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Phsyio Ch. 11

QuestionAnswer
endocrine glands are..and they secrete into the... ductless...bloodstream
endocrine glands secrete...which are... hormones...chemical messengers carried in the blood
hormones influence target cells
hormones are transported either as water soluble hormones or lipid and protein hormones
water soluble hormones do what dissolve in plasma
lipid and protein hormones can either be...but most are... free and protein boudn...protein bound (longer term)
only...can act free hormones
free hormone + ... <> ... plasma protein...hormone-protein complex
transporting hormones depends on plasma hormone concentration and hormone availability
plasma hormone concentration: what plus what equals what free + protein bound = total concentration
hormone availability is the amount of unbound hormoens
hormone metabolism depends on removal and activation
removal includes plasma hormones and used hormones
plasma hormones are...which are more likely to be...and are excreted from the... free hormones...acted upon...kidneys and secreted in urine
metabolic transformation of hormones happens by liver
used hormones are taken up by target cells
activation of hormones: metabolism happens in the...and final metabolism is in the... plasma...target cells
metabolism in the plasma involves...>...>...which requires the.. angiotensinogen > angiotensin I > angiotensin II...renin and angiotensin converting enzyme
final metabolism in the the target cells involves... > ... testosterone > dihydrotestosterone (what is actually used)
hormone action includes messenger-receptor interaction, down and up reg of receptors and permissiveness
messenger-receptor interaction involves specificity
down reg of receptors increases exposure to the hormone leads to down regulation
down reg. prevents over-stimulation
up reg of receptors does what...which... dec. exposure to the hormone leads to up regulation...increases stimulation
permissiveness allows another hormone to...or to.. act...add effects of two hormones for greater impact
permissiveness is the...and usually involves... synergistic effect of two hormones...cck and secretin
hormone secretion: signals for secretion include plasma chemical concentration, autonomic nervous system and neurotransmitters as well as brain control
plasma chemical concentration: example : plasma [glucose] and [insulin] - if you increase one you increase the other
autonomic nervous system and neurotransmitters involve the...and what glands... sym and para systems..adrenal gland and other endocrine glands
symp and para act mainly on alpha and beta cells in pancreas
brai control involves the...and it is...and it involves the... hypothalamus...direct control...anterior and posterior pituitary
hormone sequences can either be one, two or three hormone sequences
one hormone sequence is when you have a...and an example would be... primary gland and hormone...pancreas and insulin
two hormone sequence involves... primary gland and hormone as well as secondary gland and hormone
the primary gland is the end result that you want
an example of two hormone sequence would be hypothalamus and dopamine(2nd gland and hormone) > anterior pituitary and prolactin (primary gland and hormone)
three hormone sequence involves primary, secondary and tertiary gland and hormone
example of three hormone sequence hypothal & thyroid releasing hormone(3rd) > ant. pit & thyroid stimulating hormone (2nd) > thyroid and thyroid hormone (1st)
hyposecretion is when...and can either be... not enough hormone is secreted...tertiary, secondary or primary
tertiary hyposecretion is when there is... reduced action of the hypothalamus and hypophysiotropic hormone secretion
tertiary hyposecretion can occur in a...because if you dont trigger the..then you dont trigger the... three hormone system...hypothalamus...ant pit, target endocrine gland and final target cells
ex of tertiary hyposecretion dec thyroid releasing hormone from the hypothalamus
secondary hyposecretion is...and can occur in... reduced action of the ant pit and tropic hormone secretion...three or two hormone system
2ndary hyposecretion in 3 hormone system ex dec thyroid stimulating hormone from the ant. pit
2ndary hyposecretion in 2 hormone system only involves hypothalamus > ant pit > final target cells
primary hyposecretion is...and can occur in... reduced hormone secretion by the primary gland...one two or three hormone system
primary hypo in 3 hormone system ex dec thyroid hormone from thyroid gland
primary hypo in 2 hormone system ex hypothalamus > ant pit > final target cells
primary hypo in 1 hormone system ex endocrine gland > target cells
hypersecretion can either be tertiary, secondary or primary
tertiary hypersecretion is...and can occur in... increased action of the hypothalamus, and excess hypophysiotropic hormone secretion...three hormone system
tertiary hypersecretion involves...and ex would be... hypothalamus > ant pit > target endocrine gland > final target cells...^ thyroid releasing hormone from hypothalamus
secondary hypersecretion is...and can occur in.. increased action of ant pit and excess tropic hormone secretion...three or two hormone system
secondary hyper in 3 hormone system ex ^ thyroid stimulating hormone from the ant pit
secondary hyper in 2 hormone system afffects hypothalamus > ant pit > final target cells
primary hyper is...and can occur in... excess hormone secretion by the primary gland...1 2 or 3 hormoen system
primary hyper in 3 hormone system ex: ^ thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland
primary hyper in 2 hormone system affects hypothalamus > ant pit > final target cells
primary hyper in 1 hormone system affects endocrine gland > target cells
hyporesponsiveness is ..and occurs in... reduced ability or inability to respond to hormone...diabetes mellitus type II
hyperresponsiveness is increased response to the hormone
hypothalamus function is regulatory and production
pituitary is also called the..and includes... hypophysis...anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary
anterior pituitary is also called the...and is developmentally an extension of the... adenohypophysis...pharynx
the post pituitary is also called...and developmentally an extension of... neurohypophysis...hypothalamus
infundibulum is the connecting stalk between hypo and pituitary
infundibulum contains the hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessel and paraventricular nuclei axons
hypothalamo-pituitary portal vessel goes to the...and...is released from..to... anterior pituitary...trophic hormones...hypothalamus..ant pit
paraventricular nuclei axons orginate in...and goes to the hypothalamus..post pituitary
paraventricular nuclei axons: hormones released from the...to the... paraventricular nuclei...capillaries in the post pit
post pit hormones are really...because they are produced... hypothalamic...hypothalamus and released into the post pit capillaries
post pit hormones include oxytocin and vasopressin
oxytocin is involved in uterine contraction and milk secretion in lactation
vasopressin does...resulting in vasoconstriction...^ blood pressure
vasopressin also does h20 reabsorption in the renal collecting ducts
anterior pituitary hormones include gonadotropic hormones, growth hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
gonadotropic hormones include follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
LH has..and... germ cell development...sex hormone production
growth hormone promotes cell division in bones and other tissues and protein synthesis in muscles
GH has...action that makes... anti-insulin...nutrients available for growth (stay in blood stream)
GH stimulates liver production of insulin-like growth factor
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) does thyroid stimulation for release of thyroid hormones
prolactin is for milk production
ACTH is for adrenal cortex stimulation for release of cortisol and aldosterone
hypothalamus input to the anterior pituitary includes hypophysiotropic hormones
hypophysiotropic hormones include tropic hormoens, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, growht hormone releasing hormone, somatostatin, thyroid releasing homone, dopamine, prolactin releasing factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone
tropic hormones for the..from the...and produced in... ant pit...hypothalamus...hypothalamic neurons
tropic hormones are released into the...for... hypothalamo-pit portal vein...direct transport
gonadotropin releasing hormone include FSH and LH stimulation
growth hormone releasing hormone includes GH stimulation
somatostatin does GH inhibition
thyroid releasing hormone does TSH stimulation
dopamine is like the...and it does... off switch...prolactin inhibition (normal condition)
proalctin releasing factor includes...and is like the..bec it does... gonadotropin releasing hormone and thyroid rleasing hormone...on switch...prolactin stimulation
three hormone sequence involves hypophysiotropic hormone, ant pit hormone and target gland hormone
hypophysiotropic hormone would be the thyroid releasing hormone
ant pit hormoen would be thyroid stimulating hormone
target gland hormone would be thyroid hormone
regulation of hypothalamus and ant pit involves long and short loop negative feedback
long-loop negative feedback is regulated b y...which inhibits... third hormone...hypothalamus and ant pituitary
short loop neg feedback involves...which inhibits... second hormone...hypothalamus
thyroid gland hormones include thyroxine (t4) and triiodothyroinin (t3)
T4 is the...and most is converted to... major plasma transport form...T3 in target cells
T3 is the primary functional form of the hormone
3 and 4 refer to the number of iodines attached
function of thyroid gland hormones include protien synthesis regulation, metabolic actions, permissive actions and growth/development
t3 and t4 receptors are in the...which is why they can do.. nucleus...protein synthesis regulation
metabolic actions of t3 and 4 are to increase metabolism and heat production (calorigenic hormoens = ^ BMR)
permissive actions of t3 and 4 include potentiating actions of epi and norepi (synergistic effect)
growth and development of t3 and 4 is necessary for...and TH is necessary for... nervous system development...growth hormone production and secretion
clincal problems with thyroid gland include cretinism, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism
cretinism is mental retardation due to lack of TH during fetal development
hypothyroidism includes..and happens bec... goiters, primary secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism...thyroid is not functional
goiters develop due to over stimulation of TSH (no feedback to shut the system off)
primary hypothyroidism is when you...and involves... dec thyroid gland secretion...insufficient dietary iodine and hashimoto's disease
hashimoto's disease is autoimmune destruction of the thyroid
secondary hypothyroidism is dec ant pit secretion of tsh
tertiary hypothyroidism is dec hypothalamus secretion of trh
hyperthyroidism is when the...and includes... thyroid is over functional...thyroid tumors and graves disease
thyroid tumors increase number of secretory cells
graves disease is an...where... autoimmune disease...antibody produced by the immue system mimics TSH and activates the TH receptors
antibodies in grave's disease do not provide the normal neg. feedback
adrenal glands include the...which produces... adrenal cortex...cortisol, androgens and aldosterone
cortisol is a...that does... glucocorticoid steroid...metabolism of glucose and other nutrients
cortisol increases gluconeogenesis , protein catabolism and lipolysis
cortisol also does suppression of overreaction of the immune system
androgens are...witch actions similar to steroid...testosterone
androgens are important in...and they have... both sexes in development and at puberty and in females after puberty...masculinizing effects in genitalia development
androgens do...as well as... muscle growth and body hair at puberty...female sex drive and some estrogen production
aldosterone is a...that does... mineralcorticoid steroid...na and h20 reabsorption and k secretion
adrenal medulla produces epi and norepi
epi is produced from...and has actions similar to... norepi...symp system actions
cortisol actions in stress: normal or...has... short-term stress...beneficial effects on the immune system, metabolically and blood pressure
normal or short term stress is beneficial to the immune system because it reduces fever and inflammation
metabolically, short term stress or normal stress cortisol levels.. increase gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis and protein catabolism
increased gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis and protein catabolism causes ^ availability of other nutrients to keep glucose available to CNS
normal/short term effects of stress on cortisol and blood pressure: cortisol bounteracts vasodilators to increase vasoconstriction which counteracts hypotension to maintain blood pressure
chronic stress leads to...such as... negative effects...immunosuppression, excess losses in bone density, muscle mass, immune function, fertility, ^ blood pressure to hypertension levels, ^ blood lipid levels & risk of ahterosclerosis and dec sensitivity to insulin (esp. diabetics)
immunosuppression decreases immunity including ability to detect and destroy cancer cells
clinical problems with adrenal glands include adrenal insufficiency and excess adrenal action
adrenal insufficiency is...which affects... hyposecretion...ability to metabolize, blood pressure, na,k,h20 balance
adrenal insufficiency: primary: dec adrenal gland secretion
primary adrenal insufficiency includes...which is a...which causes... addison's disease( add some more)...autoimmune destruction of the adrenal gland...dec cortisol, aldosterone and androgens
secondary adrenal insufficiency leads to deec ant pit secretion of ACTH
tertiary adrenal insufficiency leads to dec hypothalamus secretiong of CRH
excess adrenal action is...resulting from... hypersecretion...chronic stress
excess adrenal actions effects are similar to.. chronic stress: excess cortisol
primary excessive adrenal action leads to...which includes... ^ adrenal gland secretion...cushings syndrome(cusion of hormones)
secondary excess adrenal action leads to...and includes... ^ ant pit secretion of ACTH...cushings disease (often a tumor of the pituitary)
reproductive organs as glands include gonads (testes and ovaries)
the testes prdocue testosterone and small amounts of estradiol
ovaries produce estrogens and small amounts of testosterone
estrogens include estradiol and estrone
growth regulation happens in the hypothalamus
the hypo controls growth via..that stimulates... GHRH...ant pit GH secretion
in the hypo, somatostatin inhiibts ant pit GH secretion
hypo feedback for growth reg. involves short loop feedback (plasma [GH]) and long loop (plasma [IGF-I)
growth hormone is involved in...where it stimulates.. postnatal growth...epiphyseal plate growth for bone lengthening and release of insulin-like growht factors (IGF-I): liver and other cells
insulin-like growth factors promote mitosis and protein synthesis in cells
other influencing hormones on growht include thyroid hormone, insulin, sex hormones and cortisol
thyroid hormone fetally influences growth via..and postnatally via.. nervous sytem development...GH production
insulin influences growth fetally via promoting...and postnatally via.. mitosis and cell division...protein synthesis
sex hormones that influence growth prepubertally:...puberty:...and testosterone:... ^ secretion of GH and IGF-I for growth spurt...stimulate epiphyseal closure...anabolic effect of muscle tissue growth
cortisol influences growth by increasing levels of cortisol due to illness or stress > dec growth and ^ protein catabolism
clinical problems with growth include hyposecretion and hypersecretion
hyposecretion affects growth and results in...which is... dwarfism...dec GH and IGF-I secretion
primary hyperecretion affects growth by increasing ant pit gland secretion usually bec of an ant pit tumor
hypersecretion affects growth and results in either gigantism: before puberty (accentuated growth) or acromegaly: after puberty (thickened bones in hands feet and face)
ca homeostasis involves calcium distribution and levels
ca distribution- 99% is stored in...and the rest is stored in... bones...cells and plasma
in the plasma, calcium is either unbound (60%) or bound(40%) to plasma protein (stuck in plasma)
hypercalcemia is...and can either be... excess plasma ca...primary hyperparathyroidism or humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy
primary hyperparathyroidism is an...caused by... increase in parathyroid function...benign tumor of the parathyroid
humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is when..is released by...and results in... PTH related peptide...some cancer cells...increased plasma ca levels but decreased parathyroid function
hypocalcemia is...and can either be... low plasma ca...primary hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism
primary hypoparathyroidism is a...and pseudohypoparathyroidism results in... dec parathyroid function...dec response to parathyroid hormone
calcium sources bone remodeling and diet
bone remodeling involves osteoclasts (break down bone to get ca in plasma) and osteoblasts ( ca in storage)
diet involves GI tract absorbing a small amt of ca and eliminates the rest
your diet requires 1.25 dihydroxyvitamin D
ca homeostasis involves what hormones parathyroid hormone and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D
if there is a dec in plasma ca2 then....>... ^ PTH release > ^ ca reabsorption in kidneys, vitamin d release, osteoclast action and phosphate excretion
^ phosphate excretion means youre getting more...bec its released from...and more is being.. plasma phosphate...bone (PTH)...absorbed in intestine
vitamin d takes...>...>...>... 7-dehydroxycholesterol > vitamin d3 > 25 hyrdoxyvitamin D > vitamin d
vitamin d stimulates absorption of ca in the intestines
pth stimulates the final production of 1,25 vitamin d
calcitonin has no..it just... day to day regulation of ca...decreases release of ca via osteoclasts (less active)
if there is an increase in ca > ...>...>... ^ calcitonin release > dec osteoclast activity > dec plasma ca2
Created by: handrzej