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Patho keyterms1

PATHOLOGY – The study of changes in cell/tissue structure related to disease or death.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY – The study of how disease affects body function.
HEALTH – Having the ability to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions.
DISEASE – Being unable to maintain homeostasis when exposed to normal conditions.
ETIOLOGY – The study of the cause of a disease.
GENETIC – A disease, condition, or trait that is inherited as a result of a single gene.
CONGENITAL – A disease, condition, or trait that is present at birth.
ACQUIRED – A disease, condition, or trait that developed because of being exposed to something during your life.
IDIOPATHIC – Without a clearly identified cause.
SIGNS – Evidence of disease that is objective and can be seen, measured, or recorded.
SYMPTOMS – Evidence of a disease that is subjective and cannot be seen, measured, or recorded.
PATHOGENESIS – The events that lead to the development of a disease and the signs and symptoms that occur as the disease progresses. (diseases life story)
ACUTE – A disease that develops and resolve rapidly.
CHRONIC – A disease that develops gradually and last 3 months or longer.
REMISSION – The lessening in severity of the symptoms of a disease.
EXACERBATION – An increase in the severity of a disease or any of its signs or symptoms.
LOCAL – A condition that is confined to one area.
SYSTEMIC – A condition that affects the entire body.
ENDOSCOPY – A procedure that utilizes a fiber optic camera to view structures inside of the body.
RADIODENSITY – . The ability of an object to stop or slow radiation
X-RAYS – A visual recording of differences in radiodensity of anatomical structures.
CONTRAST X-RAYS – X-rays that utilize a contrast media to increase the radiodensity of selected fluids within the body, producing an image of the structures containing the fluid.
ULTRASOUND – A visual recording of differences in the rate of return & intensity of sound waves reflected off of objects within the body.
ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS – A recording of the electrical activity of the cardiac conduction system.
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM – A recording of the electrical activity of the brain, most often recording the cerebral cortex.
SPIROMETRY – Any procedure used to measure a persons ability to move air or the capacities of the respiratory system. Often referred to as PFTs (pulmonary function tests)
CHEMOTHERAPY – The use of chemicals to kill cells within the body. Two main types of chemotherapy are used – to kill cancer cells or microorganisms.
PHARMACOLOGICAL – The use of drugs to treat disease.
PALLIATIVE – Any form of treatment that relieves signs & symptoms without curing a disease. May include the use of medication (such as a decongestant or pain reliever), therapeutic massage, counseling, physical therapy, orthotic devices…
PROGNOSIS – A prediction of the likely outcome or consequences of having a disease.
SEQUELA – A consequence of a previous disease. (Example: rheumatic heart disease sometimes occurs following a strep infection)
COMPLICATIONS - A morbid process or event occurring during a disease that is not an essential part of the disease, although it may result from it. (Example: blindness is a complication often associated with diabetes)
TERMINAL – A disease likely to cause death.
TRAUMA – The transfer of a harmful amount of energy. The energy may be mechanical, electrical, radiation, or thermal.
DEFICIENCY – Lacking in something that is essential. (Vitamin, glucose, protein, oxygen, water, ……)
INTOXICATION – Being exposed to a toxic level of something.
HYPERTROPHY – To increase in size.
ATROPHY – To decrease in size.
HYPERPLASIA – An increase in the rate of mitosis and therefore cell number.
METAPLASIA – A change in cell or tissue structure.
DYSPLASIA – Irregular cell or tissue structure. Often considered a potentially cancerous change.
NEOPLASIA – Growth of cells and tissue into new areas, resulting in a tumor. May be benign or malignant.
INFLAMMATION – A protective response of tissue to injury or infection. Causes an increase in blood flow and pain in the affected region, as well as leukocytosis.
PYROGENS – Chemicals that cause a fever.
LEUKOCYTOSIS – An increase in the number of white blood cells to more than 10,000 per mm3. A WBC count of 15,000-25,000 commonly occurs as a result of infection, inflammation, or hemorrhage.
EXUDATE – The excess fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Contains a high level of proteins and neutrophils when compared to normal tissue fluid.
SEROUS EXUDATES – A thin, clear, watery fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation.
PURULENT EXUDATE – A thick, creamy white or yellow fluid that accumulates at the site of inflammation. Also called pus.
SUPPURATIVE INFLAMMATION – A response to injury or infection that leads to the production of pus.
REGENERATION – . Replacing damaged tissue through the process of mitosis, restoring the tissue to its original condition
REPAIR – Replacing damaged tissue with scar tissue.
ADHESIONS – The binding together of two surfaces by scar tissue.
KELOID SCARRING – The over production of scar tissue that sometimes occurs in the dermis and subcutaneous layer and results in a mass of scar tissue that is often tender or painful.
CONTRACTURE – The shortening of scar tissue over time OR the shortening of muscle tissue as a result of fibrotic changes.
STENOSIS – The narrowing of any canal or opening, such as the intestine, a blood vessel, of a heart valve.
SCLEROSIS – The process of hardening. Can occur as the result of scar formation or the accumulation of deposits known as plaques.
NECROSIS – Tissue death.
PRODROMAL STAGE – An early stage in the development of a disease or infection that is characterized by a lack of appetite and lack of energy. The time when a person feels as if they are “coming down with something”.
ANAPHYLAXIS – A severe, systemic allergic response that is characterized by vasodilation (which causes a severe drop in blood pressure) and bronchoconstriction (resulting in severe difficulty in breathing).
IMMUNOSURVEILLANCE – The immune system’s constant search for an antigen.
IMMUNOTOLERANCE – The immune system’s ability to recognize and not attack normally occurring tissues within the body
INCUBATION – The development of an infection from the time the infectious organism enters the body until the appearance of the first clinical signs and symptoms.
ACUTE STAGE – The time during an infection when clinical signs and symptoms begin to develop
BENIGN – A nonmalignant neoplasm.
ANGIOGENESIS – The development of new blood vessels, especially capillaries.
TUMOR MARKERS – Proteins produced by tumor cells that can be detected in screening tests of the person’s blood.
CARCINOMA – A malignancy that originates in epithelial tissues.
SARCOMA – A malignancy that originates in connective tissue.
GLIOMA – A malignancy that originates within the tissue of the central nervous system.
CARCINOGENESIS – The process of developing a malignant neoplasm.
INITIATORS (of cancer) – Carcinogens that increase the rate of cancer cell production by activating oncogenes.
PROMOTERS (of cancer) – Carcinogens that decrease the body’s ability to find and fight cancer cells by damaging tumor suppressing genes.
Created by: BOMLT



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