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Heme midterm reveiw

Ch1-7 from outline

Composition of blood RBC, WBC, platelets, plasma
Plasma vs. serum Plasma has clotting proteins, serum does not it is already clotted
Layers when spun down % RBC 43%, WBC&Platelets (buffy coat) <2%, Plasma 55%
Cell membrane - composition and function phospholipid bilayer with proteins, also receptors that transmit messages to the nucleus
Cytoplasm - composition and function protein synthesis, growth, motility, and phagocytosis take place here.
Nucleus - composition and function contains DNA and regulates all cell functions
Necrosis vs Apoptosis Cell Death ... Necrosis - No ATP, cell swells, patches of tissue die, lysed, inflammation Apoptosis - needs ATP, cell shrinks, death of single isolated cell, no inflammation
Hematopoiesis the process of making all of the parts of blood
differentiation the process responsible for generateing the diverse cell populations for specialzed functions
commitment the instance when 2 cells derived from the same precursor take a separate route of development
hematopoiesis Sites during embryonic, fetal, childhood and adult embryonic-Mesoblastic period-yolk sac and Aorta-gonad-mesonephros(AGM) fetal-Hepatic phase-Liver (spleen) and Medullary/Myeloid phase (in bones)90% in red marrow at birth childhood-throughout the skeletal system adult-central portion of the skeletal
Cellular compartments of hematopoietic precursor cells Hematopoietic stem cells-give rise to daughter cells, not morphologically distinguishable Progenitor cells-committed cells, not morphologically recognizable, measured by CFUs Maturing cells-takes on morphological characteristics of cell line.
Hematopoietic precursor cell model (pg 35) Basic scheme of hematopoiesis go look at it! :) remind yourself!
Cytokines, growth factors and hematopoietic microenvironment Cytokines-protein that modulates function of other cells- ex interleukins,CSF&interferons growth factors-cytokines - mostly produced by stromal cells hematopoietic microenvironment- influences behavior and proliferation of multipotential cells
extramedullary hematopoiesis formation and development of blood cells at a site other than bone marrow
Medullary hematopoiesis blood cell production and development IN the red bone marrow
Erythropoiesis formation and maturation of erythrocytes in bone marrow. It is under the influence of the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin.
RBC Maturation series (both nomenclatures)p65 Pronormoblast/rubriblast Basophilic normoblast/prorubricyte polychromatophilic normoblast/rubricyte orthochromic normoblast/metarubricyte reticulocyte mature RBC or erythrocyte
Earliest morphologically recognizable cell (RBC) Pronormoblast/Rubriblast
RBC membrane function maintain cell shape and deformability maintain osmotic balance between plasma and cell cytoplasm act as a supporting skeletal system for surface antigens and receptors Aid in the transportation of essential cellular ion gases
RBC membrane Composition Biphospholipid protein complex - 52% protein, 40% lipid & 8% carbohydrate
RBC metabolism ATP, generated by glycolysis.
Embden-Meyerhop (EM) pathway - RBC metabolism anaerobic pathway, 90% of glucose utilization in RBC - AKA Glycolic Pathway
Extravascular and intravascular RBC destruction Extravascular -90% in spleen and liver Intravascular - cell membrane breached while in circulation
Factors that affect Oxygen affinity Increase affinity - increase O2, OR decrease in: CO2, H+, Temp, 2,3-BPG Decrease Affinity increase in: CO2, H+, Temp or 2,3-BPG
Hemoglobin Normal values for men and women men 14-17g/dL women 12-16g/dL
Structure 4 globin chains - 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains. 4 hemes - each contain 1 iron atom.
Normal types of hemoglobin - Table 6-2 page 88 Embryonic-Gower I (zeta epsilon), Gower II (Alpha epsilon), & Portland (zeta gamma) Fetal to Adult (amounts change but types are the same) -HbF (alpha gamma), HbA (alpha beta), HbA2 (alpha delta)
senescent RBC 1. growing old 2. characteristic of old age
Glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1C has glucose irreversibly attached- used as an indicator of blood glucose in diabetics.
Oxyhemoglobin Hgb bound to oxygen
Deoxyhemoglobin Hgb without oxygen
Oxygen affinity Ability of hemoglobin to bind and release oxygen. An increase in CO2, acid, and heat decrease affinity, while an increase in pO2 increases oxygen affinity
Tense structure
Relaxed structure
2,3 BPG
Shift to the right
Shift to the left
Methemoglobin Hgb with iron in ferric state. Cannot combine with O2.
Sulfhemoglobin Sulfur combined with hemoglobin. 1/100 O2 affinity of HbA.
Carboxyhemoglobin Carbon monoxide combined with hemoglobin. Affinity for carbon monoxide is 200 times higher than for O2.
The Leukocyte
Absolute concentration vs. relative concentration and calculations
Reference values for adults
Maturation series of granulocyte
Characteristics of nucleus & cytoplasm. Approximate cell size
Primary and secondary granules
Marginating and circulating pool locations
Granulocytic adherence and migration
Reticulocyte No nucleus, contains RNA
Hexose monophosphate shunt - RBC metabolism dependent on G6PD, when deficient globin denaturation occurs and Hgb precipitates to form inclusions (Heinz bodies)
Methehemoglibon reductase pathway - RBC metabolism
Rapoport-Leubering Shunt - RBC metabolism Production of 2,3BPG (2.3BPG binds to Hgb and decreases the oxygen affinity of Hgb- releasing more oxygen to tissues)
PO2 PCO2 Partial pressure oxygen/carbon dioxide??
Created by: BOMLT