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SEU KINE 3347 Exam 6

Exam #6: Chapters 19 (Eyes), 20 (Face) & 21 (Head/neck)

TopicDescription
Conjunctiva The thin mucus membrane that covers the sclera and lines the inside of the eyelids; Anteriorly it is continous with the transparent cornea.
Cornea The main structure involved in focusing light rays entering the eye.
Lens Is a clear elastic structure located behind the iris that serves to sharpen and focus visual rays on the globe's posterior surface (the retina).
Emmatropia The ability to read letters on the 20-foot line of an eye chart when standing 20 feet from the chart, indicating that the light rays are focused precisely on the retina; 20/20 vision.
Myopia Occur when the light rays are focused in front of the retina, making only objects very close to the eyes distinguishable; nearsightedness.
Hypermetropia / Hyperopia Results when the light rays are focused at a point behind the retina, making only objects very far from the eyes distinguishable; farsightedness.
Exophthalmos The eye globe bulging anteriorly within the orbit; likely resulting from orbital fractures.
Hyphema The collection of blood within the anterior chamber of the eye; is caused by the rupture of a blood vessel supplying the iris.
Teardrop Pupil is an indication of... Corneal laceration or ruptured globe; is a serious concern; results in an elliptical-shaped pupil.
Anisocoria Unequal pupil sizes; possibly a benign congenital condition or secondary to brain trauma.
Diplopia Double vision
Signs and Symptoms of Retinal Detachment Flashes of light, halos or blind spots w/in the normal field of vision; may also describe a "curtain" or shape being pulled over the field of vision.
Blowout Fracture Fractures of the medial wall or the floor of the orbit.
Blow-up Fracture Fractures of the orbital roof.
Transport Position for Hyphema Patient should be placed in a semi-reclined position to encourage blood pooling in the inferior anterior chamber.
Ruptured Globe observations May be obviously deformed; Anterior chamber may appear deepened; Hyphema or a black grainy substance may be visible w/in anterior chamber; "Teardrop" pupil may be observed; Contents may bulge outward through sclera, appearing as a black "foriegn object.
A Ruptured Globe is considered a... catastrophic injury; the most catastrophic injury; primary complaints are pain and total/partial loss of vision.
Viral vs Bacterial Conjuctivities SIMILAR SYMPTOMS: eyelids stick together, eye is typically red & swollen, may be sensitive to light; VIRAL: watery discharge w/ redness of the conjunctiva (pink eye); BACTERIAL: yellow or green discharge.
Treatment for Impaled Object of the Eye Do NOT attempt to remove the object, avoid applying direct pressure, if object is protruding outside the eye a foam/plastic/paper cup may be used to cover eye (in this case cover both eyes to minimize movement); then immediate hospital transport.
Bone(s) of the Supraorbital Margin The Frontal Bone.
Bone(s) of the Infraorbital Margin The Maxillary & Zygomatic bones.
Photophobia The eye's intolerance to light; light sensitivity.
Stye An infection of of a ciliary gland or a sebaceous gland caused by bacteria.
Alveolar Process A ridge that forms the borders of the upper and lower jaws and contains the sockets of the teeth.
Auricle (Pinna) The shape of the external ear maintained by accumulation of cartilaginous tissue.
Eustachian Tube The tube that connects the middle ear to the nasal passages; regulates pressure in the middle ear.
Bone(s) of the Nasal Septum Vomer bone (posterior) & ethmoid bone.
Hyoid Bone U-shaped bone suspended by ligaments arising from temperal bones; located in the anterior neck bewteen the mandible & larynx; tongue's attachment site; only bone that does not articulate w/ another bone; consists of central body & 2 projections (cornua).
Oral Vestibule The area from the lips to the teeth.
Oral Cavity The area including everything past the teeth, leading to the trachea.
Papillae Small, rough projections on the surface of the tongue that assist in movement of food during chewing.
Lingual Frenulum A small piece of mucus membrane that connects the tongue's underside to the floor of the oral cavity.
Number of teeth 32
Intruded Tooth A tooth marked by its depression into the aveolar process relative to the contiguous teeth and to its match on the opposite side.
Malocclusion Deviation in the normal alignment of two opposable tissues (eg, the mandible and maxilla).
Outermost Layer of Teeth Enamel
Bruxism Clenching or grinding of teeth.
How to palpate the TMJ? Open jaw to move the coronoid process from under the zygomatic arch, place tips of index & middle fingers over the TMJ & have them open/close jaw; when mouth is open a depression is felt; for posterior, use 5th finger in external auditory meatus opening.
Managing Tooth Avulsion Before reimplanting, rinse w/ water/saline. Hold tooth in socket by biting on guaze (implanted in proper orientation). If not reimplanted, store in emergency preserving system or whole milk (cup w/ top). Do NOT clean/sterile/scrape tooth. Transport ASAP.
Blow-Out Fracture Nerve Entrapment Fracture or subsequent swelling may result in numbness in the lateral nose and cheek.
When do you refer for stitches for lip lacerations? Anytime there is a facial lacerations so as to limit the extent and visibility of any scars.
Skin & Strength of Skull Skull alone = 40 lbs /sq.in. Skull w/ skin = 420-490 lbs/sq.in.
Function of Cerebellum Balance & coordination (info from cerebrum), smooth, synergistic muscle control (relaying to muscles); injury recognized by uncoordinated, segmented, robot-like movements.
Layers of the Meninges Dure Mater (outer "hard mother"), Arachnoid Mater (cobweb layer), Pia Mater (inner "tender mother")
Mechanism of Coup Injury Stationary skull hit by moving object, injury on same.
Mechanism of Contrecoup Injury Moving skull hit by stationay object, injury on opposite side.
Mechanism of Cervical Spine Injuries Flexion of cervical spine + axial load
Raccoon Eyes Periorbital ecchymosis, a sign of basal skull fracture; typically involving the temporal bone, occipital bone, sphenoid bone, and/or ethmoid bone.
Halo Test is an Indication of... Skull Fracture, leaking CSF; frontal ethmoid bone usually involved.
Neurocognitive Function - Analytical Skills Determined by using the serial 7's method, counting backwards from 100 by 7's.
Anterograde Amnesia Memory loss after injury, can't maintain 3 object recall.
Retrograde Amnesia Memory loff before injury, cant't recall how or what lead up to injury, etc.
Battle Sign Mastoid ecchymosis, indicates skull fracture.
Epidural Hematoma Arterial bleeding between skull and dura mater, onset of symtptions w/in hours of trauma; symptoms include concussion, lucid period, disorientation, abnormal behavior, drowsiness, headache & unilateral pupil dilation.
Cranial Nerve I OLFACTORY (sensory) - SMELL - Test: have the athlete identify familiar odor applied to each nostril.
Cranial Nerve II OPTIC (sensory) - VISUAL ACUITY - TEST: Identify numbers of fingers held up and/or read from magazine; VISUAL FIELD - TEST: approach the eye from the side using your hand, athlete advising when they see it.
Cranial Nerve III OCULOMOTOR (motor) - PUPILLARY REACTION - TEST: Shine light in each eye and note reactions.
Cranial Nerve IV TROCHLEAR (motor) - EYE MOVEMENT - TEST: Have athlete follow your finger w/o moving their head.
Cranial Nerve V TRIGEMINAL (both) - FACIAL SENSATIONS - TEST: Have identify where touch is applied about the face (eyes closed); MOTOR - Have athlete hold mouth open as you attempt to close it. Clench teath while looking for deviation.
Cranial Nerve VI ABDUCENS (motor) - MOTOR - TEST: Have athlete move eyes laterally by following finger.
Cranial Nerve VII FACIAL (both) - MOTOR - TEST: Have athlete smile, wrinkle forehead, wink, puff cheeks, show teeth; SENSORY - TEST: Have identify taste.
Cranial Nerve VIII ACOUSTIC/VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR (sensory) - HEARING - TEST: Have identify sounds in both ears; BALANCE - TEST: Roberg test, touch knee with heel.
Cranial Nerve IX GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL (both) - MOTOR - TEST: Have athlete say "ah."; SENSORY - TEST: Gag reflex.
Cranial Nerve X VAGUS (both) - MOTOR - TEST: swallowing; SENSORY - TEST: gag reflex.
Cranial Nerve XI SPINAL ACCESSORY (motor) - MOTOR - TEST: Neck strength, resisted shoulder shrugs.
Cranial Nerve XII HYPOGLOSSAL (motor) - TONGUE MOVEMENT - TEST: Have athlete stick out tongue and move it around rapidly. Apply resistance w/ tongue depressor.
Created by: StephOnnie1313