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Grade 7 Ch 4 Genetic

Chapter 4 genetics vocabulary

multiple alleles three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
sex-linked genes genes on the X or Y chromosome that pass from parent to offspring on a sex chromosome
carrier a person who has one recessive allele for a trait and one dominant allele. The person does not have the trait, but can pass the recessive allele on to his/her offspring
pedigree a chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
genetic disorder an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
cystic fibrosis a genetic disorder in which the body produces abnormally thick mucus in the lungs and intestines
sickle cell disease a genetic disorder that affects the blood; the blood cells have an unusual shape which affects the amount of oxygen in the blood
hemophilia a genetic disorder in which a person's blood clots very slowly or not at all
Down syndrome a person's cells have a extra copy of chromosome 21
amniocentesis a procedure used to determine whether the baby will have some genetic disorders; a small amount of fluid that surrounds the baby is removed
karyotype a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
selective breeding the process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
inbreeding involves crossing two individuals that have identical or similar sets of alleles
hybridization breeders cross two genetically different individuals to have the best traits from both parents
clone an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
genetic engineering genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism; "gene splicing"
gene therapy involves inserting working copies of a gene directly into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder
DNA fingerprinting using information from a person's DNA for identification
Human Genome Project identifies the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome
genome all the DNA in one cell of an organism
Created by: Dcoleman