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Praxis 0049/0041

Literature, poetry, authors, and grammar

QuestionAnswer
American, Modernism, Wrote "The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock, The Waste Land, The Hollow Men, Old Possums Book of Practical Cats, Ash Wednesday, and Four Quartets? T.S. Eliot
Repetition of the same sounds. Example: Peter Piper Picked...? Alliteration
He had a direct disagreement with Booker T. Washington's views on education for African Americans? W.E.B. DuBois
He was a slave, taught himself to read and wrote his own autobiography? Frederick Douglass
She is a Nobel and Pulitzer winner, she wrote Beloved, Song of Solomon, and The Bluest Eye? Toni Morrison
An African American poet born in 1938 and a controversial writer? Ishmael Reed
With out rhyme or iambic pentameter? Blank Verse
It was created in 1874 by an English poet, Arthur O'Shaughnessy. Lyrical verse written in praise of... English Ode
A figure of speech and non human objects are addressed as if they had human qualities. Apostrophe
Poetry with no consistent pattern or uniformity. Free Verse
Comparing two unlike things. Example: "My baby sister is a doll." or "The woman is a rose." Metaphor
Comparing two unlike things with specific words. "My baby sister IS LIKE a doll." or "He is as good AS gold." Simile
Is produced by a single word that sounds like the thing it is referring too. "A SNAKE SLITHERED through the grass". Onomatopoeia
Human characteristics are bestowed on anything nonhuman, as in the breathing city or gentle breeze. Personification
A great exaggeration used to emphasize a point. Used in comedy. Hyperbole
Words that have a different meaning than the actual literal meaning. When a teacher says, "Put a lid on it," in class. Idiom
Repetition of same words or phrases at the beginning of successive clauses or verses. Example...I need, I need, I need. Anaphors
Japanese poem of 17 syllables, 3 lines of 5, 7, 5. Haiku
Patterning of vowel sounds w/o regard to consonants. The pattern may be successive. Knee-deep, or salt-marsh, or left my necktie. Or like "lake" and "fate", which is_____, but "lake" and "fake" is a full rhyme. Assonance
Play on words based on association. A rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by describing the things around it. Example is "All the crowns of Europe" which means all the kings, crowns=kings. Metonymy
Outcome of a complex situation Denouement
These authors; William B. Yeats, Lady Gregory, James Joyce, John M. Synge are from what period? Irish Renaissance
His poetry is significant in the development of American literature because he developed his own poetic form and style Walt Whitman
Narrative poem that is sung. Ballad
10 beats per second Iambic Pentameter
Includes generating questions to be researched and listing examples associated with a given topic. Key components of brainstorming
What work was written in 1667 and in Modern English? Paradise Lost by English poet John Milton
What is Grammar structure? Syntax
The meaning of individual words, phrases, sentences, or text. Semantics
The structure and formation of words Morphology
What writers awakened readers to social wrongs? Charles Dickenson, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Upton Sinclair
Individual sounds Phonemes
The writing styles of Salman Rushdie and Gabriel Garcia Marquez? Magical Realism
Intro to irrelevant issues? Red Herring Logical Fallacy
Distorting a position Strawman Logical Fallacy
What is a conclusion to an argument as evidence to prove validity? Circular Reasoning Logical Fallacy
A Marxist interpretation of "Waiting for Godot" would focus on what? The power imbalances in the relationships of the characters.
To be considered a poem, a work of literature must use this Verse
Plays: Tragedies; King Lear...Histories; Richard III, comedies...Twelfth Night...Sonnet 18 Works of Shakespeare
Death of a Salesman by____ was called a tragedy of the common man because _____. It is by Aurthur Miller and gives an ordinary salesman's life weight and meaning.
A type of fiction that makes use of the grotesque, violent, mysterious, and supernatural. Gothic
Who are 3 American Drama literary playwrights? Eugene O'Neill, Tennessee Williams, Thorton Wilder
Who are 3 Romantic period writers? William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Percy Bysshe Shelley
A New England poet associated with the Colonial, Puritan period of American literature? Anne Bradstreet
Wrote "The Color Purple" Alice Walker
Wrote "Hatchet", an adolescent novel geared towards boys. Gary Paulsen
The "Lord of the Flies" author? William Golding
Beawolf Seamus Heaney
Wrote "To Kill a Mockingbird" Harper Lee
Wrote "The Great Gatsby" F. Scott Fitzgerald
Wrote "Their Eyes Where Watching God" Zora Neale Hurston
Wrote "The Joy Luck Club" about Chinese immigrants Amy Tan
Harlem Renaissance writers Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes
Not part of pre-writing stages Peer reviews
What is an important principle of process writing? Students may need to move back and forth through the writing stages
What are the functions of writing portfolios? Students self assessments, teacher evaluations of students, teacher resource for planning lessons
What is an effective strategy for assessing student writing? Teacher works with students ahead of time to develop a scoring guideline and teacher asks students to read and respond to peers papers using a scoring guideline that was discussed ahead of time.
What is an appropriate peer-review activity? Students evaluate each others written work and offer revision suggestions.
What is a pair of homophones? Example: Gross...grows
What works are written in Old English? Beowulf, The Wanderer, and Seafarer
What did Paul Lawrence Dunbar write? A poem "Frederick Douglas".
What did Herman Melville write? "Moby Dick"
What did Nathaniel Hawthorn write? "The Scarlett Letter"
Joseph Conrad wrote? "The Secret Agent" and "The heart of Darkness"
James Fenimore Coooper wrote? "The Last of the Mohicans", "Natty Bumppo", and "Leatherstocking Tales".
What is an Epigram? A short poem
What is an euphemism? A nice way of saying something that is unpleasant. Example "saying pass away" instead of "dead"
What is semantic feature analysis? Comprehension strategy using a grid to sort out information through making connections, predictions and sorting out concepts.
What is reciprocal teaching? Comprehension strategy where the students teach each other concepts.
What is an antithesis? Contrasts different parts of a statement.
What is third person omniscient narrator? Narrator reporting on all thoughts and actions of all characters. Subject is "he" or "she" and gives characters inner thoughts.
What is first person omniscient narrator? Telling the story from the "I" and "me" perspective. The narrator knows everything about the characters and events and reveals details that even the characters could not reveal.
Motif A key, oft-repeated phrase, name, or idea in a literary work.
Ottava Rima 8 line stanza of poetry whose scheme is abababcc.
Oxymoron Contradiction in terms for effect. "wise folly"
Paradox Seemingly untrue statement that really is true. "Death be not proud."
Quatrain A poetic stanza composed of 4 lines. Shakespearean or Elizabethan sonnet has 3 quatrains and end with a heroic couplet.
Scansion Two part analysis of a poetic line.
Slant Rhyme Occurs when the final consonant sounds are the same but the vowels are different. Mostly is Irish verse. "green and gone"
Soliloquy A highlighted speech in drama, usually delivered by a major character. "To be or not to be."
Spenserian Stanza Invented by Sir Edmond Spencer. Each stanza has 9 lines and 8 in iambic pentameter.
Sprung Rhythm Used and invented by Gerard Manley Hopkins, Variable meter "pied beauty".
Stream of consciousness A style of writing that reflects the mental processes used by James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner.
Synecdoche Figure of speech in which a part stands for the whole like "all hands on deck" deck=men
Terza Rima Series of poetic stanzas that use recurrent rhyme scheme of aba, bcb, cdc, ded, etc...Keats, Byron, Shelley, used this in their Italian verse form in their Odes. Dante used it in "The Divine Comedy".
Tone Author attitude in work
Blank Verse Meter in Iambic Pentameter is a characteristic in...
Diction Word choice by author to depict a mood in reader.
Personification Example: "Happiness sped through the halls, cajoling as it went."
Sonnet Fixed verse form of Italian origin with 14 lines, five-foot iambics that rhyme according to a prescribed scheme. Wordsworth's "The World is too Much With Us."
Fairy Tales Lively fictional stories involving children or animals that come in contact with super beings via magic.
Legends Based on real persons who accomplished the feats that are attributed to them, even in exaggeration.
Fables Animals talk, feel, and behave like humans. Always have a moral. "Aesop's Fables", "Animal Farm".
Hamartia In classic tragedy, a protagonists defeat is brought about by a tragic flaw.
Hubris Tragic flaw of excessive pride
Neoclassic period Poets John Dryden and Alexander Pope.
Romantic period poets Williams Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Transcendental Romantic period poets Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau
2nd generation romantic poets Lord Byron, John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley
20th Century Immigration novels "Exodus" by Leon Uris, "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan, "The Tortilla Flats" by John Steinbeck
Naturalism Movement started by French writers Jules, Edmond de Goncourt and Emile Zola. A belief that the writer or artist should apply scientific objectivity in his or her observation and treatment of life w/o imposing value judgments.
Apathy Lack of interest
Evaluative A response to literature that gives middle school students the most problems
Standardized reading test Formal reading level assessment
What is a critical response? Recognizing empathy in literature is mostly in ______. Students make value judgments about the quality and atmosphere of a text. Through class discussions and written assignments, students react to and assimilate a writer's style and language.
Which aspect of language is innate? Biological capabilities to articulate sounds understood by other humans...language ability is innate.
What is inflectional endings? Suffixes that impart a new meaning to the base or root word.
Etymology Study of word origins
What event triggered the beginning of Modern English? Introduction of the printing press to the British Isles.
What 3 Latin words entered the English language during the Elizabethan age? Allusion, education, esteem
What are clauses? Connected word groups that are composed of at least one subject and one verb.
Independent Clause can stand alone or be joined with other clauses
Dependent Clauses Contains one subject and one verb. Cannot stand alone. 2 types are subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns.
8 parts of speech verb, adverb, adjective, noun, preposition, pronoun, conjunction, phrase
Syntax The arrangement and relationships of words in sentences structures.
Gerund Noun ending in ing.
Conjunction Connects words, phrases, and clauses
Holistic Evaluation Reading a piece of student writing to assess the overall impression of the product.
What is emulating the writing of professionals? Modeling
Exposition Explanatory or informative discourse
Techniques of pre-writing are? Clustering, listing, and brainstorming
Pathos In literature used to evoke feelings of pity or compassion is t create _____.
Who are Realists? American Colonial writers
Who wrote "A Doll House", a feminist play Ibsen
Who are Elizabethan writers? Charles Dickens, Robert Browning, and Robert Louis Stevenson
What is the first work of English Literature written in its vernacular of that time? "Cantebury Tales" by Chaucer
What are the levels of grammar? Sentence, Clause, phrase, word, morpheme
Sentence Highest level of grammatical element
What are sentences made of? At least one clause, phrase; each phrase has at least one word, each word is made up of a morpheme, its a level within a level, within a level.
Mophemes The smallest element of the English language
Robert Herrick Poet
What did Milton write? "Paradise Lost"
American drama playwrights 1900-1950? Eugene O'Neill="Beyond the Horizons", Tennessee Williams="The Glass Menagerie", Thorton Wilder="Our Town"
Who are Romantic period authors? William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley
Who is Ann Bradstreet? She is associated with the Colonial, puritan American literature.
What kind of author is Louisa May Alcott? Contemporary author
What period is Stephen Crane from and what did he write? 19th Century author and he wrote "Red Badge of Courage"
What did Alice Walker write? "The Color Purple"
What did Toni Morrison write? "Beloved"
What did Zora Neale Hurston write? "Their Eyes Where Watching God"
Amy Tan wrote what Immigration novel? "The Joy Luck Club"
Who are the primary Harlem Renaissance authors? Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes
What is Narration? Provides background information to enhance an argument.
What is Confirmation? Author details the arguments with claims that support the thesis
Summation The final part of an argument with strongest solution.
Ethos Ethical
Pathos Emotional, "Othello Desdemona's death is an example, also in King Lear, Cordelia accepts defeat...
Logos Rational
Literary Not a rhetorical appeal
Second Person, direct address Uses imperative mood and pronouns you, your, and yours to address a reader or listener directly
First Person, narrator A point of view in which a narrator, referred to as "I", who is a character in the story and relates the actions through his or her own perspectives and revealing his or her own thoughts.
3 moods in English? Indicative used to make factual statements or pose questions. Imperative expresses a request or command, and subject shows a wish, doubt, anything else contrary to the fact.
What did Arthur Miller write that was parallel to another event in the 20th century? "The Crucible" paralleled The Cold War
When did Children's Lit became established when? 19th Century
Dramatis Personae? Latin for the characters or persons in a play
Dramatic Monologue? Type of poem in which a speaker addresses a silent listener. As readers, we overhear the speaker in a dramatic monologue.
2 major characteristics of the first American Lit.? Maudllin and self-pitying and egocentrism
What is an infinitive? Rot of a verb plus the word to. Examples to bowl, to grimace, to sparkle.
Compound-Complex sentence Has more than one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
Compound Sentences 2 independent clauses
Complex sentences An independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
Are most sentences declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory? Declarative
What kind of punctuation mark ends a declarative sentence? Period
4 sentence types (defined according to content)? Declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory
What type of verb is the verb in the following sentence? Steven felt unbearably cold and tired. Felt is a linking verb and irregular verb. It connects the subject (Steve) to the predicate.
What is a compound verb? A compound verb is a combination of an auxiliary verb and another verb. Compound verbs are used to create verb tenses that cannot be made single verbs. Example: The ice cream will melt soon. (will melt is the compound verb).
What is a predicate? Grammar term given to the verb plus its objects, compliments, and adverbial modifiers.
What is diction? Word choice
What is Syntax? Word order
What are rhetorical devices? Figurative language such as a metaphor or a simile.
Rhetorical strategy? Appeal to authority and appeal to emotion.
Limerick humorous verse form of five anapestic (Composed of feet that are short-short-long or unaccented-unaccented-accented) lines with rhyme scheme of aabba
Phrase Two or more in a sequence that form a syntactic unit that is less than a complete sentence
Anapestic Meter Meter that is composed of feet that are short-short-long or unaccented-unaccented-accented, usually used in light or whimsical poetry, such as limerick.
Phonetics The study of the sounds of language and their physical properties.
Future perfect Tense with the past particle and helping verb WILL HAVE
Predicate adjective An adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of a sentence; includes forms of taste, look, feel, smell, appear, seem, and become, Example; I look TIRED, but I feel FINE.
Demonstrative Pronoun Points out particular person, place, or things
Relative Pronoun Linked group of words preceding noun or pronoun; examples are who, which, that
adverb Phrase prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb; examples: The dolphins performed WITH EASE. (tells how) or; Shows begin ON THE HOUR. (tells when)
intransitive verb Includes all linking verbs and any action verbs that do not take an object; example; Someday, I would like TO WRITE beautiful poetry.
Object Pronoun Is used as a direct/indirect object in a sentence; example: Rebecca gave ME a gift.
Adverbs Ate, often, almost, back, long, soon, when, here, next.
Indefinite pronouns anything, no one, all, some, several
Coordinating conjunctions For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Present perfect Tense with the past participle and helping verb HAVE and HAS.
transitive verb Action verb followed by a noun or pronoun that receives the action; example: I KNOW the story.
intensive pronoun Emphasizes its antecedent; adds emphasis tp pronoun or named noun; example: I MYSELF will go.
Indefinite articles All, more, other, both, either, few, several, any, most, some.
Direct Object Noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb; tells who or what receives the action; example: Bobbi loved his PARENTS.
Existentialists Jean-Paul Satre, Franz Kafka, Albert Camus, Freidrich Nietzche, Simone de Beauvoir
Conjunction A word that connects other words or groups of words.
William Wordsworth English Romantic poet; joint publication of 'Lyrical Ballads' with Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
Kate Chopin The Awakening, The Storm
Ernest Hemingway Wrote; The Sun also Rises, he belongs to literary movement called 'The Lost Generation'.
Ralph Waldo Emerson Wrote; "Self-Reliance", he is a Transcendentalist
Edgar Allan Poe American writer, poet, gothic, editor and literary critic, Romantic movement. Poems were "To Science", "The City and the Sea", and "Silence".
Emily Bronte Wrote "Wuthering Heights"
Richard Adams Wrote "Watership Down"
Ray Bradbury Wrote "Fahrenheit 451" and "Dandelion Wine"
Nathaniel Hawthorne "The Birth-Mark" and "The Scarlet Letter", written in 1850.
John Keats English poet in Romantic movement during early 19th century; motifs include departures and reveries, the five senses and art, and the disappearance of the post and the speaker.
Kate Dicamillo "Because of Winn-Dixie"
Sharon Creech "Walk Two Moons"
Aurora Leigh Epic/novel poem written in blank verse and encompasses nine books (the woman's number, the number of the prophetic books of Sibyl)
Keats "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer", "To Autumn", and "Bright Star", "Would I Were Steadfast as Thou Art"
"Beloved" Historical fiction, ghost story, characters include: Baby Suggs, Denver, and Sethe.
James Joyce Wrote "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man", 20th century Irish author.
Willa Cather "My Antonia"
Jean Craighead George "Julie of the Wolves"
Aphra Behn One of the first English female writers. Wrote "History of a Nun", prolific dramatist of the Restoration (18th century)
Macbeth Unchecked ambition as a corrupting force, relationship between cruelty and masculinity, kingship, v. tyranny.
Lyric A short poem about personal feelings and emotions.
Langston Hughes American poet, novelist, playwright, short stories, columnists, early innovator for literary art known as jazz poetry; best known for work during Harlem Renaissance.
Washington Irving Wrote "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow", "Rip Van Winkle", American author, essayist, biographer, historian.
Christopher Marlowe Doctor Faustus
Created by: kdshanahan