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Adv. Clinical Chem

Exam 1- Lipids

QuestionAnswer
WHAT ARE THE PLASMA LIPOPROTEIN CLASSES IN ORDER BY LOWEST DENSITY TO HIGHEST DENSITY? CHYLOMICRONS, VLDL, LDL, AND HDL
NAME THE MAJOR APOLIPOPROTEINS FOR EACH LIPOPROTEIN CLASS. CHYLOMICRON: A,B,C VLDL: B,C,E LDL: B HDL: A
WHAT ARE THE PREDISPOSING CORONARY HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS? Overweight and obesity Physical inactivity Male sex Family history Socioeconomic factors Behavioral factors Insulin resistance
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF HDL? TAKES CHOLESTEROL FROM TISSUES TO THE LIVER VIA THE BLOODSTREAM.
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF LDL? TAKES CHOLESTEROL TO THE TISSUES.
WHAT LIPOPROTEINS MAKE UP THE TRIGLYCERIDES? CHYLOMICRONS AND VLDL
WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA AND WHAT IS THE PREVALENCE? GENETIC DEFECTS IN THE LDL RECEPTOR PROTEIN THAT PREVENTS BINDING AND UPTAKE OF LDL BY THE CELL CAUSING HIGH LEVELS OF LDL AND INCREASED CHD RISK. ~1/500
WHAT IS METABOLIC SYNDROME ALSO KNOW AS? INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME (IRS) SYNDROME X
HAVING 3+ OF THE FOLLOWING MEANS YOU HAVE WHAT? 1. Abdominal obesity: >40”waist-men,>35” waist-women 2. High trigS:≥150 mg/dL 3. Low HDL:<40mg/dL men;<50mg/dL women 4. High BP: Systolic≥ 130 or Diastolic ≥ 85 5. High fasting plasma glucose: ≥ 100mg/d METABOLIC SYNDROME
WHAT ARE THE DESIRABLE CUTOFFS FOR TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, TRIG, LDL, AND HDL? TOTAL CHOLESTEROL <200MG/DL TRIG <150MG/DL LDL <100MG/DL HDL >45MG/DL
WHAT ARE THE HIGH RISK CUTOFFS FOR TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, TRIG, LDL, AND HDL? TOTAL CHOLESTEROL > OR =240MG/DL TRIG >200MG/DL LDL >160MG/DL HDL <40MG/DL
WHAT TREATMENT IS SUGGESTED FOR ELEVATED TRIG LEVELS? LOWER LDL, INTENSIFY WEIGHT MANAGEMENT, INCREASE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, INCREASE HDL
HOW MUCH LIFETIME RISK OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE CAN BE REDUCED WITH 1% REDUCTION OF LDL? 2% RISK REDUCTION
IN THE ENZYMATIC CHOLESTEROL ASSAY, WHAT ENZYME IS USED TO SEPARATE CHOLESTEROL FROM CHOLESTEROL ESTER? CHOLESTEROL ESTERASE
IN THE ENZYMATIC TRIGLYCERIDE ASSAY, LIPASE SEPARATES TRIGLYCERIDE INTO TWO COMPONENTS. WHAT ARE THEY AND WHICH ONE IS THE COMPONENT OF INTEREST? GLYCEROL AND FATTY ACIDS. GLYCEROL IS THE COMPONENT OF INTEREST MEASURED WITH A RED CHROMAGEN AT 510NM.
LIPOPROTEINS CAN BE SEPARATED USING WHICH METHODS? ULTRAFILTRATION, ELECTROPHORESIS, PRECIPITATION-HDL, HOMOGENEOUS METHODS (EMIT)
WHAT DOES THE FRIEDWALD EQUATION CALCULATE? GIVE THE FRIEDWALD EQUATION. IT CALCULATES LDL. LDL = TOTAL CHOL - HDL - (TRIG/5) ONLY VALID IF TRIG < 400MG/DL
HOW CAN LIPOPROTEINS BE DIRECTLY MEASURED? REMOVE UNWANTED LIPOPROTEINS USING PRECIPITATION OR RAISE POLYCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO THE UNWANTED FRACTIONS. SEPARATE THE FRACTIONS AND MEASURE THE ELUATE/SUPERNATANTS.
WHAT ARE THE SPECIMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR LIPID ASSAYS? FASTING SPECIMEN, EDTA AND HEPARIN TUBES, PATIENT SHOULD BE SEATED FOR 15 MINS TO REDUCE HEMOCONCENTRATION AND INCREASED LIPIDS, TOURNIQUET FOR < 1 MIN TO AVOID HEMOCONCENTRATION.
INTERFERENCES IN LIPID ASSAY MEASUREMENTS CAN BE CAUSED BY WHAT 3 THINGS IN THE SPECIMEN? LIPEMIA BILIRUBIN HEMOLYSIS
WHAT ARE THE CONDITIONAL RISK FACTORS FOR CHD? HIGH HOMOCYSTEINE, HIGH FIBRINOGEN, PRESENCE OF LIPOPROTEIN(a), hsCRP
IF HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS ARE HIGH, WHAT SUPPLEMENTS/DIETARY INTAKE CAN BE USED TO DECREASE HOMOCYSTEINE AND CHD RISK? VITAMIN B6, B12, FOLIC ACID
HOMOCYSTEINEMIA IS CAUSED BY THE LACK OF WHAT ENZYME TO METABOLIZE HOMOCYSTEINE? CYSTATHIONINE B-SYNTHASE
WHAT FORMS WHEN THERE ARE HIGH LEVELS OF OXIDIZED LDL? FOAM CELLS WHICH WILL NARROW THE BLOOD VESSELS.
HOW DO YOU CONVERT CHOLESTEROL VALUES FROM MG/DL TO MMOL/L? divide the mg/dl value by 38.7
Created by: UTHSCSA-CLS