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A&P II Ch.1&2


What are the functions of erythrocytes? transport oxygen n carbon dioxide
What is erythropoietin? hormone released n produced from the kidney in response to low oxygen; stimulates the synthesis of erythrocytes(kidney Release hormone to increase red blood cell production)
Define four types of cells/tissues and their characteristics: neurons, muscle cells, epithelial cells, connective tissue cells
neurons are specialized to transmit information in the form of electrical signals; typically posses a number of branches that function either or receive signals from or transmit signals to other cells
Muscle fibers= muscle cells are generally elongated in shape and are specialized to contract, thereby generating mechanical force and movement; voluntary: skeletal muscle and involuntary: cardiac and smooth muscles
epithelia consist of a continuous, sheet like layer of cells in combination with a basement membrane.Line external body surfaces,Line hollow body tubes and organs,Function as a barrier,Function as a transport membrane
Connective tissue cells Is the most diverse; including blood cells, bone cells, fat cells, and many other kinds of cells;Provide physical support for other structures such as tendons, ligaments, bones;
what is the function of the endocrine system? provide communication b/w cells of the body through the release of hormones into the bloodstream
what is the function of the nervous system? provide commuicaion b/w cells of the body through electrical signals n the release of neurotransmitters into small gaps b/w certain cells
what is the function of the musculoskeletal system? support the body; allow voluntary movement of the body; allow facial expressions
what is the function of the cardiovascular system? transport molecules throughout the body in the bloodstream
what is the function of the respiratory system? bring oxygen into the body n eliminate carbon dioxide from the body
what is the function of the urinary system? filter the blood to regulate acidity, blood volume, n ion concentrations; eliminate wastes
what is the function of the gastrointestinal system? break down food n absorb it into the body
what is the function of the reproductive system? generate offspring
what is the function of the immune system? defend the body against pathogens n abnormal cells
what is the function of the integumentary system? protects the body from the external environment
What is the main difference between exocrine and endocrine glands? DUCTS. exocrine:secrete a product into a duct leading to the external environment. Endocrine glands:secrete hormones, chemicals that communicate a message to cells of the body, into the bloodstream
What is the function of elastin? gives the tissue elasticity
What is the function of collagen? gives the tissue tensile strength & flexibility
What is an internal environment? Immediate environment of most cells, =Extracellular fluid which includes tissue fluid and plasma,Plasma is fluid around blood cells,Tissue fluid (also known as interstitial fluid) is fluid around all other cells
Across gastrointestinal tract: Absorption the water, inorganic salts, and nutrients from digested food are transported from the lumen of GI tract to the bloodstream
Across & In the kidneys: Filtration fluid from the bloodstream first enters tubules non-selectively
Across & In the kidneys: Reabsorption then as this fluid travels along the length of the tubules, needed materials(including water,inorganic salts, nutrients) are selectively transported back into the bloodstream
Across & In the kidneys: Secretion unneeded materials are selectively transported from the bloodstream into the tubules. (In GI tract: to aid in the digestion of food, the stomach uses materials from the blood to produce acids n proteins that are then transported into the lumen
In the kidneys:Excretion urine is eliminated from the body
Where is most of our total body water? intracellular fluid (ICF)
What is ICF? What is its characteristics (protein and ions)? Water present in fluid located inside cells, About 2/3 of TBW,Contains many proteins and rich in K+ n low in Na+
What is ECF? Fluid outside cells but within body,Is the “internal environment”,1/3 of TBW, Na+ high, K+ low
What are the two portions of ECF? What are its characteristics of each portion (protein and ions)? subdivisions: Plasma: the liquid component of blood, relatively rich in proteins; Interstitial Fluid: containing few proteins(0,1 or 2molecules or no proteins) and rich in Na+, present outside the blood and bathes most of the cells in the body
What is homeostasis? The maintenance of constant conditions in the internal environment means that the composition, temperature, and volume of ECF do not change significantly under normal conditions.
How is homeostasis primarily regulated? negative feedback
Define regulated variable and give examples is not free to vary but is instead regulated to stay within relatively narrow limits; body temperature,negative feedback. ex.blood volume,body temperature, composition,blood glucose,blood pH,plasma concentrations of potassium, sodium, calcium
Define negative feedback and give examples if a regulated variable increases, the system responds by making it decrease and vice versa. ex.blood glucose, blood pressure
what are the components of the negative feedback? sensors, integrating center, effectors; and set point, error signal
sensors= receptors sensors which detect stimuli, include thermoreceptors,chemoreceptors, n baroreceptors
integrating center which receives signals (input) from the sensors, compares the regulated variable to the set point, and orchestrates the appropriate response. mainly in the brain.ex.hypothalamus->sends signals to effectors
effectors responsible for body responses; include •Muscles (smooth, striated, and cardiac) •Glands
set point expected value of regulated variable. Examples Core body temperature = 37º C Blood glucose (sugar) = 100 mg/dL Blood pH = 7.4
error signal Any difference between the actual value and the set point
Define positive feedback and give examples. the response of the system goes in the same direction as the change that sets it in motion, a few examples in the body system.ex:estrogen,oxytocin(stimulates uterine contractions during child birth n milk let down),blood clotting
monosaccharides,give examples Simple sugars, a single unit, C6H12O6 (hydroxyl grps make carbohydrates polar) Examples: glucose, fructose, and galactose
disaccharides,give examples Formed by the covalent bonding of two monosaccharides. ex.Sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (galactose + glucose), maltose (2 glucoses):ex.starch.
polysaccharides, give examples Formed by the covalent bonding of several monosaccharides. ex. Glycogen: a polymer of glucose subunits and found in animal cells. Starch:: found in plants. Cellulose: found in plants, humans are unable to digest and absorb it.
What compose triglycerides? glycerol + 3 fatty acids; glycerol=3-carbon alcohol, fatty acid=long carbon acid chain w/ a carboxyl group (-COOH),fatty acid chains make triglycerides hydrophobic
What are saturated fatty acids? contain carbons linked only by single bonds
What are unsaturated fatty acids? contain one or more pairs of carbon linked by double bonds.
What are polyunsaturated fatty acids? contain one or more pairs of carbon linked by more than one double bond
What are the differences between nonpolar and polar molecules? nonpolar=hydrophobic, polar=hydrophilic, differ in water solubility, uneven distributed electrons=polar
What compose phospholipids? Contains one glycerol as backbone.Two fatty acid as tails, which are nonpolar ,hydrophobic.A hydrophilic (polar)head, a phosphate-containing group.Are Amphipathic: in an aqueous environment, polar regions face the water, and the nonpolar regions face each
What are the functions of phospholipids? amphipathic: a molecule that contains both polar n nonpolar regions.Phospholipid bilayers n micelles
What is amphiphathic property of a compound? polar regions face the water, and the nonpolar regions face each tails away from water. hydrophilic (polar) head a phosphate-containing grp
what are steroids? most common steroid is cholesterol,which is an important component of plasma membrane, n the precursor to all other steroids, such as testosterone,estradiol,n cortisol. A 4 fused carbon ring is the structure of steroids.all steroids fxn are hormones
what are the basic structures of an amino acid? building blocks of proteins,20 different kinds of amino acids. a central carbon is bonded to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen, n an R or residual group
how does each amino acid differ from others? each amino acid differs from others in the characteristic of R group
4 levels of protein structure? primary,secondary,tertiary,quaternary
primary protein structure? sequence of amino acids
secondary protein structure? hydrogen bonding b/w amino hydrogen of one amino acid n carboxyl oxygen of another. common structures: alpha-helixes, beta-pleated sheets
tertiary protein structure? formation of bends n loops in polypeptide chain due to interactions b/w R groups
quaternary protein structure? formation of proteins with more than one polypeptide chain. ex.insulin, hemoglobin
what are the components of a nucleotide? phosphate group(s), 5-carbon carbohydrate: ribose,deoxyribose, base-containing carbon-nitrogen ring: pyrimidines: cytosine(C),thymine(T), uracil(U),purines:adenine(A),guanine(G)
what are the differences b/w DNA n RNA? DNA=stores genetic code,always in nucleus,2 strands of nucleotides=double helix,AGCT; RNA=needed for expression of genetic code,in both a cell's nucleus n its cytoplasm,a single strand of nucleotides w/ a 3'end n a 5'end,carbohydrate is ribose,bases:AGCU
Deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)? in a cell's nucleus, store the genetic information. consists of two stands of nucleotides coiled together into a double helix. the carbohydrate is deoxyribose. the bases are A,G, C, n T.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)? in both a cell's nucleus n its cytoplasm. a single strand of nucleotides w/ a 3' end n a 5' end. the bases are A,G, C, n U
What is law of complementary base pairing? whenever two strands of nucleic acids are held together by hydrogen bonds, G in one stand is always paired w/ C in the opposite strand, n A w/ T in DNA (or w/ U in RNA)
plasma membrane structure? lipid bilayer w/ scattered proteins n cholesterol molecules
plasma membrane function? maintains boundary of cell n integrity of cell structure; embedded proteins serve multiple functions
nucleus structure? surrounded by double-layered nuclear envelope
nucleus function? houses the DNA, which dictates cellular function n protein synthesis
nucleolus structure? dark oval structure inside the nucleus
nucleolus function? synthesis of ribosomal RNA
cytosol structure? gel-like fluid
cytosol function? cell metabolism, storage
membranous organelles: Rough endoplasmic reticulum structure? continuous w/ the nuclear envelope; flattened sacs dotted w/ ribosomes
membranous organelles: Rough endoplasmic reticulum function? protein synthesis n post-translational processing
membranous organelles: smooth endoplasmic reticulum structure? continuous w/ rough endoplasmic reticulum; tubular structure w/o ribosomes
membranous organelles: smooth endoplasmic reticulum function? lipid synthesis n post-translational processing of proteins; transport of molecules from endoplasmic reticulum to golgi apparatus; calcium storage
membranous organelles: golgi apparatus structure? series of flattened sacs near the endoplasmic reticulum
membranous organelles: golgi apparatus function? post-translational processing; packaging n sorting of proteins
membranous organelles: mitochondria structure? oval-shaped, w/ an outer membrane n an inner membrane w/ folds called cristae that project into the matrix
membranous organelles: mitochondria function? ATP synthesis
membranous organelles: lysosomes structure? granular, saclike; scattered throughout the cytoplasm
membranous organelles: lysosomes function? breakdown of cellular n extracellular debris
membranous organelles: peroxisomes structure? similar in appearance to lysosomes, but smaller
membranous organelles: peroxisomes function? breakdown of toxic substances, including hydogen peroxide
nonmembranous organelles: vaults structure? small, barrel-shaped
nonmembranous organelles: vaults function? unknown; possibly transport of molecules b/w nucleus n cytoplasm
nonmembranous organelles: ribosomes structure? granular organelles composed of proteins n rRNA; located in cytosol or on surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum
nonmembranous organelles: ribosomes function? translation of mRNA to synthesize proteins
nonmembranous organelles: centrioles structure? two cylindrical bundles of protein filaments that are perpendicular to each other
nonmembranous organelles: centrioles function? direction of mitotic spindle development during cell division
cytoskeleton structure? composed of protein filaments, including microfilaments, intermediate filaments, n microtubules
cytoskeleton function? structural support of cell; cell movement n contraction
cell-to-cell adhesions: tight junctions? proteins are called occludins link two adjacent cells together; nearly impermeable adhesions. found in epithelial tissue: organs of the GI tract; tubules in kidneys.
cell-to-cell adhesions: desmosomes? are strong junctions b/w cells in tissue subject to stress, such as heart, uterus, n skin. are filamentous junction
cell-to-cell adhesions: gap junctions? two adjacent cells are connected by membrane protein, connexons. Enable ions n small molecules to move b/w the two cells. provide direct electrical n metabolic coupling, such as in the heart
genes? portions of DNA that code for a particular protein or proteins; only one sense strand contains the actual code
triplets? the three-base sequences that code for an amino acid
codons? transcribed mRNA codons are complementary to the code in DNA triplets
what is the initiator codon? what protein does it code for? AUG, is found in every mRNA, also codes for the methionine
what is transcription? DNA->RNA (mRNA, rRNA, n tRNA)
where does transcription occur? occurs in the nucleus
what are the steps of transcription? first step:the uncoiling of DNA n its separation into two strands. Role of RNA polymerase:1.binds to promoter sequence of DNA,2.DNA uncoils n separates,3.allow free RNA nucleotides to align w/ the DNA template.4.catalyzes formation of bonds b/w nucleotide
continued transcription steps? 5.RNA polymerase moves down DNA, RNA elongates.Post-transcriptional processing:1. removal of introns, sliding together of exons which contains code.2.addition of CAP to 5'end, which is necessary for initiation of translation,3.adding poly A tail to 3'end
what is translation? RNA -> polypeptides requires mRNA,tRNA, rRNA(ribosomes)
where does translation occur? occurs in cytoplasm
1.what are the steps of translation? initiation of translation: initiation factors bind to the CAP region of a mRNA n to the small ribosomal triggers small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA.tRNA w/ methionine(met;initiator tRNA) is loaded into small subunit.
2.continued steps of translation? large subunit binds such that the first tRNA is located in the P site of the ribosome. initiation factors are released. the first tRNA in the P site, a second tRNA w/ the appropriate anticodon enters the A site.An enzyme, peptidyl transferase,
3.continued steps of translation? in the ribosome catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond b/w two amino acids.A peptide bond is formed b/w the first amino acid, always methionine, (in the P site) and the second amino acid (in the A site.methionine is then released from tRNA,n the free
4.continued steps of translation? tRNA leaves the P site. The ribosome moves down the mRNA three bases (one codon), placing the second tRNA in the P site.New tRNA enters to the A side,bringing in the third amino acid.A peptide bond is formed again.
5.continued steps of translation? The process continues until a termination codon is reached on the mRNA
1.Sequence of Translation 1.Binding of small subunit to mRNA 2.Binding of initiator tRNA with Met to mRNA 3.Binding of large subunit to mRNA 4.Binding of tRNA with 2nd amino acid to A site 5.Formation of covalent bond(peptide bond) b/w Met and 2nd amino acid
2.Sequence of Translation 6.tRNA is released from P site 7.Ribosome moves down the mRNA one codon 8. New tRNA with its amino acid binds to A site 9. Continues until a termination codon is reached
Destination of Proteins? •Translation requires ribosomes •Free in cytosol •Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) •Ultimate destination depends on leader sequence
leader sequence determines ? -First, whether a protein will be synthesized in the cytosol or in rough ER. -Second, whether proteins synthesized in cytosol will remain there (no leader sequence)or enter a mitochondrion, a peroxisome or the nucleus.
From rough ER: -Polypeptide moves to the lumen of smooth ER -> transport vesicles ->Golgi apparatus (packaging)->secretory vesicles->secreted from cell, lysosome, or plasma membrane.
what does proteins need to go outside cell? if go outside cell need to be synthesized in Rough ER & leader sequence. no leader sequence then proteins stay inside cell. proteins made by free ribosomes they can't never go outside cell. If go outside cell need leader sequence
Created by: nely.nieto



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