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OTA 130-Movement

Assessment Skills - Factors Influencing Movement

Lack of barriers that prevent user from accessing the service, product or information Accessibility
Ability of user to access features of environment and use environment for its intended purpose Negotiability
Design of products and environment to be usable by all people w/o adaptation Universal Design
Only ___ can actively generate internal forces Muscles
Passive internal forces generated by... Tension in tendons, connective tissue, ligaments, joint capsules
Examples of external forces Resistance of air or water, direct contact via normal reaction (Newton's 3rd Law), friction, gravity
Force that results from resistance b/n surfaces of two objects from moving upon one another Friction
Three kinds of friction Static, kinetic, rolling
Point around which body's mass is evenly distributed Center of gravity (COG)
Two terms r/t quantitative/magnitude of motion Rotary motion and translatory/linear motion
Measured in degrees around axis Rotary motion (aka angular motion)
Measured in linear distance through which object has traveled Linear motion
Actual distance object is displaced from original point of reference Displacement
Actual sum of length of measurement traveled Distance
Object rotates around axis while axis being translated through space by motion of adjacent segment General plane movement
Muscle or tendon goes around bony prominence and changes the movement result or angle of pull Anatomic pulley
Characteristics of force Magnitude, direction, point of application
Pushing both sides of joint towards center; orrcurs naturally (walking) and intentionally (UE weightbearing) Joint compression
Pulling the two joint surfaces apart; occurs naturally (carrying heavy bag) and intentionally (hanging from bar) Joint distraction (traction)
Forces occur parallel to joint surface Shear
Ability to control equilibrium; when center of gravity falls within base of support Balance
State of zero acceleration where no change in speed or direction of body Equilibrium
Resistance to change in body's acceleration and/or disturbance of body's equilibrium; enhanced by determining body's COG and appropriately changing it. Stability
Point at which all body's mass and weight are equally balanced or equally distributed in all directions Center of gravity
Avg center of gravity for human Anterior to 2nd sacral vertebrae below belly button
Affects of balance Size of base, relation of line of gravity to base, weight (mass) of body, and relation of height to center of gravity
How is stability increased? Enlarging size of base of support in direction of anticipating force
Balance is aided by... Rotation on axis (ex: bicycle)
Three of Newton's Laws (mechanics) Law of inertia, acceleration (motion), action-reaction (force parts)
Law of Inertia Body in motion tends to remain in motion at same speed in straight line unless acted on by force; body at rest tends to remain at rest unless acted on by force
Law of Acceleration Acceleration of object is proportional to unbalanced forces acting upon it and inversely proportional to mass of body
Law of Reaction For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction
Law of Reaction (more) When force acts on object and object remains stationary, there is an equal force acting on the object in opposite direction.
Mechanical advantage Load divided by effort
Lever Rigid bar that turns around axis of rotation, as result of force being applied against resistance; has 3 components: axis, force, resistance)
First class lever FAR; arms generally =
2nd class lever ARF; force arm usually longer than resistance arm
3rd class lever AFR; resistance arm usually longer than force arm
Created by: jxlab2aa