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Neuro117

Neuro117- Exam one

QuestionAnswer
Ventral Relating to or situated on or close to the abdomen
dorsal relating to or situated near or on the back
caudal of, relating to, or being a tail
superior situated toward the head and further away from the feet than another and especially another similar part of an upright body especially of a human being
inferior situated below and closer to the feet than another and especially another similar part of an upright body especially of a human being—
proximal next to or nearest the point of attachment or origin
distal situated away from the point of attachment or origin or a central point especially of the body —
medial being or occurring in the middle
lateral of or relating to the side
ipsilateral : situated or appearing on or affecting the same side of the body
contralateral : occurring on or acting in conjunction with a part on the opposite side of the body
bilateral : of, relating to, or affecting the right and left sides of the body or the right and left members of paired organs
Neuron unit of structure of the nervous system
What makes up a cell body dendrites and axons
Dendrites conduct toward the cell body
axons conduct away from the cell body
Gray matter accumulations of cell bodies inside the CNS
White matter accumulations of axons inside the CNS
Ganglia accumulations of cell bodies outside the CNS
Sensory on spinal and cranial nerves
Motor autonomic, lie peripherally
Nerves bundles of nerve fibers that lie outside the CNS
Myelin fatty sheath covering axons of nerve fibers
Cerebral cortex associated with higher brain functions
Cerebral hemispheres (2) each hemisphere controls opposite side of the body
Lobes of the brain (4) - one in each hemisphere Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe
Frontal lobe associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
Temporal lobe associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
Parietal Lobe associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
Occipital Lobe associated with visual processing
Limbic system referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum
Cerebellum associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance
Brain stem responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure; has three substructures: Midbrain Pons Medulla
CNS - The Spinal Cord (connects to large part of PNS. What are the 2 main functions communication and simple reflexing (withdrawl and stretch)
Information (nerve impulses) reaching the spinal cord via sensory neurons are _______ into the brain transmitted up
Signals arising in the motor areas of the brain _______ the cord and leave in the motor neurons travel back down
PNS - The Peripheral Nervous System Primary function to relay information to and from the CNS
______of spinal nerves arise along the spinal cord... These are "mixed" nerves because each contain both sensory and motor axons. (PNS) 31 pairs
all the sensory axons pass into the __________ where their cell bodies are located and then on into the spinal cord itself (PNS) dorsal root ganglion
all the motor axons pass into the before uniting with the sensory axons to form the mixed nerves. (PNS) ventral
of cranial nerves (exit from the skull) (PNS) 12 pairs
ataxia jerky, poor controlled movements
Adiadochokinesia inability to perform rapid alternating patterns
Dysmetria overshooting or undershooting object
Chorea Involuntary, purposeless, quick & jerky movements
athetoid movements Slow, wormlike, arrhythmic movements
Dystonia Persistent posturing of extremities; generalized or focused
ballism forceful extension of limb; unilateral
dyssynergia voluntary movements appear into broken parts
Nystagmus involuntary rapid eye movements
dysartria Explosive or slurred speech
Tremor intention, resting, and essential familial
motor learning acquisition of motor skills, leads to permanent change as a result of practice or experience
motor control the ability to make dynamic postural adjustments and to direct body and limb movement in purposeful activity
plasticity can help the pt because of rewiring of dendrites and axons...strengthening through repetition.The ability to change and adapt, especially the ability of the central nervous system to acquire alternative pathways for sensory perception or motor skills.
paresis weakness or partial paralysis of a skeletal muscle
flaccidity Lacking firmness, resilience, or muscle tone. no tone
hypotonus low tone, A condition in which there is diminution or loss of muscular tonicity, resulting in stretching of the muscles beyond their normal limits.
hypertonia excessive tone related to spinal cord injury
spasticity exaggerated skeletal muscle contractions in response to muscle strength; hypertonia
clonus a series of rapid, rhythmic alternating patterns seen after spinal cord injury; response to stimulus or movement
rigidity not moving; stiff; extreme form of hypertonia; think of trying to move lead pipe
coordination functioning of muscles or groups of muscles in the execution of movements
afferent SENSORY! Carrying sensory information toward a central organ or part, as a nerve that conducts impulses from the periphery of the body to the central nervous system
efferent (MOTOR) Carrying motor impulses away from a central organ or part, as a nerve that conducts impulses from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body.
anterior ventral horn (EFFERENT, MOTOR) one of two the two roots of a spinal nerve that passes ventrally from the spinal cord and that consists of motor fibers
motor unit a basic functional unit of the PNS
reflex nerve connection in the spinal cord that allows for rapid, nonvoluntary movement in response to a stimulus
Fasciculation "muscle twitch"
atrophy muscle wasting
What are the 4 parts of motor unit? cell body of alpha motor neuron, axon of alpha motor neuron, neuromuscular junction, and muscle fiber innervated
neurogenic disease arises from nerves
myopathic diease arises from musdcles
upper motor neuron closer to head, CNS and brain
lower motor neuron away from head, PNS,
What are the 3 parts of the brainstem? midbrain, pons, medulla oblongota
red nucleus involved in motor coordination, primarily upper extremities, named for its color- appears red in fresh brain. (part of midbrain)
substantia niagra "black substance'; also named for its color. this nucleus contains neurons that make neurotransmitter dopamine
neurons in the substantia niagra projects to a part of the forebrain called the _____ basal ganglia
basal ganglia regulate movement initiation and inhibition, as well as emotion, thought and cognition
superior colliculi visible on midbrain, visual relay nuclei, connect the eyes to the cranial nerves that control eye movements, allows eyes to track a moving object or scan while reading
inferior colliculi visible on on midbrain, receive input from the cochlear (hearing) portion of inner ear
What are the 2 cranial nerves found in the midbrain? oculomotor (CNIII), trochlear (CNIV)..control muscles that move the eyes
Pons largest subdivision in brainstem, contain cranial nerves (CN V-VII, many connections with cerebellum, damage often rusult in coordination and balance deficits
medulla oblongota connects the spinal cord with rest of the CNS, contains dorsal respiratory nucleus
dorsal respiratory nucleus controls breathing
inferior olivary nucleus resembles wrinkles olive; detects movement errors and may play a role in motor learning
etiology cause or orgin of disease
Degenerative Degenerative - progressive, worsening over time...results in loss of functioning in one or more of the following areas: Sensation Motor action/control Cognition
Exacerbation o cause (a disease or its symptoms) to become more severe <her condition was exacerbated by lack of care>
Remission : a state or period during which the symptoms of a disease are abated
Akinesia loss or impairment of voluntary activity (as of a muscle)
Bradykinesia extreme slowness of movements and reflexes
neuroanatomy parts of nervous tissue and the nervous system
neurophysiology functions of the nervous system
CNS : the part of the nervous system which in vertebrates consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system
PNS he part of the nervous system that is outside the central nervous system and comprises the cranial nerves excepting the optic nerve, the spinal nerves, and the autonomic nervous system: relays info to and from CNS
Somatic Nervous System consists of peripheral nerve fibers that send sensory information to the central nervous system AND motor nerve fibers that project to skeletal muscle.
Autonomic Nervous system a part of the vertebrate nervous system that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glandular tissues and governs involuntary actions (as secretion and peristalsis) and consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
cognitive stage of motor learning "talk and think through" each step
associate stage of motor learning connect the task with previous experiences; our role to make these connections to learn something
autonomic stage of motor learning movement is performed efficiently; automatic; do not have to think about it; can do it in different environments
procedural learning broken down into steps; involves mastering and demonstration
declarative learning facts; can tell you the steps but does not mean they know how to do it (descriptive);
individual the influence of physical. cognitive, and social-emotional client factors on performance; we have an influence over the pt not CONTROL
task we choose the meaningful activities to assist task
environment we have some control over this; cultural, physical,social, personal and temporal contexts will influence performance
transfer of learning practice in different realistic settings;
feedback important for learning; so we can continue to improve; demonstration is good; verbal instruction is not effective learning alone- should be minimal
intrinsic feedback comes from inside; no one has to tell you cause you feel it yourself
extrinsic feedback comes from outside; someone else tells you
blocked (massed) practice repeated practice of same motor skill; not suggested to use all the time
random practice task are presented in random order; shown to benefit retention
skill acquistion performance is inefficient; mass practice used; frequent feedback
skill refinement increased efficiency of movement;
skill retention function movement; random practice used
whole learning beneficial; simple task
whole-to-part learning involves knowing the whole skill while working on parts of it
mental practice rehearsal of task mentally; visualize; watches performance, reflects on it, and then attempts it
effective teaching concern for learners; enhance learning, independence, and personal control
somatosensory guiding- hand over hand; tactile, proprioceptive and vestibular input
Created by: kcjesusaves