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CEH - Terms A & B

Certified Ethical Hacker Terms and Definitions - A & B - info tech

QuestionAnswer
Wireless LAN standard that runs at up to 54Mbps and 5GHz? 802.11a
Wireless LAN standard that runs at 11Mbps and 2.4GHz? 802.11b
Wireless LAN standard that runs upward of 150Mbps? 802.11n
Wireless LAN security standard that requires TKIP and AES encryption? 802.11i
An authorized user gains excess priviliges on a system by moving positions (admins not updating permissions correctly). Access Creep
A LAN device acting as a central point for wireless traffic, providing wireless users access to network resources. Access Point (AP)
Ability to trace actions performed on a system to a specific user. Accountability
A TCP flag that notifies an orginating node that the preceding packet was received. ACK (acknowledgment)
It provides a variety of network services using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Kerberos-based authentication, and single sign-on for user access to network-based resources. Created by Microsoft. AD (Active Directory)
Injecting traffic into a network to identify the OS (operating system) of a device. Active Fingerprinting
Wireless LAN mode of operation where clients send data to each other directly in a point-to-point configuration. Ad Hoc Mode
A protocol used to map a known IP address to a physical (MAC) address, defined in RFC 826. ARP (address resolution protocol)
A list of IP addresses and corresponding MAC addresses stored on a local computer. ARP (address resolution protocol) Table
Embedded software that serves advertisements (usually in the form of pop ups). Adware
In computing security, a set of mathematical rules (logic), for the process of encryption and decryption. Algorithm
The product (multiple) of the Annual Rate of Occurance (ARO) x the Single Loss Expectancy (SLE). Express as a formula. ALE (annualized loss expectancy) - ALE = ARO x SLE
Device or service used in attempt to make traffic between a client and the internet as untraceable as possible. Anonymizer
Usually signature-based. Attempts to identify and block malware and viruses from entering a network or system. AV (antivirus software)
Layer 7 of the OSI reference model. FTP and SMTP reside here. Application Layer
Attacks on the programming code of an application. Application-level attacks
In computing. Generally refers to backup copies of logs and/or data. Historical records. Archives
In computer security. Activity to determine if a security control is implemented correctly and operating as intended. Assessment
Any item of worth to an entity or individual, whether physical or intellectual Asset
An attack where something is injected into or otherwise alters the network or target system. Active Attack
In computing. A difference in upstream/downstream network speeds. In Com Security. The use of more than one key for encryption/authentication purposes. "not the same" Asymmetric
In computer security. An algorithm that uses different keys for encyption/decryption. Asymmetric Algorithm
The lack of clocking on a bit stream (no imposed time ordering). Asynchronous
The transmission of digital signals with no precise clocking or synchronization. Asynchronous Transmission
An independent review of the records and activities of an IT system to assess the compliance of, and adequacy of, current system controls and policies. Audit
Chronological record of system events and changes. Audit Data
Records showing which users have accessed a given resource and what operations were performed. Audit Trail
The process of recording activity on a system for monitoring and later review. Auditing
Usually accomplished via a username and password. Determining if a person is legitimate and authorized to access a system and its resources. Authentication
Authentication - identifies user. Authorization - determines privileges (rights). Accounting - records access attempts. AAA - Authentication, Authorization, Accounting
An IPSEC (IP security) header used to verify the contents of a packet have not been modified while in transit. AH (Authentication Header)
Granting official access or legal power to a person or entity. Authorization
The condition of a system or resource being ready for use and accessible by authorized users. Availability
A hidden capability in a system or program for bypassing normal computer authentication processes. Backdoor
An enumeration technique generally used for operating system identification (also known as fingerprinting). Banner Grabbing
The initial state of a system. Used as a reference point for monitoring system performance. Baseline
A computer placed outside of a firewall to provide public services to other internet sites, and hardened to ward off external attacks. Bastion Host
Facial imagery, fingerprints, retina. Unique physical characteristics used to verify identity. Biometrics
A cryptographic attack where bits are manipulated in the ciphertext itself to generate a predictable outcome in the plaintext once decrypted. Bit Flipping
Method of testing the security of a system or subnet without any previous knowledge of the network. Truest simulation of an attack on a system. Black Box Testing
An attacker who breaches computer systems with malicious intent and without the owner's knowledge or permission. Black Hat
A symmetric cryptographic algorithm that transforms one block of data at a time using a cryptographic key. The input block is the same length as the output block. Block Cipher
Symmetric, block-cipher data-encryption. Uses variable length key that ranges from 32 bits to 448 bits. Blowfish
Sending unsolicited messages via Bluetooth devices. Bluejacking
Unauthorized access to information on a wireless device via a bluetooth connection. Bluesnarfing
A proprietary, open, wireless technology used for transferring data between mobile devices over short distances. Bluetooth
A virus that plants itself in a system's boot sector and infects the master boot record. Boot Sector Virus
Method of password cracking where all possible options systematically attempted until a match is found. Brute-Force Password Attack
A portion of memory used to temporarily store output or input data. Buffer
A condition that occurs when more data is written to a buffer than it has space to store. Results in data corruption or other system errors. Buffer Overflow
Software or hardware defects that often result in system vulnerabilities. Bug
Created by: infotech