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Physio Ch. 5

ligans bind to...and are ususally..such as... receptors...chemical messengers...hormones, neurots and paracrine/autocrine agents
paracrine/autocrine agent examples histamine and nitric oxide
chemical messengers NEED...which are generally... receptors...proteins or glycoprotein with a chemical specific binding site
receptors it only binds to a... specificity...specific ligand
receptors are located in the... cell plasma membrane (transmembrane protien)
cell membranes allow lipid insoluble messengers to enter the cell
receptors can also be located inside the cell or nucleus
characteristics of messenger-receptor interactions affinity, % saturation, and competition
competition involves agonists (promote activity) and antagonists (block activity)
regulation of receptors is either down or up regulation
down regulation decreases or decreases in the affinity of the receptor
down regulation involves... negative feedback mechanism
neg. feedback mechanisms for regulatin receptors increases the... amt of ligand > ^ messenger - receptor interaction
^ amt of ligand > ^ messenger - receptor interaction increases...and involves the...which lastly... amt of desired action...internalization of receptors (endocytosis) > ^ breakdown of receptors...decreases amount of reaction
negative example of down-regulation would be insulin resistance and dec insulin receptor sensitivity
insulin resistance and dec insulin receptor sensitivity results in dec glucose transporters in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue
up-regulation involves the addition of receptors to cell plasma membrane or increase in the affinity of the receptor (exocytosis)
signal transduction pathways cause the...and involves the steps from.. domino effect...signal to desired response
signal transduction pathways involve receptor activation and transduction
receptor activation involves messenger-recepter interaction
transuction involves...and may also involve... transformation of a signal to a response...many steps and many chemicals/reactions
lipid soluble messengers in signal transduction pathways: the receptors are...and thelipid-soluble messengers can... intracellular...pass through the phospholipid bilayer
lipid soluble messengers that can pass through the phospholipid bilayer include steriod hormones, thyroid hormones, and 1,25 hydroxyvitamin D (steroid derivative)
most lipid soluble messengers alter...because the...act as a... rates of DNA transcription...receptor and bound messenger...transcription factor
lipid-soluble messengers may increase or decrease gene activity
plasma membrane receptors for...and their mechanism of transduction includes... lipid soluble messengers...ion channels, enzymes, activate JAK kinases, activate G proteins
the plasma membrane receptors for lipid soluble messengers: ion channels are chemically ligand gated channels
the plasma membrane receptors for lipid soluble messengers: enzymes are usually...and some receptors...or they... kinases that phosphorylate a protein...act as enzymes...activate ligand protein as an ezymes
the plasma membrane receptors for lipid soluble messengers: activating JAK kinases, jak stands for...and the receptor is not the...but it activates... just another kinase...kinase...a seperate kinase and they you transfer energy to another molecule
the plasma membrane receptors for lipid soluble messengers: activating G proteins, G protein complexes are in the...and the change in G proteins activates... additional protein
G proteins may result in...or in... change in membrane potential (get a response)...generation of a second messenger (get a response)
Created by: handrzej



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