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pet3005 2.0

intro to sports and exercise science final

QuestionAnswer
motor learning acquisition of motor skills as a result of practice and experience
motor control neurophysiological and behavioral processes affecting the control of skilled movements
motor development origins of and changes in movement behavior throughout the lifespan; influenced by biological, environmental, psychological, sociological, cognitive, and mechanical factors. rate and sequence of development
learning relatively permanent change in behavior or performance as a result of instruction, experiences, study and/or practice; inferred from changes in performance on assessments
movement behavior the learning or acquisition of skills across the lifespan
information processing model input influences decision-making, determining output. output results in feedback, which becomes input
dynamical-system theory human movement is dependent on the individual (their genes, past and characterisitics), their environment and the task before them
cognitive stage of learning understanding of the nature and goal of the activity; initial attempts at the skill - gross errors
associative stage of learning practice on mastering the timing of the skill; fewer and more consistant errors
autonomous stage of learning well coordinated and seemingly effortless performance with few errors such that attention may be directed to other aspects of skill performance
closed skills stable, predictable and self-paced skills; ie driving a golf ball off a tee
open skills variable, unpredictable and externally-paced skills; ie defending a player during a soccer game
readiness physiological and psychological factors influencing an individual's ability and willingness to learn
motivation a condition within an individual that initiates activity directed toward a goal. concern with initiation, mainenance and intensity of behavior
reinforcement using events, actions, and behaviors to increase the likeliness of a certain response recurring. may be positive or negative
individual differences backgrounds, abilities, intelligence, learning styles, and personalities of learners
feedback provides general and specific information about performance; essential for learning
feedback "sandwich" reinforcement (good job) + information (lower your hips) + motivation (keep it up)
intrinsic feedback performance-based information, ie scored goal
extrensic feedback external information, ie from an instructor
learning in sport: before practice presenting the skill, prior knowledge, type of practice, breakdown of skill
learning in sport: during practice feedback and self-evaluation
learning dependent on the leader clear objectives, proper scheduling, appropriate expectations for skill level
early reflexive and rudimentary movement phases of development rate of development primarily dependent on hereditary
fundamental movement phase of development skill acquisition based on encouragement, instruction and opportunities for practice
specialized movement phase of development skill refinement
influence the rate of the aging process hereditary and environmental factors
fundamental motor skills the foundation for development of more complex and specialized motor skills used in games, sports, dance, and fitness activities; classified as locomotor, non-locomotor or manipulative
locomotor fundamental motor skills ie walking, running, jumping, hopping, leaping, sliding, skipping, galloping, dodging
non-locomotor fundamental motor skills ie bending, stretching, pushing, pulling, twisting, turning, swinging
manipulative fundamental motor skills ie throwing, catching, striking, kicking, dribbling, volleying
initial stage of fundamental motor skill development poor spatial and temporal integration of skill movements, improper sequencing of skill parts, poor rhythm, difficulties in coordination; ~age 2
elementary stage of fundamental motor skill development greater control and rhythmical coordination, spatial and temporal elements are better synchronized, movements are still restricted, exaggerated, or inconsistant; ~age 3-4
mature stage of fundamental motor skill development increased efficiency, enhanced coordination, improved control of movements, greater force production; ~age 5-6
kinesiology study of human movement using anatomical and physiological elements; used to move safely, effectively and efficiently
biomechanics the application of the principles of mechanical physics to understand movements and actions of human bodies and sports implements
specialization areas in kinesiology and biomechanics deveolopmental biomechanics, biomechanics of exercise, rehabilitation mechanics, equipment design
developmental biomechanics studies movement patterns and how they change across the lifespan and varying disabilities
biomechanics of exercise focus on maximizing the benefits of exercise and reducing the chances of injury
rehabilitation (bio)mechanics focus on maximizing the benefits of exercise and reducing the chances of injury; study of the movement patterns of people who are injured or who have a disability
static mechanics study of factors related to nonmoving systems or those characterized by steady motion, such as the center of gravity in positions of balance
dynamic mechanics study of mechanical factors that relate to systems in motion
kinematics time and space, velocity and acceleration
kinetics mechanical forces such as gravity and muscles
pressure ratio of force to the area over which force is applied
work force that is applied to a body through a distance and in the direction of the force
power amount of work accomplished in one unit of time
energy capacity of the body to perform work; kinetic or potential
torque twisting, turning, or rotary force related to the production of angular acceleration
angular velocity angle that is rotated given a unit of time
stability greater when center of gravity is closer to the base of support and/or closer to the center of the base of support. can be increased by widening the base of support
motion newton's laws
equilibrium upset to produce motion (disturbance of the balance of forces acting on the body)
absorption of force force impact should be gradually reduced and spread over a large surface
types of performance enhancing substances hormones and drugs that mimic hormones, dietary supplements
ergogenic aid substance or product that enhances performance
types of ergogenic aids physiological, biomechanical, psychological, pharmalogical, nutritional
inadvertant doping ingestion of substances that "unknown" to the athlete can cause positive test for doping
causes of inadvertant doping ignorance of banned substances, unrecognized ingredient list names, (not all) ingredients not listed by manufacturer, product contamination during production
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) allows more products to be marketed as supplements, allows list of benefits for informed choices, requires evidence of "reasonable expectation" of safety (NOT ENFORCED!), does not require list of quantity of ingredients (proprietary blend)
supplement safety USP sealed supplements are safer
commonly used pre-workout ergogenic aids caffeine and ephedrine (stimulants), creatine, beta-alanine, amino acids, arginine-nitric oxide, HMB
commonly used post-workout ergogenic aids whey and casein (protein), carbs, creatine, vitamins
anabolic steroids elevated concentrations of testosterone to stimulate protein synthesis, resulting in improvements in muscle size, body mass and strength
dosing of anabolic steroids: stacking regimen administer several different drugs simultaneously to increase potency
dosing of anabolic steroids: cyclic pattern used for several weeks or months and alternate with cycles of discontinued use
dosing of anabolic steroids: pyramid fashion dosage steadily increased over several weeks followed by steady reduction to reduce negative side effects
dosing of anabolic steroids: health risks in bloodstream decreased HDL, increased cholesterol, elevated blood pressure
dosing of anabolic steroids: male health risks gynecomastia, decreased sperm count, male pattern baldness, testicular atrophy
dosing of anabolic steroids: other health risks acne, increased risk of liver tumors and liver damage, psychotic episodes, increased aggression, risk of AIDS (from sharing needles)
dosing of anabolic steroids: female health risks clitoris enlargement, facial hair, deepening of voices, hirsutism
Human Growth Hormone (HGH) costly synthetic drug that causes protein to be secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, used to stimulate bone and skeletal muscle growth; acromegly is an associated risk
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) hormone obtained from placenta of pregnant women that increases testicular testosterone projection levels when injected in men
prohormones easily acquired hormone precursor, aka 'designer steroids', which have minimal hormonal effect on their own
testosterone precursors androstenedione, androstenediol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); controlled substances, meant to act like anabolic steroids, that only have weak androgenetic properties; limited supporting reseach
blood doping the practice of boosting the number RBCs in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance; used to improve aerobic capacity (V02 max) and endurance
erythropoietin (EPO) a hormone produced by the kidneys to stimulate RBC production; used in aerobic endurance sports; more dangerous than blood doping due to lack of control of RBC production, could cause viscous blood and blood clotting
dietary supplements do not require FDA approval, and aren't tested for safety or efficacy; should have a 'supplements facts' panel and list all ingredients
creatine ergogenic aid; 20-25g for 5 days loading (3-5g/day); research supports claims of increases in body weight (>men), lean tissue, strength gains, anaerobic performance
beta-alanine ergogenic aid; 1.6-6.4g/day for at least 28 day (800mg/dose) because won't see an ergogenic effect before 790g; precursor to carnosine, which enhances buffering capacity during high intensity exercise; allows user to work out longer at a greater intensity
nitric oxide (NO2) ergogenic aid, but no ergogenic effect proven in physique altering sports; used to increase blood flow to muscles, may be best used post-workout to increase insulinn response and deliver nutrients to damaged tissue
branch chain amino acids (bcaa) ergogenic aid; must be obtained through diet because not produced by the body; stimulates muscle protein synthesis, improves body composition and strength
HMB ergogenic aid; 3g/day compared to 60g/day leucine; for reduced muscle damage and enhanced recovery
protein (pre- and) post-workout ergogenic aid; for improved rate of muscle building
whey protein fast-acting
casein protein sustained response
vitamin D ergolytic, not ergogenic; excess doesn't improve performance but deficency does impair. results of supplementing when deficient: improved muscle protein anabolism, increased muscle mass, increased weight gain...
weight loss calorie restriction + exercise + caffeine, ephedrine, citrus aurantium, EGCG
caffeine ergogenic aid; 3-6mg/kg/day. anaerobic benefit: enhances power production; aerobic benefit: delays fatigue
ephedrine ergogenic and thermogenic aid; taken with caffeine; banned by some sports bodies; increases heart rate and blood pressure, expands bronchial tubes, can increase metabolism, increases fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen
citrus aurantium taken with caffeine for appetite suppression, increased metabolic rate, and lipolysis; NCAA banned substance
ECGC taken with caffeine for thermogenesis, fat oxidation and increased energy expenditure
ATP energy systems phosphagen system, glycolysis, oxidative system
phosphagen system 0-6s; provides ATP for short-term, high-intensity activities and is active at the start of all exercise regardless of intensity; uses creatine kinase to maintain ATP concentration; replenishes ATP rapidly but does not store enough for exercise
glycolysis 30s-2min; provides ATP for moderate to high intensity activity of short to medium duration; the breakdown of carbohydrates (from glycogen in muscle or glucose in bloodstream) to resynthesize ATP
oxidative (aerobic) system >3min; primary source of ATP at rest and during low-intensity (long-duration) activities; primarily uses carbs and fats as substrates
lactate threshold (LT) the exercise intensity or relative intensity at which blood lactate begins an abrupt increase above the baseline concentration
phosphagen substrate depletion and repletion creatine phosphate; decreases quickly in the first stage of high intensity exercise; complete ATP resynthesis in 3-5 min (of CP within 8min)
interval training a method that emphasizes bioenergetic adaptions for a more efficient energy transfer within the metabolic pathways by using predetermined intervals of exercise and rest periods
combination training adds aerobic endurance training to the training of anaerobic athletes in order to enhance recovery; may reduce anaerobic (strength/power) performance
sliding filament theory actin fillaments slide on myosin fillaments, pulling z-lines toward center of sarcomere and shortening muscle fiber
type I mm fiber high fatigue resistance, high endurance, high aerobic, high capillary density, high myoglobin content, high mitochondria density, red
type IIa mm fiber intermediate... red/white
type IIb mm fiber large neurons, fast conduction, high force/power, high anaerobic, large fibers, white
resistance training frequency beginner: 2-3/wk; advanced: 4-7/wk
power exercises ie snatch, hang clean, power clean, push jerk
exercise order power, other core (main lifts for part/mm group), assistance
pre-exhaustion intentional fatigue of mm group by doing single-joint exercise before a multi-joint exercise using the same mm; "reverse" exercise arrangement
alternating upper and lower body exercises exercise order method of providing the opportunity for athletes to recover more fully between exercises; aka circuit training when performed with minimal rest periods
push and pull exercises (alternated) exercise order method of improving recovery and mm recruitment between exercises
superset two sequentially performed exercises that stress two opposing muscles or muscle areas
compound set sequetial performance of two different exercises for the same muscle group
load, reps and sets, and rest for strength 85%+ of 1RM for up to 6 reps for 2-6 sets. rest for 2-5 min
load, reps and sets, and rest for single- power 80-90% of 1RM for 1-2 reps for 3-5 sets. rest for 2-5 min
load, reps and sets, and rest for multi- power 75-85% of 1RM for 3-5 reps for 3-5 sets. rest for 2-5 min
load, reps and sets, and rest for hypertrophy 67-85%+ of 1RM for 6-12 reps for 3-6 sets. rest 30s-1.5min
load, reps and sets, and rest for mm endurance <67%+ of 1RM for >12 reps for 2-3 sets. rest under 30s
progression of training load increase to continue improving
2-for-2 rule if 2+ reps over rep goal in the last set in two consecutive workouts, then add weight on that exercise at the next session
anesthesiologist assistant job description a health care professional who works under the supervision of an anesthesiologist, primarily assisting him while he prepares a patient for anesthesia
anesthesiologist assistant education requirements masters degree and written exam
anesthesiologist assistant salary $95,000-180,000/yr
athletic training job description treat athletic injuries and design programs to prevent injuries common to athlete's sport; can help with rehabilitation
athletic training education requirements bachleors in related field for lower level work; masters or doctorate to work for collegiate and professional teams. licensed through BOC and requires CEUs
athletic training salary $40,000/yr; with professional teams, may make around $65,000 (NBA) or around $73,000 (NFL)
certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS) history program develeoped in 1985 to recognize individuals with the knowledge and skills to create effective and safe training programs for athletes
certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS) primary goals improve athletic performance and reduce athletic injuries
certified strength and conditioning specialist (CSCS) education requirements bachelors in related field or NSCA, NASM, or ACSM certification; a masters may be required for collegiate. requires CEUs
nutritionist job description a health specialist who devotes his professional activity exclusively to food/nutrition science, preventative nutrition, disease related to nutrient deficiencies, and the use of nutrient manipulation to enhance the clinical response to human diseases
nutritionist education requirements bachelors in related field + several hundred hours of training in an internship
officiating history in 1920, only 3 for NFL teams; now, 7 for all college and professional football games. 1975, NFL started practice of announcing penalties or clarifing rulings. 2004, college rules allow announcing player's number when he earns a penalty
officiating and hall of fame pro football has never inducted any officals
officiating positions referee, umpire, head linesmen, line judge, back judge, side judge, field judge
officiating education requirements certification, maybe a training program. high school degree; need knowledge of sport and experience, networking helps.
officiating training offered through sports or officating organizations, colleges, or third-party training schools
officiating job description verify credentials of participants, start and end competition, verify scores and resolve complaints of rule infarctions, announce rule infarctions, deduct points or decide punishment, monitor time, judge performance, maintain standards of play
officiating salary may be less than $20,000/yr. median $23,780; top may make $100,000-555,000
physical education education requirements bachelors to teach or coach at public school, state licensure (teach) or certification (coach), know a variety of sports
physical therapy job description work with patient to limit pain, restore function, and create a personalized treatment plan; teach use of assistive devices and at-home exercises
physical therapy salary median $75,000
physical therapy education requirements DPT, licensing exam. may become board certified in specific area
sports broadcasting education requirements no degree or certification required, but may have bachelors in journalism; often broadcast journalists or former athletes
orthopedic surgeons job description specialize in evaluation and treatment of problems in the musculoskeletal system of the body; operate on sports injuries
primary care sports medicine specialist job description see to non-surgical medical needs of athletes, including evaluation, treatment, and/or management
sports physical therapist job description carry out treatment plan, work with athlete to rehab injury for return to training and competition
biomechanics researcher job description focuses on improving sports performance
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) degenerative brain disorder associated with repeated brain trauma; causes depression after concussions. a build-up of tau, abnormal protein, in the brain, disrupting brain function
personal training education requirements bachelors in related field and/or certification; CEUs are often required
personal training salary $19,000-$44,000 on average for full-time
Created by: selfstudy08