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SB82 Oncology

SB82 ABSITE Oncology - loosely taken from Fiser's ABSITE Review

Most common cancer in women Breast cancer
Most common cause of cancer-related death in women Lung cancer
Most common cause of cancer-related death in men Lung cancer
PET detects areas of high-metabolic rate, as illustrated by uptake of ___________________ Fluorodeoxyglucose
T cells need this to be able to attack tumor cells ____________ MHC complex
These immune cells can attack cancer cells independently ______________ Natural killer cells
Tissue abnormality causing increased NUMBER of cells __________ Hyperplasia
Tissue abnormality causing replacement of one tissue with another (as in GERD causing esophageal squamous epithelium to be replaced with gastric columnar cells) ____________ Metaplasia
Tissue abnormality causing altered size, shape, and organization of cells (as in Barrett’s esophagus) _______________ Dysplasia
Cancer associated with CEA ___________ Colon
Cancer(s) associated with AFP ___________ Liver, non-seminomatous germ cell tumors
Cancer(s) associated with Ca 19-9 ___________ pancreas, biliary cancer
Cancer associated with CA 125 ________________ Ovarian
Cancer(s) associated with beta HCG _____________ testicular cancer and choriocarcinoma
Cancer associated with elevated PSA _____________ Prostate
Cancer(s) associated with neuron-specific enolase (NSE) ______________ small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, merkel cell carcinoma
The time between the development of the cancer and when it becomes clinically detectable is the _____________ Latency period
EBV retrovirus is associated with which cancers? Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Cancer associated with HPV ___________ Cervical
Cancer associated with H. pylori _____________ Gastric
Cancer associated with Hep B ____________ Hepatocellular carcinoma
Cancer(s) associated with HHV-8 (human herpes virus 8) _____________ Kaposi sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma
Cancer(s) associated with Hep C ______________ Splenic lymphoma and HCC
Definition of “proto-oncogenes” Human genes with malignant potential
The phase of the cell cycle where the cell is most vulnerable to radiation ___________ M phase
Damage to a cell through radiation is due to what process? Formation of oxygen radicals
High-energy radiation preserves what body structure? _________ Skin
Fractionated radiation has what benefits (three "R"s)? Allows Repair of normal cells, allows Re-oxygenation of the tumor, and allows Redistribution of the cells in the cell cycle
Examples of very radiosensitive tumors (2) Seminomas, lymphomas
Examples of very radio-resistant tumors (2) Epithelial cancers, sarcomas
Placement of a source of radiation in or next to a tumor to provide high, concentrated doses of radiation is called ____________ Brachytherapy
Cell-cycle non-specific agents exhibit a ___________ response to cell killing Linear
Mechanism of taxol Promotes microtubule formation and stabilization so cells cannot divide; cells rupture
Side effects of bleomycin and busulfan __________ Pulmonary fibrosis
Examples of microtubule-inhibiting chemotherapeutic agents _____________ Vincristine, vinblastine
Active metabolite in of cyclophosphamide ________ Acrolein
Side effects of cyclophosphamide use (3) Gonadal dysfunction, SIADH, hemorrhagic cystitis
Medication that can alleviate hemorrhagic cystitis due to cyclophosphamide ____________ Mesna
An antihelminthic drug thought to stimulate the immune response against cancer _________ Levamisole
Methotrexate inhibits purine synthesis, and ultimately DNA synthesis, by inhibiting this enzyme ______________ Dihydrofolate reductase
What is the effect of leukovorin on the effect of 5-FU? Increases the toxicity of 5-FU
What chemotherapeutic agent inhibits topoisomerase (which normally unwinds DNA)? __________ Etoposide
Agent that causes cardiotoxicity due to formation of oxygen radicals ____________ Doxorubicin
Purpose of GCSF in cancer treatment Helps neutrophil recovery after chemotherapy
Side effect of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor Sweet’s syndrome (acute febrile neutropenic dermatitis)
Proto-oncogenes and their associated defect: ras _____________ G protein
Proto-oncogenes and their associated defect: src _____________ Tyrosine kinase
Proto-oncogenes and their associated defect: sis _____________ platelet-derived growth factor
Proto-oncogenes and their associated defect: erb B _____________ Epidermal growth factor
Types of cancer associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome Childhood sarcomas, breast cancer, brain tumors, leukemia, adrenal cancer
Cancer associated with the Ret proto-oncogene _____________ Medullary thyroid cancer
Patients with Ret mutation plus positive family history of MEN syndrome should have this intervention __________ Prophylactic total thyroidectomy (90% get medullary thyroid cancer)
The gene thought to comprise the “first hit” in development of colon cancer _________ APC
The primary cancer associated with palpable axillary lymph node ______________ Lymphoma
Cancer associated with suspicious periumbilical node ____________ Pancreatic
Primary cause of bone metastases ________ Breast cancer
Primary cause of metastases to the small bowel ________ Melanoma
Survival rate from fully-resected colon cancer liver mets ___________ 25% after 5 years
Created by: StudyBug82
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