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Chemistry Word bank

Protein, Enzyme, Lipid, Electrolytes, Carbs, NPN

QuestionAnswer
Electrolyte Major ions of body fluid: constitute majority of osmotically active particles: cation electrolytes include sodium and potassium: anion electrolytes includes chloride and bicarbonate.
Anion Gap Difference between sum of measured cations and sum of measured anions. Equation [Na+ -[Cl- +HCO3-]
Osmolality Measurement of number of moles of particles per kilogram of water
Osmometry Osmotic concentration expressed as osmoles or milliosmoles of solute per liter of solvent.
Hyponatremia Abnormally low plasma sodium concentrations (Less than 136 mmol/L)
Hypernatremia Abnormally high plasma sodium concentrations (More than 150 mmol/L)
V max Occurs when substrate concentration is high enough that all enzyme molecules are bound to substrate and all active sites are engaged.
Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) Substrate concentration in moles per liter when initial velocity is ½ v max. E+S=ES=E+P
1st order kinetics Reaction involving enzymes and drug where rate of drug elimination is proportionate to its concentration.
Zero order kinetics Change of plasma concentration of drug is independent of plasma drug concentration
McLean relationship [Ca2+][Pr2-]/[CaPr]=K (Calcium)
Oxidoreducatse Group of enzymes that catalyze oxidation reduction reactions (Examples: LDH and G6PD)
Transferase Catalyze the transfer group other than hydrogen between two substrates (Example: AST, ALT, GGT)
Hydrolases Catalyze the hydrolic addition of water cleavage of compounds (Example: AMS, LPS)
Lyases Catalyze the removal of groups from substrates without hydrolysis addition of water leaving double bonds in product
Isomerases Catalyze the interconverson of isomers
Ligases Catalyze the joining of two molecules coupled with the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate bond in adenosisine triphosphate ATP or similar compounds
Creatine Kinase In a cytoplasmic and mitocholdrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible phosphorlyation of creatine by ATP ( Tnazer Gilvary, Oliver, Rosalki)
Relative index of CK Calculated by dividing the CK-MB mass by the total CK: ratios higher than 5 indicate cardiac source
De Ritis ratio Ratio of AST to ALT: helpful in determining cause of liver disease; in alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis ALT> AST
Alkaline Phosphatase Is a generic name for a group of enzymes with maximum activity in the ph range of 9.0 to 10.0.
Lipase Hydrolyzes glycerol esters of long chain fatty acids to produce alcohol and fatty acids
Lipids Class of organic compounds that are actually or potentially esters of fatty acids: soluble in organic solvents and nearly insoluble in water
Very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) Class of lipoproteins that are primarily transporters of endogenous triglycerides from liver to muscles and adipose cells: contain greater lipid-to-protein ratio
Fatty Acids Simplest form of lipids, has chemical formula RCOOH
Triglyceride Most common glycerol ester in plasma, comprising of glycerol and 3 fatty acids, neutral fat combines with proteins to form lipoproteins
Cholesterol Contains 27 carbon atoms and four fused rings A, B, C, D called a perhydrochopentanophenatrene nucleus
Phospholipids Diglycerides containg phosphorous example lecithin, constitute most of lipid portion of cell membrane
High Densitey lipoprotien HDL Cholesterol scavenger that removes cholesterol from tissues, esterifies it and carries to the liver for disposal
Liebermann-Buchard and Abell-Kendall Assay Early method for total cholesterol measurement
Freewald Equation Used to calculate LDL from total cholesterol HDL and triglycerides; LDL cholesterol= Total cholesterol (HDL-C+TG/5
Nephrons Structural and functional units of kidney: approximately 1 million to 1.5 million nephrons in each kidney: each one consists of glomerulus within Bowman’s capsule
Nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) Products of catabolism of proteins and nucleic acids that contain nitrogen but are not part of protein molecule: urea
Nessler’s Reagent Convert nitrogen to ammonia which formed a yellow color (Early detection for NPH in urine)
Azotemia Increased levels of blood urea and other NPH compounds in blood.
BUN: creatine or BUN: CR ratio Ratio that can be used to distinguish among three major types of azotemia-prenatal, renal, and postrenal.
Urea Major nitrogen-containg metabolic product of protein catabolism in humans
Jaffe Reaction Reaction between creatine and picric acid in alkaline medium, yellow orange compound
Glomerular filtration Rate GFR Rate of urine formation as plasma passes through glomeruli of kidney Volume of plasma filtered T (per unit of time)
Creatine Clearance Test Formula CrCl(mL/min/1.73m2=[(U x V) }x (1.73/A) P
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome X linked genetic disorder caused by deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase: mental retardation (Uric Acid)
Reye’s Syndrome Acute, often fatal, childhood syndrome presumably caused by virus hallmarks are encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the liver (no aspirin for kids)
Hormone Chemical substance that has specific regulatory effect on activities of certain organ, organs or cell types.
Steroids Organic compound containing in its chemical nucleus the ring structure groups of compounds related to sterols, including vitamin D, bile acids and certain hormones.
Addison’s Disease Primary adrenal insufficiency caused by progressive destruction of adrenal gland because of infectious diseases or infiltration by neoplastic tissue.
Cushing’s syndrome Condition characterized by increased concentration of adrenal glucocorticoids hormone in the bloodstream.
Mineralcocrticoids Steroid hormones secreted by adrenal cortex that stimulates resorbtion of sodium and excretion of potassium in kidneys; aldestrone is the major minieralocorticoid in humans
Amino Acid Molecule containing amino group, (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH), Hydrogen and R group.
Essential Amino Acid Amino acid that is not synthesized in the body that must be ingested in diet; in humans 8-10 essential amino acids
Alkaptonuria A rare inherited disease that results from the deficiency of the enzyme homogentisitc acid oxidase in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine: build up of acid in tissues
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) Genetic disorder named for characteristic maple syrup or bunt sugar odor of affected individuals urine; caused by absence of or extremely low levels of alpha- ketoacid decarboxylase enzyme
Phenylketonuria (PKU) Inborn error of metabolism, an autosomal recessive trait, in results in the inability to metabolize essential amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine
Multiple Myeloma Cancer of plasma cells in bone marrow (M spike, High IgG, kappa or lambda in serum and urine)
Albumin: globulin ratio (A: G) Ratio of albumin to globulin proteins in serum; reference range for ratio is approximately 1.0-1.8, with albumin levels normally higher than globulins. (Albumin/Globulin= in percent)
Islets of Langerhans Endocrine portion that makes up approximately 1% of pancreases and produce hormones that are secreted into circulatory system. Each islet contains three types of cells: alpha, beta and delta.
Breath Test Test that have been developed to evaluate fat absorption: detect specific substance in exhalant that helps explain metabolic change
Fecal fat Test to determine quantity of lipids in times stool specimen: used to evaluate chronic diarrhea and confirm diagnosis of malabsorbtion or pancreatic dysfunction
Pancreatitis Inflammation of pancreas that occurs as result of autodigestion
Insulin Small peptide hormone secreted by the beta cells of islets of Langerhans. (Decreases blood glucose)
Embden-Meyerhoff Pathway Glycolysis of glucose into pyruvate or lactate with or with out oxygen present; principal means of energy production in humans, glucose broken down into two 3 carbon molecules, lactate or pyruvate with the net gain of two ATP molecules.
Diabetes mellitus (Type 1) Group of chronic metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia because of defects in insulin production (polydipsia, polyria, Polyphagia in childhood) (fruity smell)
Diabetes mellitus (Type 2) Insulin action (most common- gradual)
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) Condition affecting type 1 diabetics because of tendency to produce high levels of keytones when glucose levels are out of control
Glucose-6-Phosphate deficiency Type I and most common form of glycogen storage disease: also known as von Gierke disease.
Pompe’s disease Type II glycogen storage disease, such as acid maltase deficiency : divided into to forms based on age of onset
Cori’s Disease Type III glycogen storage disease; caused by glycogen debrancher enzyme deficiency in the liver, muscle, and some blood cells.
Anderson’s Disease Type IV glycogen storage disease: enzyme deficiency in liver, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, skin.
Galactosemia Autosomal recessive trait characterized by lack of an enzyme, galactose 1 phosphate
Henderson- Hasslebalch equation Equation that defines relationships among ph, bicarbonate, and partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide gas
Acidemia condition of decreased ph of blood.
Created by: Kateskate