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BYU PdBio 305 Rhees Cell/Chem/H2O/Blood

Respiratory Acidosis is caused by Over-anesthesia, Lung diseases, Damage to respiratory center
Metabolic Acidosis is caused by Severe diarrhea, Diabetes mellitus, high intesity exercise, kidney failure
Effects of Acidosis on Body Disorientation, Coma, Death, Lower pH limit of 6.8-7.0
Respiratory alkalosis is caused by Fever, Aspirin poisoning, high altitude
Metabolic alkalosis is caused by Vomiting, excessive sodium bicarbonate ingestion
Effects of alkalosis on body overexcitability of nervous system, tetany, death, upper limit of pH 7.8-8.0
Liters of water in body 40 liters
Percent of body weight from water 50-60%
% of body weight from ICF 35-40%
% of body weight from ECF 10-20%
% of body weight from Interstitial fluid 10-15%
% of body weight from Plasma 4-5%
Causes of Dehydration/Hypovolemia vomiting, diarrhea, loss of blodd, drainage from burns, lack of ADH due to diabetes insipidus
Symptoms of Dehydration/Hypovolemia Loss of weight, rise in body temperature, increased heart rate and cardiac output, decreased blood pressure, decreased urine
Causes of hypervolemia excessive IV administration, psychotic drinking, renal failure leading to decreased urinary output
Symptoms of hypervolemia decreased body temp., increased blood pressure, edema, weight gain, vomiting, convulsions, coma
ADH antidiuretic hormone regulates water loss
What regulates ADH and oxytosin? Hypothalamus and posterior pituitary
Maltose glucose+glucose
Sucrose glucose+fructose
Lactose glucose+galactose
Lipid structure three fatty acids attached to a glycerol
butyric structure CH3-(CH2)2-COOH
palmitic structure CH3-(CH2)14-COOH
Stearic structure CH3-(CH2)16-COOH
Oleic one double bond
Linoleic two double bonds
Linolenic three double bonds
# of cells in body 75-100 trillion
# of types of cells 200-250
tissue types epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
normal pH 7.4
normal glucose 80-100 mg/100ml
Feedback systems' three parts monitoring receptor, control center, reactor
% of plasma membrane from protein 55%
% of plasma membrane from carbohydrate 2%
% of plasma membrane from lipid 43%
space between two walls of nuclear membrane perinuclear cisterna
Rough ER synthesized proteins destination outside of cell
destination of free ribosome synthesized proteins within cell
Vitamin A intoxication cause lysosomes to rupture, destroying intracellular material
Rheumatoid arthritis Lysosomes release enzymes into joint capsule and digest surrounding tissue
Atrophy of the uterus lysosome digestive activity
Erythrocytes red blood cells
Leukocytes white blood cells
Thrombocytes platelets
% of whole blood from plasma 53-60%
% of whole blood from formed elements 40-47%
plasma is made up of water 90%, proteins 7%, electrolytes urea glucose etc. 3%
hematocrit is made up of erythrocytes 4.5-5.5 million/mm^3, leukocytes 6-10 thousand/mm^3, patelets 150-400 thousand/mm^3
leukocytes are made up of Neutrophils 60-70%, Eosinophils 2-4%, Basophils .15%, Lymphocytes 20-25%, Monocytes 3-8%
serum plasma minus the coagulation factors
Albumin functions in osmotic pressure regulation
Globulins Alpha, Beta, and Gamma
Alpha and Beta globulin carrier vehicles to prevent substances in blood (e.g. hormones) from leaving the capillary too rapidly
Gamma Globulin Natural and acquired immunity – Antibodies
Origin of Albumin and the alpha and beta globulins formed in the liver
Origin of Gamma globulins formed in the lymphoid tissues of the reticulo-endothelial system (found in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lymph nodes)
Erythrocyte Characteristics no nucleus, can’t multiply, biconcave discs, no nucleus or e.r., no protein synthesis
Erythrocyte function transport hemoglobin (oxygen) and CO2
What increases erythrocytes? Altitude, muscular exercise, temperature, age (higher in infants)
Erythropoiesis production of red blood cells
Hematopoiesis production of all blood cells
location of early embryo rbc synthesis yolk sac
location of middle pregnancy rbc synthesis liver, spleen, bone marrow
location of adult rbc synthesis vertebrae, ribs, sternum
pathway for erythropoiesis stem cell, proeryrthroblast, basophilic erythroblast, polychromatophilic, erythroblast, normoblast (nucleus lost), reticulocyte, mature RBC
Life span of RBC 120 days
# of RBC destroyed per sec and per day 2.5 million, 216 billion
# of molecules of Hb/RBC 200 million
hemoglobin structure protein globin and four hemes
structure of heme porphyrin with Fe++ in middle
% of RBC is made of Hb 34%
grams of Hb in 100 ml of blood 15g
ml of oxygen that combines with each gram of Hb 1.34ml
ml of O2 for 100ml of blood 20ml
oxyhemoglobin hemoglobin when saturated with 02
carbamino hemoglobin CO2 with Hb
carboxy hemoglobin CO with Hb
biliverdin porphyrin with the ring broken
bilirubin biliverdin is converted to bilirubin to be excreted
jaundice accumulation of bilirubin (caused by liver disease, excess red cell destruction, bile duct obstruction
anemia decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
symptoms of anemia pale skin, fatigue, rapid heart rate
types of anemia hemorrhagic, aplastic, nutritional, pernicious, hemolytic, folic acid deficiency
hemorrhagic anemia blood loss
aplastic anemia bone marrow destruction-cancer, too many x-rays, chemicals, drugs
Nutritional anemia not enough iron
folic acid deficiency anemia impairs normal mitosis
pernicious anemia vit B12 deficiency which is required for bone marrow maturation; parietal cells in stomach make instrinsic factor necessary for vit B12 absorption
Hemolytic anemia RBC destruction (sickel cell, erythroblastosis fetalis, lead/arsenic poisoning)
polycythemia too many RBC
secondary polycythemia elavation; no RBC pathology
primary polycythemia (erythremia) tumor of bone marrow-sluggish blood
# of leukocytes 6-12,000/mm^3 (production rate is equal to or greater than that of RBC's)
lifespan of leukocytes 4 days to months
location of leukocytes most found outside circulation
two types of leukocytes granulocytes, agronulocytes
types of granulocytes neutrophils, eosonophils, basophils
types of agranulocytes lymphocytes, monocytes
% of each leukocyte making up all leukocytes neutrophils 65-70, lymphocytes 20-24, monocytes 5, eosinophils 1-2, basophils 0-.5
production sites of leukocytes embryo-bone marrow, liver, spleen; adult-granulocytes-bone marrow, agranulocytes-lymphoid tissues
diapedesis ability to squeeze through capillary walls (leukocyte ability)
chemotaxis substance released from infected area to attract leukocytes
fxn of neutrophils acute conditions; phagocytosis and NET fibers
fxn of eosinophils allergic conditions
fxn of basophils secrete anticoagulant heparin and histamine which are important in allergic rxns
fxn of lymphocytes immune response
fxn of B-lymphocytes produce antibodies
fxn of T-lymphocytes destroy specific target cells
fxn of monocytes chronic conditions; phagocytosics; macrophages which live for months or years
leukemia too many leukocytes which are immature and useless; not enough RBC's and platelets
leukopenia not enough WBC's' caused by radiation, drugs, chemicals
# of Thrombocytes platelets- 150-350,000/mm^3
formation of thrombocytes bone marrow form megakaryocyte cells where pieces of the cytoplasm chip off and are platelets
thrombopoietin thrombocyte production stimulant
life span of thrombocyte 8 days to many months
fxn of thrombocytes clotting; platelet plug
platelet chemicals which stimulate vasoconstriction and make other platelets sticky ADP, serotonin, thromboxane A2
platelet chemicals stimualting contraction myosin and actin
PGI2-prostacyclin inhibitor of platelet aggregation
nitric oxide inhibitor of platelet aggregation
Thrombocytopenia abnormally low # of platelets; exessive bleeding
thrombocytopenia purpura purple spots on skin from poor blood clotting
pathway for blood clot prothrombin activator activates prothrombin into thrombin which activates fibrinogen into a lose and then tight fibrin clot; Ca++ is needed to clot
syneresis clot retraction
clotting factors 1-11 1.fibrinogen 2.prothrombin 3.tissue thromboplastin 4.calcium 5.accelerator globulin 6.none 7.serum prothrombin conversion accelerator 8.antihemophilic globulin (on X chromosome) 9.Christmas factor 10.stuart-power factor 11.plasma thromboplastin antecedent
clotting factors 12-13 12.Contact factor (initiates the overall rxn) 13.Fibrin stabilizing factor
Anticoagulants Dicoumarol (Coumadin), Heparin, Citrates, Oxalates, EDTA, smooth inside surface of blood vessel
Dicoumarol (Coumadin) interferes with vit K and thus factors 7,9,10
heparin interferes with thrombin and prothrombin formation (from basophils)
citrates, oxalates, edta tie up calcium to stop clotting
edta oj simpson
fibrinolysis lysis of clots; plasminogen makes plasmin which degrades fibrin
conditions that cuase excessive bleeding in humans liver disease (decreased clotting factors), vit K deficiency (decreased formation of prothrombin), hemophilia (lack of factor 8 or 9 or any other), thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets)
Thrombocytopenia decreased platelets (less than 50,000)
Thrombus clot attacched to blood vessel wall
embolus clot that detaches from the wall and floats freely
external defense against disease skin, digestive tract, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract
two types of immunity non-specific and specific
non-specific immunity inflammation, interferon, fever, natural killer cells, complement system
specific immunity responds selectively to invaders (antigens) with antibodies which is an immune reaction
two types of specific immune responses humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity
humoral immunity B-lymphocytes secrete antibodies into the blood and lymph
cell-mediated immunity T-lymphocytes attack host cells that are infected
autoimmunity formation of antibodies against a person's own tissues
examples of autoimmunity rheumatic fever, grave's disease
rheumatic fever antibodies produced against streptococcus bacteria cross react with the heart and kidney tissues
grave's disease antibodies that stimulate the thyroid gland- mimic TSH
when are blood antibodies formed (ABO) 2-8 months after birth; max levels at 8-10 years
agglutinins clumping of blood cells from a transfusion reaction
how many Rh blood types are there 6 C,D,E,c,d,e
% of people who are Rh+ 85%
erythroblastosis fetalis hemolytic anemia in the newborn Rh positive baby caused by meternal antibodies against the Rh factor that hvae crossed the placenta
Rhogam antibodies against the Rh factor
Created by: droid



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