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Stack #115232

Lung sounds that are ascultated over most of the lung fields are called ______________ sounds. vesicular
_____________ is a measure of distensibility, or strectchibility of the lung and chest wall. Compliance
Respirations that are prolonged or gasping, followed by inefficient expirations, are termed ______________ apneustic.
One method to assess placement of the endotracheal tube is to mark the tube at the ______________ lip line.
Closed-system; method of aspirating secretions while keeping the patient ventilated. In-line suction
Increases functional residual capacity Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP)
Insertion of endotracheal tube Intubation
Method of weaning from mechanical ventilation T-piece trail
Paralyzes the respiratory muscles to facilitate ventilation Neuromuscular blockage
Positive pressure ventilation that ensures a preset rate at a preset volume Assist/control ventilation
Provides short-term ventilatory support, such as treatment of acute pulmonary edema Noninvasive ventilation
Used to ventilate a patient manually Bag-valve-mask
What is incorrect in regards to care of the mechanically ventilated patient? A physician's order is needed to brush the patient's teeth.
What is a common complication of endotracheal intubation? Tube placed in the right mainstem bronchus.
What often occurs when PEEP is used? Cardiac output may decrease.
What breath sound has course, low-pitched characterisitcs and is usually continuous? Sonorous wheeze
What is true in regards to endotracheal suctioning? Suction time should not exceed 10 to 15 seconds.
Respirations in individuals with normal lung function are stimulated by: High levels of carbon dioxide
Compliance increases with: Emphysema
A PaCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg indicates: Respiratory acidosis
If the low-exhaled volume alarm is sounding on a mechanical ventilator, the nurse should: Assess to see that the ventilator is attached to the endotracheal tube
Weaning from long-term mechanical ventilation: Often combines T-piece trials, SIMV, and pressure support
Assess the following arterial blood gases: pH—7.48, PaCO2—33 mm Hg, HCO2—20 mEq/L, PaO2 85 mm Hg. Fully compensated metabolic acidosis; normal oxygenation
_______________ is an adjunct to mechanical ventilation that helps to decrease the work of breathing. Pressure support
The endotracheal tube must be positioned above the bifurcation of the bronchus, known as the ______. carina
In order to give informed consent, a person must be competent or have the ability to __________ the facts given. understand
Not initiating life support is known as __________. withholding
Removing life support once it has been initiated is known as __________. withdrawing
DNR refers to medical orders for ______________. "Do Not Resuscitate"
An end-tidal CO2 detector assists in verifying endotracheal tube placement. True
Cyanosis is an early sign of hypoxemia. False
Mechanical ventilation is commonly used in critical care settings and it has a low risk for complications. False
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method to measure arterial oxygen saturation. True
Respiratory acidosis may occur when a patient hyperventilates. False
Saline should be routinely instilled into endotracheal tubes to loosen secretions from the respiratory tract. False
Ventilator-associated pneumonia can be prevented by suctioning the patient every 2 hours. False
The etiology of pulmonary edema in acute respiratory distress syndrome is related to: Damage to the alveolar-capillary membrane
Mrs. Clemons presents to the emergency department in acute respiratory distress. She has a longstanding history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. What position would be best tolerated? Stretcher with head of bed as high as it will go
Which of the following is appropriate for initial treatment of hypoxemia in Mrs. Clemons? Oxygen via venturi-mask at 40% oxygen
Which of the following is not a symptom of a pulmonary embolus? Pleural friction rub
A physiologic consequence of acute respiratory distress syndrome is: Decreased compliance
_________ is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes hyperresponsiveness to allergens, viruses, or other irritants. Asthma
A ________________ is a clot or plug of material that lodges in the pulmonary vasculature. It may result from a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a fat embolism from a long bone fracture, septic vegetation, or an iatrogenic catheter fragment. pulmonary embolus
A common nursing diagnosis for patients with respiratory failure, regardless of etiology, is ____________________. impaired gas exchange
Acute respiratory distress syndrome results in _______________ pulmonary edema. noncardiogenic
Impaired diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the alveolar-capillary membrane diffusion defects
Leads to reduced alveolar ventilation and may result from drug overdose or neurological disorders Hypoventilation
Rate of ventilation is not equal to the amount of perfusion Ventilation-perfusion mismatching
Unoxygenated blood is returned to the left side of the heart secondary to lungs that are adequately perfused but not ventilated Intrapulmonary shunting
Hypoxemia that occurs at high altitudes Decreased barometric pressure
Virchow's triad refers to: Mechanisms that favor the formation of thrombi
Mrs. Leoni is hospitalized with respiratory distress caused by emphysema. She is being treated with O2 via a Venturi mask with 35% oxygen because: Her respiratory center requires low O2 concentration to stimulate breathing.
Mr. Leoni is visiting his wife at the hospital. When you comment that he is doing pursed lip breathing, he explains that he has COPD. You know this helps him by: Helping him to lengthen inspiration and shorten expiration
You would document presence of atelectasis when you hear: Decreased or absent breath sounds in some areas
Symptoms of early respiratory failure are: Irritability and restlessness
Baseline ABGs for a COPD patient might show: PaO2 55 and PaCO2 55
____________________ is a clot or plug of material that lodges in the pulmonary vasculature and can be life threatening. Pulmonary embolism
Reduced alveolar ventilation is called _____________ and may result from drug overdose or neurologic disorders. hypoventilation
Intrapulmonary _______ occurs when unoxygenated blood is returned to the left heart secondary to lung areas that are adequately perfused but not ventilated. shunting
Failure of _________ is detected by values of PaCO2. ventilation
The most severe acute lung injury is called ________________________. acute respiratory distress syndrome
____________________________ is a progressive disease characterized by airflow obstruction, resulting from emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Acute exacerbation of asthma is called ______________. status asthmaticus
Bronchospasm and cor pulmonale are frequently seen in patients with COPD. True
Caloric needs of ARDS patients are approximately half the normal values. False
Changes in personality and disorientation are late changes in patients with ARDS. False
PaCO2 decreases by approximately 4 mm Hg every decade of life. False
Positioning the patient with unilateral lung disease with the good lung down maximizes perfusion to that side. True
Studies have shown that the prone position can improve oxygenation in ARDS patients. True
Tidal volumes larger than 10 ml/kg on a mechanical ventilator are now being recommended for patients with decreased lung compliance as seen in ARDS. True
Ventilator associated pneumonia most often results from aspiration of condensation in the ventilator tubing. False
Created by: rosejade



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