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IT Cisco Midterm

Motherboard -Main printed circuit board -Contains buses, or electrical pathways found in a computer. Buses allow data to travel among the various components. -CPU, RAM, expansion slots, heat sink/fan assembly/ BIOS chip, chip set, internal and external connectors
Motherboard form factors -AT - Advanced Tech. -ATX - Advanced Technology Extended -Mini-ATX - Smaller footprint of ATX -Micro-ATX - Smaller footprint of ATX -LPX - Low-Profile Extended -NLX - New Low-profile Extended -BTX - Balanced Technology Extended
CPU -Brain of Comp. -Executes program 2 CPU architectures -Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) -Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
Cooling Systems -Case fan = Makes cooling more efficient (Can be dedicated to Graphics-Processing-Unit(GPU) -Heat Sink = Draws heat away from the core of the CPU
ROM -Read-only Memory -Contains basic instructions for booting comp. & loading operating system
RAM -Random-access memory (RAM) -Temp. storage for data and programs that are being accessed by the CPU -Ram is volatile memory (Which means that the contents are erased when the computer is powered off) -More RAM means more capacity to process programs
Adapter Cards Adapter cards increase the functionality of a computer by adding controllers for specific devices or by replacing malfunctioning ports. -Examples=Sound/Video Adapter,USB -Types=Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI),Advanced Graphics Port AGP,PCI-Expre
Hard Drives/Floppy Drives -Read/Write info. to magnetic storage media -Hard Disk Drive (HDD) - Magnetic storage devices. (Uses GB) -Solid State Drives(SDDs)-Faster w/out moving parts Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) - Uses removable 3.5 inch floppy disks that can store up to 1.44 of da
Optical Drive -Storage device that uses lasers to read data on the optical media. -CD, DVD, & BD
Flash Drive -Removable storage device -Connects to USB Port -No power needed to maintain data
Common Drive Interfaces -Intergrated Drive Electrionics (IDE) -Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) -Paralle ATA (PATA) -Serial ATA (SATA) & External Sata (eSATA) -Small Computer System Interface (SCSI
External Bays -Drives in external bays allow access to the media without opening the case -Optical Drive, FDD
NIC's -enables a computer to connect to a network -Uses PCI and PCIe expansion slots on the motherboard WIRELESS NIC -enables a comp.
Booting Comp. for First Time Basic input.output system (BIOS) will perform a power-on self test (POST) to check on all internal components (Beep code if an error occurs during hardware check)
BIOS -Contains a setup program used to configure settings for hardware devices. The configuration data is saved to a special memory chip called a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
Trouble Shooting Process -Identify problem -Establish a theory -Determine an Exact Cause -Implement a Solution -Verify Solution and Full System Functionality
Operating System -Controls almost all functions on a computer.
Command Line Interface (CLI) -User types commands at prompt
Graphical User Interface (GUI) -User interacts with menu's and icons
CPU Modes (1) (XP) REAL MODE -CPU that operates in real mode can only execute on program at a time, and it can only address 1 MB of system memory at a time. In real mode, when an application creates an error, the entire comp. can be affected because direct access to memory
CPU Modes (2) PROTECTED MODE -Access to all of the memory in the comp, including virtual memory. App's are protected from using the memory reserved for another app. that is running
Desktop Operating System -Supports single user -Runs single-user app's -Shares files and folders -Shares peripherals -Used on small network
Network Operating System -Supports multiple users -Runs Multi-user app's -Provides increased security -Used on a network
Boot Sequence for Windows XP (1) -POST -POST for each adapter card that has a BIOS -BIOS reads the master boot record (MBR) -MDR takes over control of boot process and starts NT Loader (NTLDR)
Boot Sequence for Windows XP (2) -NTLDR reads the BOOT.INI file to know which OS to load and where to find the OS on the boot partition -NTLDR uses NTDETECT.COM to detect any installed hardware -NTLDR loads the NTOSKRNL.EXE file and HAL.DLL
Boot Sequence for Windows XP (3) -NTLDR reads the registry files and loads device drivers -NTOSKRNL.EXE starts the WINLOGON.EXE program and displays the Windows Login Screen
Registry File HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT Info. about which files extensions map to a particular application
Registry File HKEY_CURRENT_USER Info., such as desktop settings and history, related to the current user of a PC
Registry File HKEY_USERS Info. about all users who have logged onto a system
Registry File HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE Info. relating to the hardware and software
Registry File HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG Info. relating to all the active devices on a system
NTFS -Supports more files than FAT32, and provides more flexible security features for folders, files, and sizes
FAT3 -Where files need to be accessed by multiple versions of Windows. FAT32 is not as secure as NTFS -Partitions can be converted from the FAT32 to NTFS using the CONVERT.EXE utility, but not in the reverse direction
Created by: Shmeat