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The Nervous System

chap 5

Function of nervous system Control, stimulate and coordinate all other body systems.
Peripheral nervous system -PNS nerves outside the spinal cord
Central Nervous System brain, spinal cord
Neuron -nerve cell fundamental unit of nervous tissue. It contains a cell body and fiber branches coming into and going away from it (Dendrites & axons)
Autonomic nervous system sympathetic and parasympathetic
Dendrites bring info to the cell body from other parts of the nervous system.More branches to grab info and bring in.
Axons are usually a single branch opposite of the dendrite that transmit impulses away from the cell. Consist of 3 parts axon cylinder inner part, myelin sheath, neurilemma sheath (outer part)
Myelin - a white fatty substance found in the CNS and PNS. Functions increase speed of impulse conduction.
Gray matter parts Cerebral cortex and central portion of the spinal cord
White matter major tracts in the spinal cord and fiber systems such as the internal capsule within the brain.
Gray matter location It does not cover cell body or certain nerve fibers. Areas that contain mostly myelinated fibers are called white matter as areas with mostly unmyelinated fibers are called gray matter. (MS)
Nerve fiber Conductor of impulses for the neuron
Synapse minute gap between neurons where transmission of impulses from one neuron to another occurs.
Tract group of myelinated nerve fibers within the CNS that carries a specific type of info from one area to another. Depending on the location they have different names
Motor neuron or efferent neuron. It ends in muscle fiber and its role is to bring impulses from the spinal cord to the periphery.
Sensory neuron or afferent neuron role is to bring impulses from the periphery to the spinal cord.
Interneuron found in the CNS and it transmits or integrates sensory or motor impules.
The Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Brain Weighs about 3# comprised of cerebrum brain stem Cerebellum
Cerebrum components Largest and main portion.Responsible for highest mental functions
Cerebrum devisions Made up of right and left hemispheres which are joined by the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere has a cortex or outer covering and is divided into
Cerebrum-4 lobes. Frontal - anterior portion of skull Occipital- posterior portion of skull Parietal- b/w frontal and occipital Temporal - under the frontal and parietal lobes, just above ear
Frontal characteristics of personality, controls motor movement and expressive speech.
Occipital vision, recognition of size, shape and color
Parietal gross sensation - touch/pressure, fine sensation such as determination of texture, weight, size and shape, reading skills.
Temporal centers for behavior, hearing, language - receptive and understanding.
Thalamus located deep within the cerebral hemispheres. It is a mass of nerve cells which serve as a rely station for body sensations. Pain is perceived here.
Hypothalamus also deep in brain. Important for hormone function and behavior
Basal Ganglia also in area of thalamus & hypothalamus - important for coordination of movement.
Brain Stem below cerebrum Has 3 parts: Midbrain-- Pons--Medulla oblongata
Midbrain upper portion. Center for visual reflexes.
Pons between midbrain and medulla
Medulla oblongata continuous with the spinal cord.. Center for automatic respiration and heart rate.
Medulla oblongata tract Most of the cranial nerves come from the brainstem area and all fiber tracts from the spinal cord and peripheral nerves to higher centers of the brain go through here.
Cerebellum Location - posterior portion behind pons and medulla.
Cerebellum Function mainly to control muscle coordination, tone and posture.
Bony: Skull . several bones fused together for greater strength
Meninges covering that provides support and protection There are 3 layers.
3 layers outer layer called dura mater, middle called arachnoid (spider like) and inner pia matter(carries blood vessels to brain). They are continuous with spinal meninges that surround the spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid surrounds the brain and fills the 4 ventricles (small cavities). Main function is shock absorption.
Created by: learntime101