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1.Descriptive termi

bones and movement

Medial toward the midline
Lateral - position farther from the midline
Anterior (ventral) front of the body
Posterior (dorsal) back of the body
Distal away from trunk
Proximal toward trunk
Superior body part above another
Inferior Body part below another
Superficial less depth
Deep greater depth
Supine lying flat (horizontal) with face (anterior surface) upward.
Prone lying flat (horizontal) with face (anterior surface) downward
Bilateral refers to 2 or both sides
Contralater alaffecting opposite side of body (a left CVA will affect the right side of the body)
Ipsilateral affecting same side of body (such as upper face palsy affecting same side as CVA)
Carnial (cephalad) Position or structure close to the head.
Caudal (cauda) Position or structure closer to the feet.
Flexion bending, bringing closer to the body (closing the angle)
Extension Straightening, causing a return to the anatomical position (opening the angle)
Hypertension the continuation of extension beyond the anatomical position
Palmar Flexion flexion (bend)up at the wrist
Plantar Flexion flexion (bend at the ankle (standing on “tip toes”)
Dorsiflexion Extension of wrist and ankle (standing on heels)
Abduction away from midline except with fingers (used middle finger) and toes (use 2nd toe)
Adduction toward the midline except with fingers and toes.
Horizontal Abduction Shoulder is flexed to 90 then abducted ( moved toward the back)
Horizontal Adduction shoulder is flexed to 90 then abducted (moved toward the front)
Radial Deviation movement toward thumb side.
Ulnar Deviation Movement toward pinky side.
Lateral bending (left or right) ) bending the trunk side to side (at the left or right waist
Circumduction a combination of 4 movements (flexion, abduction, extension, adduction) such as the shoulder moving the arm in a circle
Medial Rotation (internal rotation) anterior surface moves inward
Lateral Rotation (external rotation) anterior surface outward
Spinal Rotation rotation of the spine about its longitudinal axis.
Supination Rotation of the forearm in which the palms are up
Pronation rotation of the forearm in which the palms are down.
Inversion sole of feet inward at the ankles (toward the midline)
Eversion – sole of feet outward (away from the midline).
Protraction – linear movement along a plane parallel to the ground and away from the midline (when arms are raised outward extending forward- scapula moves forward).
Retraction – linear movement in same plane but toward midline (when arms are raised outward pushing back – scapula moves toward the spine)
Axial Thorax (ribs/sternum), spine (vertebrae), and skull (80 bones in total)
Appendicular: Upper/lower extremities (126 bones) *includes scapula
Created by: learntime101