or chamber of the heart as a result of a weakness in the wall.
HEMOPTYSIS – Coughing up blood from the lungs.
HYPOXIA – A lack of oxygen.
HYPERCAPNEA – An excess of carbon dioxide.
RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS – A decrease in the pH of body fluids as a result of a buildup of carbon dioxide.
ATELECTASIS – A partial or complete collapse of lung tissue.
PNEUMOTHORAX – The presence of air between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura.
BULLAE – A group of over-inflated alveoli.
ULCER – A lesion through the skin or a mucous membrane.
PEPTIC ULCER – A lesion caused by pepsin.
DUODENAL ULCER – A lesion in the mucosal lining of the duodenum.
GASTRIC ULCER – A lesion in the mucosal lining of the stomach.
ESOPHAGEAL ULCER – A lesion in the mucosal lining of the esophagus.
DIVERTICULUM – A pouch or sac that develops off of a tubular structure such as the intestine.
DIVERTICULITIS – Inflammation of a pouch or sac opening off of a tubular structure.
DIVERTICULOSIS – The presence of diverticula within the intestine.
CHOLELITHIASIS – The presence of stones within the gall bladder or biliary ducts.
NEUROPATHY – A disease of nervous tissue.
MYOPATHY – A disease of muscle tissue.
INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM – A contrast x-ray showing the structures that carry urine.
BUN – A blood test used as an indicator of kidney function. It measures the quantity of urea, which is a waste product of protein metabolism. (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
CREATININE CLEARANCE – A measure of kidney function that compares the quantity of creatinine excreted in the urine over a 24 hour period to the concentration of creatinine in the blood.
CYSTOSCOPY – Using an endoscope to examine the urinary bladder.
Created by: BOMLT