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# CK Kinesiology Final

sagittal plane frontal axis; extension/flexion
transverse pla vertical axis; medial/lateral ROTATION, supination/pronation, righ/left ROTATION, horizontal abduction/adduction
isometric contraction muscle contracts producing force without changing the length of the muscle Ex - holding dumbell at 90% before lifting
concentric contraction joint angle changes, muscle length shortens. Ex lifting dumbell to shoulder
eccentric contraction joint motion but the joint appears to lengthen Ex - lowering dumbell from shoulder
active insufficiency the muscle cannot shorten or contract any farther
passive insufficiency the muscle cannot be elongated or stretch any farther
Newton's Laws of Inertia every object persists in its state of rest of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it Ex - seat belts when the vehicle stops abruptly
Newton's Law of Acceleration Force is equal to the change in momentum per change in time (An object with less mass will move faster than an object with more mass) Ex easier to push a lighter person in a w/c than a heavier one
Newton's Law of Action/Reaction For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Ex A person leaning on a wall - the wall is pushing back with more force, otherwise it would cave in
open chain distal segment is freely moving Ex greeting a friend by waving
closed chain distal segment is fixed or stabilized so that movement in one joint will automatically necessitat movement at connecting joints Ex - standing with both feet on floor , the lower extremeties are in a closed kinematic chain
normal (5) maintains testin position against gravity and maximal resistance
good (4) maintains the testing position against gravity and moderate resistance
fair (3) moves through full available ROM against gravity or maintains the testing position
poor (2) moves thr joint through full ROM with gravity eliminated
trace (1) demonstrates no joint movement, but there is a slight observable or palpable muscle contraction
zero (0) demonstrates no joint movement and no palpable or abservable muscle contraction
movements of the shoulder girdle elevation (shrug shoulders), depression(reaching towards ground), adduction (retraction)scapula - sticking the chest out, abduction (protraction)hugging self, upward rotation, downward rotation
movements of GH joint flexion, extension (hyperextension), abduction, adduction, internal rotation, external rotation, horizontal adduction, horizontal abduction
trapezius (upper) elevation, upward rotation
trapezius (middle) retraction
trapezius (lower) depression, upward rotation
levator scapulae elecation, downward rotation
rhomboids retraction, downward rotation
serratus anterior protraction, upward rotation
pectoralis minor protraction, downward rotation
extrinsic muscle group of hand The extrinsic muscle groups are the long flexors and extensors. They are called extrinsic because the muscle belly is located on the forearm.
intrinsic muscles of hand thenar, hypothenar, interossei, lumbricales
thenar muscles abductor pollicis brevis ( thumb abduction),flexor pollicis brevis (thumb flexion)opponens pollics (thumb opposition)
hypothenar muscles opponens digiti minimi (opposition of little finger)abductor digiti minimi ( little finger abduction)flexor digiti minimi (little finger flexion)
Intrinsic muscles of hand A of A of A - Abductor pollicis brevis, Opponens pollicis, Flexor pollicis brevis, (thenar muscles) Adductor pollicis, Opponens digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi, Abductor digiti minimi (Hypothenar muscles).

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