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Kinesiology Spring13

Review Questions Chap 1,2,3,4,8-Test 1

QuestionAnswer
The Sternum is ________ to the vertebral column. Anterior/ventral
The Calcaneus is on the __________ portion of the foot. Posterior
The hip is ______ to the chest. Inferior
The femur is _____ to the tibia. Proximal (superior also)
The radius is on the _____ side of the forearm. Lateral
When a football is kicked through the goalposts, what type of motion is being demonstrated by A.) the football____? B.) by the kicker_____? A. Curvilinear for the football. B. Angular for the kicker.
Looking at a spot on the ceiling directly over your head involves what JOINT motion? Hyperextension
Putting your hand in your back pocket involves what shoulder joint rotation? Medial rotation
Picking up a pencil on the floor beside your chair invloves what trunk joint motion? Lateral Bending
Putting your right ankle on your left knee involves what type of hip rotation? Lateral (external)
What is the only difference between anatomical & fundamental positions? The forearms are in neutral position in fundamental (palms facing thighs).
A.) If you place your hand on the back of a dog, that is referred to as what surface? B.) If you place your hand on the back of a person, that is referred to as what surface? A. Dorsal B. Posterior
A person wheeling across a room in a wheelchair uses both linear & angular motion. Describe when each type of motion is being used. A. Angular motion by the person to turn the wheels on the wheelchair. B. Linear when the person is crossing the room in the wheelchair.
A person lying on a bed staring at the ceiling is in what position? Supine
When touching the left shoulder with the left hand, is a person using the contra- or ipsi-lateral hand? Ipsilateral
What are the differences between the axial & appendicular skeletons? The axial is important for providing support & protection & contains no long or short bones. The appendicular skeleton contains no irregular bones & provides the framework for movement.
Give one example of compact bone & one of cancellous bone. The diaphysis of long bones consists of compact bone while cancellous bone is found in the metaphysis & epiphysis. (also found between layers of compact bone)
Which is heavier--compact or cancellous bone? And why? A. Compact. B. Because it's less porous (more dense).
What type of bone is mainly invloved in an individual's growth in height? In what portion of the bone does this growth occur? A. Long bones. B. Epiphysial portion (both the ends of each bone)
What is the purpose of a sesamoid bone? Protect tendons from excess wear (Hallux). Can also increase movement (Patella).
Name the bone markings that can be classified as depressions & openings: Foramen, Fossa, Groove, Meatus, Sinus
Name the bone markings that can be classified as projections or processes that fit into joints: Condyle, Eminence, Facet, Head
Name the bone markings that can be classified as projections or processes that attach connective tissue: Crest, Epicondyle, Line, Spine,Trochanter, Tuberosity, Tubercle
Classify the following bone markings: A.) Bicipital Groove B.)Humeral Head C.)Acetabulum A.)Ditch-like depression (trough). B.)Rounded articular projection that fits into a joint (glenoid fossa). C.)Deep depression (Acetabular Fossa).
What is the name of the membrane that lines the medullary canal? Endosteum
The main shaft of bone is called what? Diaphysis
In children, does long bone growth occur at a traction epiphysis or at a pressure epiphysis? Pressure Epiphysis
Is the humerus part of the axial or appendicular skeleton? Appendicular
Is the clavicle part of the axial or appendicular skeleton? Appendicular
Is the sternum part of the axial or appendicular skeleton? Axial
What are 3 types of joints that allow little or no motion? A joint that allows very little or no motion is referred to as a fibrous joint. 3 Types of Fibrous joints= A.)Synarthrosis B.)Syndesmosis C.) Gomphosis
What are the 2 terms for a joint that allows a great deal of motion? A synovial joint or Diarthrosis (diarthroidal joint).
What 3 features describe a diarthroidal joint? A.) the number of Axes. B.)The shape of the joint. C.) The joint motion involved.
What type of joint structure connects bone to muscle? Tendon (think tender-meat)
What type of joint structure pads & protects areas of great friction? Bursa
Where do you find hyaline cartilage? Hyaline cartilage is located at the bone ends of synovial joints & provides a smooth articulating surface.
Explain fibrocartilage: Fibrocartilage is thicker & is located between bones. It provides shock absorption & spacing.
Give an example of hyaline & fibrocartilage: menisci of the knee & vertebral discs.
When the anterior surface of the forearm moves toward the anterior surface of the humerus, what joint motion is involved? B.) In what plane is the motion occurring & around what axis? A.) Elbow Flexion. B.) The Saggital plane around the frontal axis.
What joint motions are involved in turning the palm of the hand? B.)In what plane is the motion occurring & around what axis? A.)Forearm Pronation B.) The Transverse plane around the vertical axis.
What joint motion is involved in returning the fingers to anatomical position from the fully spread position? B.)In what plane is the motion occurring & around what axis? A.) Finger ADduction (MP) B.)The Frontal plane around the saggital axis.
Give an example of a synarthrodial joint in the axial skeleton: Bones in the skull
Diarthroidal, synovial, triaxial, & ball-&-socket are all terms to describe which joint in the upper extremities? B.) Could these same terms apply to a joint in the lower extremity? C.) What joint would this be? A.) Shoulder joint B.) yes C.)Hip joint
Diarthrodial, synovial, biaxial, & saddle are all terms that could be used to describe which joint? CMCJ of Thumb
What are 2 joint terms that could be used to describe the symphysis pubis? Amphiarthrosis & Cartilaginous
What joint structure surrounds & encases the joint & protects the articular surfaces? Joint Capsule
Identify the 11 degrees of freedom of the upper extremity: A.) Shoulder=3 B.) Elbow=1 C.) Radioulnar=1 D.) Wrist=2 E.)MCP=2 F.) PIP=1 G.) DIP=1
Is shoulder flexion & extension an arthrokinematic or osteokinematic type of motion? Osteokinematic
You would feel what type of end feel at the end of the knee flexion range? Soft Tissue Approximation
Flex the shoulder from an extended position:Is the humerus moving on the scapula, or is the scapula moving on the humerus? Humerus is moving on the scapula
Flex the shoulder from an extended position: Is the Proximal end of the humerus a concave or convex joint surface? Proximal is convex
Flex the shoulder from an extended position: Does the glenoid fossa of the scapula have a concave or convex joint surface? Concave
Flex the shoulder from an extended position: Is the concave surface moving on a fixed convex surface, or is a convex surface moving on a fixed convave surface? Convex surface is moving on a fixed concave surface
Flex the shoulder from an extended position: Is the joint surface moving in the same or opposite direction as the joint motion? Opposite
Identify the accessory motion force(s) occurring in the following activities: Leaning on a table with your elbows extended Compression (approximation)
Identify the accessory motion force(s) occurring in the following activities: Transferring from a wheelchair to the car using a sliding board Shear
Identify the accessory motion force(s) occurring in the following activities: Picking up one end of a table Traction (distraction)
Identify the accessory motion force(s) occurring in the following activities: Opening a jar Torsional
Identify the accessory motion force(s) occurring in the following activities: Swinging a child around by her arms Traction (distraction)
Is the temporomandibiular joint (TMJ) (jaw) in the close-packed position when the teeth are clenched or when the mouth is slightly open? When the teeth are clenched
With 2 Pringles at opposite angles (Fig 13-2): Is the A/P shape of the bottom surface of the top chip concave or convex? Convex
With 2 Pringles at opposite angles (Fig 13-2): Is the A/P shape of the top surface of the bottom chip concave or convex? Concave
With 2 Pringles at opposite angles (Fig 13-2): Is the M/L shape of the bottom surface of the top chip concave or convex? Concave
With 2 Pringles at opposite angles (Fig 13-2): Is the M/L surface of the bottom chip concave or convex? Convex
With 2 Pringles at opposite angles (Fig 13-2): If these chips represented a joint, would the shape of the joint be ovoid or sellar? Sellar
Rotating a quarter on its edge across the table demonstrates what type of arthrokinematics motion? Roll
Lay the quarter flat on the table & hit it with your finger, sending it across the table. This would be what type of arthrokinematics motion? Glide (slide)
Assuming muscles are of normal length & taking a person's ankle into dorsi-flexion, you would expect what type of end feel? Soft Tissue Stretch
A person bends down to touch the floor in the sagittal plane: What type of force is applied to the anterior part of the vertebra? Compression
A person bends down to touch the floor in the sagittal plane: What type of force is applied to the posterior part of the vertebra? Distraction
Sitting in a chair, a man turns around to look behind him. What type of force is being applied to the vertebral column? Torsional
The surfaces of the thumb joint(MCP)are what shape? Ovoid
(A) Is the rotational motion at the thumb CMC joint considered a classical movement or an accessory movement (B) Why? A.) Accessory B.) Rotation cannot be done alone~it occurs when that joint abducts & flexes thereby accomplishing opposition.
Place a pencil mark on 25¢ at the 6:00 & 12:00 positions. Lay the 5¢ piece flat. Roll the 25¢ across the flat 5¢ w/the edge of the 25¢ starting @ the 6:00 position: will it reach the end of the 5¢ before reaching 12:00? Yes
Place a pencil mark on 25¢ at the 6:00 & 12:00 positions. Lay the 5¢ piece flat. Roll the 25¢ across the flat 5¢ w/the edge of the 25¢ starting @ the 6:00 position: which arthorkinematic motion will you need to reach the end of the 5¢ at 12:00? Glide (slide)
Is shoulder distraction an arthrokinematic or osteokinematic type of motion? Arthrokinematic
Vertically hold a pencil eraser between your thumb & index finger.Keeping the lead in contact with the table, roll the pencil between your fingers. What type of arthrokinematic motion is this? Spin
Putting a weight cuff positioned at A) the wrist or B) the elbow would require more effort at the shoulder joint to move the weight cuff through shoulder ROM? Why? A)The wrist. Because there is a longer resistance arm when the weight is around the wrist than when it is around the elbow.
2 people have the same weight & BOS, but one is on stilts. Who is more stable? Why? The shorter person who is not on stilts.Because they have a lower COG.
What is the resultant force of the 2 heads of the gastrocnemius muscles? (v-shape) Up the center of the V
What is the resultant force of the sternal & clavicular portions of the pectoralis major? ( > shape) laterally but slightly inferior to center towards larger side of angle
You are given 2 different sets of instructions. The 1st tells you to run 5 miles; the 2nd says to walk 30' to the North. Which is a vector/scalar quantity? 5 Mls= Scalar (magnitude only) while 30' to N = Vector (magnitude + direction)
A delivery person has several boxes stacked on a hand truck. Would it take more force to push the hand truck when it is more horizontal or more vertical? Why? Horizontal. The force arm remains constant, while changing the angle of the hand truck lengthens/shortens the resistence arm. Lowering load (horizontal)= more force. Raising load (more vertical)=less force (shorter resistence arm/less force).
Compare the push rims of a standard & racing wheelchair~the racing rims have much smaller push rims. What is the advantage of smaller push rims to a wheel chair racer? The smaller push rim will travel a greater distance with a single push although it will require greater force. (demonstrates the concept of the wheel & axle)
In terms of BOS, why is it more difficult for a person in a wheelchair to balance on only the back wheels ("wheelie's") rather than on all 4 wheels? The BOS of a wheelchair during a "wheelie" is very narrow. To maintain balance the person must keep the body's COG w/in that BOS. The BOS is very wide when the wheelchair is resting on all 4 wheels & it's easy to keep the body's COG within it.
2 people are standing on the same side of a patient's bed. They plan to move the patient toward them by pulling on the draw sheet. this move would be what type of force: linear, parallel, concurrent, or force couple? Linear Force
Prior to moving the patient, what can the people do to increase their own stability? People need to get as close to the bed as possible as it shortens their lever arms; they need to move their legs apart~Esp in the A/P direction as it increases their BOS; they need to bend their knees slightly as it lowers their COG.
When cracking an almond with a nutcracker, will the almond be easier to crack if it is closer to the axis or closer to the end of the handles? Why? Closer to the axis makes the resistance arm shorter = easier to crack.
Give an example of bony structures at the knee acting as a pulley to increase the angle of pull: The med. condyles of the tibia & femur increase the angle of pull of the gracilis. The patella & femoral condyles increase the angle of pull for the quadriceps.
Explain why a person leans to the right when carrying a heavy suitcase in the left hand? If the suitcase was very heavy, what might the person do with their right arm? Why? COG has shifted to left when carrying on left. By leaning to right, the COG is brought back over the BOS. A very heavy suitcase will further shift the COG, so besides leaning to right, they might also raise the right arm out to the side.
Why are rubber tips put on the ends of crutches? To increase the amount of friction between the crutch tip & the ground to prevent slippage.
Created by: RadGirl13