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MLT / Serology 6.1

MLT Serology unit 6.1 Immune System

QuestionAnswer
Immunology The study of all aspects of body defenses, such as antigens and antibodies, allergy, and hypersensitivity.
Antigen (Immunogen) A substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies (immune response)
Antibody (Immunoglobulin) Specific glycoproteins produced in response to an antigenic challenge.
Antigenicity The ability of an antigen to produce an immune response.
Immunity The process of being protected against foreign antigens.
Auto-Immunity A condition in which the body's own antigenic structures stimulate an immune response and react with self antigens in a manner similar to the destruction of foreign antigens. This process may cause autimmune disease.
Antigenic Determinants The combining site or sites with which antibodies react.
Epitope The portion of the molecule that the body recognizes as an antigen. It is functionally the portion of an antigen that combines with an antibody paratope (the part of an antibody molecule that makes contact with the antigenic determinant)
Hapten A low molecular weight molecule that can combine with another molecule to produe an antibody response. These substances are antigenic only when coupled to a protein carrier.
Carrier A molecule, that when coupled with a hapten, renders the Hapten immunogenic.
Lymphokine Soluble protein mediator is released by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with an antigen.
Opsonization Serum proteins that attach to a foreign substance and enhances phagocytosis (C3b). WHen the complement component C3b is attached to a particle, it promotes the adherenc of phagocytic cells because of the C3 receptors.
Adjuvant A compound (usually injected with the antigen) that enhances the immune response to the antigen by increasing its size or lenght of survival in circulation,
WHat are the 5 factors that affect Antigenicity? 1-Foreigness, 2-Degradability, 3-Molecular Weight, 4-StructuralStability, 5-Complexity
What is the degree to which an antigen is recognized as non-self by the immune system? Foreigness; Does not respond to self antigens
T/F Foreign molecules destroyed rapidly will not present long enough to provide adequate antigenic exposure (degradibility) True
T/F - The higher the molecular weight the better the molecule will function as an antigen True
Structural stability Stability of the molecule structure is mandatory; Unstable molecules makes poor antigens
Complexity The more complex an antigen , the more effective it will be
Which molecules are the most immunogenic? Proteins and carbohydrates
Which molecules are weakly immunogenic? Lipids and Nucleic Acids
What is Auto-antigens ? (AKA "Auto-imunity", "Autologous") Ones own antigens stimulates production of antibodies
What is second only to ABO antigens in influencing survival or rejection of transplanted organs? HLA- Human Leukocyte Antigens
What type of antigens are distributed throughout tissues, blood cells and body fluids? Blood Group Antigens
What are antigens found in unrelated plants and animals which are identical or closely related? (Rection termed "cross reaction") Heterophile
What is a specific glycoprotein produced in response to antigenic situations, and has specific interactions with prvoking antigens? Antibodies (Immunoglobulins)
How are antibodies structured? structure is based on the sequence of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
HOw are antibodies named? Names are based on the structure of the heavy chain
What are the names for the classes of heavy chains? Gamma; Mu; Alpha; Delta; Epsilon
What are the names for the classes of light chains? Kappa and Lambda
Which chain is responsible for Bence-Jones proteins found in urine of Multiple Myeloma patients? Light Chains
Which 2 enzymes can cleave an antibody into 2 or more parts? Papin and Pepsin
What part of an antibody is capable of antigen binding and contains one light chanina nd half of a heavy chain? FAB- Fragment Antibody Binding
Which portion of an antibody will crystallize and contains only the constant region of the heavy chain? Fc- Fragment Crystalline
Which portion of an antibody allows it to be flexible and attach to the antigen? Hinge Region
Which region of an antibody is located in the FAB portion and has amino acid sequences that varies? Variable region
Which region of the antibody has amino acid sequences that is identical? Constant region
How are antibodies named? They are named for their heavy chains class
Which antibody is the major immunoglobulin in normal serum? IgG- Gamma
Which immunoglobuin has 4 sub-classes and makes up 70%-75% of the total immunoglobulin pool? IgG
Which immunoglobulin crosses the placenta and provides immunity to newborns? IgG
Which immunoglobulin makes up about 10% ofthe total immunogloblin pool and is the first antibody produced in an immune response? IgM
Which antibody is the lrgest? IgM
Which antibody has 2 sub-classes and is about 15-20% of the immunoglobulin pool? IgA
What is another name for IgA? Secretor antibody
Which antibody is < 1% of the immunoglobulin pool and can be found on the surface of B lymphs? IgD
Which antibody is seen in allergic reactions and parasitic infections? IgE
Which antibodies has the monomer or "Y" shape? IgG, IgD, IgE
Which antibody has a mnomer or dimer shape, held by "J" chain? IgA
Which antibody has a pentameter shape? IgM
What are the 4 functions of antibodies? neutralize toxic substances; Facilitate phagocytosis; Kill microbes; combine with antigens to cause the destruction of these cells
What are the specimen requirements or antibody testing? Serum, at least 3ml
What type of specimens would be rejected when performing antibody testing? Hemolysed or lipemic specimens
What phase of infection does IgM usually appear in? The acute phase of infection
WHat is the specimen requrements for heterophile antibody testing? Serum, at least 2ml
Created by: Nsikanete