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Forensic Toxicology

Clin Chem exam 2

What is the chain of custody? The paper trail "Accountability"
Results must be what in court? legally defensible
The gold standard for forensic analysis? GC/MS
Cause of death definition and examples? The disease or injury responsible for the death: diabetes, stroke, drowning, fire, gunshot, drug intoxication
Maner of death definition and examples? (5) Explains how the cause arose and the events surrounding the death : Natural, accident, suicide, homicide, undetermined
Mechanism of death definition? The change in physiology or biochemistry that exerts the lethal effect: asphyxia, blood loss, diabetic ketoacidosis
Specimen used most commonly and is the least expensive? Urine---does not detect historical use
The specimen that is the most accurate for drug concentrations Blood
Vitreous humor Used in postmortem tox. It is safe from bacteria in stomach and gives reliable measurements for electrolytes, glucose and alcohol
Half life of amphetamines and meth in acidic urine? 7-14 hrs
Half life of amphetamines and meth in alkaline urine? 18-34hrs
Which amphetamine (d or l) is more potent as a CNS stimulant? d-amphetamine
Which amphetamine (d or i) is more potent as a peripheral vasoconstriction? i-amphetamine
Drugs that are converted to amphetamine? (4) Adderall, clobenzorex, fenproporex, mefenorex
Drugs that are converted to methamphetamine? (4) Benzphetamine, deprenyl, famprofazone, furfenorex----Urine will have meth and amphetamine
What is the active ingredient is cannabinoids> tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
What is the metabolite of cannabinoids? 11-nor-s-p-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol-------held in fat stores, feces and urine
Cocaine metabolite? benzoylecgonine
List opiates (7) Morphine, heroin, codeine, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxycodon, demerol
Opiate antidote? Naloxone (Narcan)
What are opiate metabolites conjugated with? Glucornic acid
Heroin and codein metabolism (pathway) Heroin--->6-MAM--->Morphine--->Codeine (can convert back to morphine)
PCP (Phenyl cyclohexyl piperidine) Hallucinogen, soluble in water and alcohol. Undergoes very little metabolism
What is the treatment for opiate addiction? Methadone---a synthetic opiate with reduced CNS highs
List benzodiazepines (3) Klonopin(clonazepam), valium, xanax
Benzodiazepines affect the activity of the neurotransmitter ___________. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
What do barbituates do? produce a wide spectrum of CNS depression, from mild sedation to coma
Created by: aenewsom