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TherEx Higgins 7

Chapter 7 Strengthening

QuestionAnswer
Troponin Specific protein located on the actin filaments. Calcium binds to it.
Tropomyosin Thin strands of protein that are wrapped around the actin filaments.
Excitation Contraction Coupling Process where Action potential depolarizes across the sarcolemma, down the t-tubules, causes the release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum onto sarcomeres. Calcium binds to to troponin and rotates tromyosin revealing actin active sites.
All or none principle When the motor neuron receives a sufficient activation or stimulus, all of the muscle fibers in the unit will contract.
Slow-twitch muscle fibers use oxygen and are more resistant to fatigue than fast twitch fibers
Fast twitch fibers FO, FOG, use both oxygen and glycogen for energy
Muscular performance refers too the muscle's ability to do work.
Work Ability to move a force a given distance. W = F x D.
Muscular strength a muscle's ability to generate force
Muscular endurance the ability to perform repeated muscular activity against an external resistance over an extended period.
Power Incorporates both strength and speed. P=(FxD)/Time or P=W/T
Isometric exercise Muscle contracts producing tension, but does not change length. Early stages of rehabilitation.
Variations of Isometric exercise Setting exercises, static isometric exercise, and multiangle isometric exercise
Valsalva maneuver a rapid increase in patient's blood pressure due to holding breath
Concentric contraction muscle shortening in length while generating enough force to overcome an external resistance.
Eccentric contraction muscle lengthening to slow down a resistance that is greater than the muscle's force producing capacity
Muscle Hypertrophy Increase in muscle mass
Muscle atrophy Loss of muscle mass
Angle of muscle application Application of force and the length of the lever arm being used affects the amount of force generated by a given muscle
Length-tension relationship Muscle cannot generate maximal force production when it is either maximally lengthened or maximally shortened. Principle best applied on two joint muscles.
Chronological age Negatively affects a muscle's ability to produce force. Max strength gains in the early to mid-twenties.
Overload principle To increase a muscle's strength and performance, the muscle must be continually challenged to work at a higher level than it is accustomed.
Open chain kinetic movements Proximal joints influence the distal joints position and function
Closed chain kinetic movements proximal joint motions are influenced from the ground up
Progressive resistive exercise(PRE) refers to continually overloading muscle as strength and endurance improve. PRE is essential to building strength, poer, and endurance by continually overloading the involved muscle.
SAID Principle specific adaptations to improved demands
DeLorme-Watkins Protocol 3x10 based on % of 10RM, increasing weight
Oxford Protocol 3x10 % of 10RM, decreasing weight
Daily Adjusted Progressive Resistive Exercise (DAPRE) Based on 5 of 6RM. Specific
Periodization divide the competition year to ensure that the athlete will peak at the right time of year
PNF Strengthening Exercises that enhance a neuromuscular response through the stimulation of proprioceptors. PNF require placing a resitance to a muscle where a response is desired.
PNF Patterns D1 Flexion and Extension and D2 Flexion and extension. 3 planes of movement.
Created by: WalkerChance