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# SecurityCHPT11

### terms

Question | Answer |
---|---|

cryptography | the science of transforming information into a secure form while it is being transmitted or stored so that unauthorized persons ccant access it |

hashing | the process for creating a unique digital fingerprint signature for a set of data |

key | a mathematical value entered into the algorithim to produce ciphertext |

algorithim | procedures based on a mathematical formula,used to encrypt data |

block cipher | a cipher that manipulates an entire block of plain text at one time |

ciphertext | data that has been encrypted |

clear text | unencrypted data |

blowfish | a block cipher that operates on 64 bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits |

data encryption standard | a symmetric block cipher that uses a 56 bit key and encrypts data in 64 bit blocks |

advanced encryption standard | a symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for des |

asymmetric cryptographic algorithim | encryption that uses two mathematically related keys |

decryption | the process of changing ciphertext into plaintext |

elliptic curve cryptography | an algorithim that does not use prime numbers to compute keys |

encryption | the process of using plaintext into ciphertext |

gnu privacy guard | free and open source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt email messages |

gpg | gnu privacy guard |

hsm | hardware security module |

hsm | a secure cryptographic processor |

hash | the unique digital fingerprint created by a hashing algorithim |

md | message digest |

md | a common hash alggorithim of several different versions |

md5 | a revision of md4 designed to address its weaknesses |

nonrepudiation | the process of performing that a user performed an action |

ntlm | new technology lan manager |

ntlm hash | password hash that is no longer recommended for use |

otp | one time pad |

otp | using a unique truly random key to create ciphertext |

plaintext | data input into an encryption algorithim |

pretty good privacy | pgp |

pgp | a commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt email messages |

private key | an asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected |

pulic key | an asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected |

rc4 | an rc stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length |

rc | rivest cipher |

rc | a family of cipher algorithims designed by ron rivest |

rsa | an asymmetric algorithim published in 1977 and patented by mit in 1983 |

sha | secure hash algorithim |

sha | creates hash values of longer lengths than message digest algorithims |

stream cipher | an alorithim that takes one algorithim and replaces it with another |

steganography | hiding the existence of data within text,audio,or video file |

ripemd | a hash algorithim |

ripemd | uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and combines the result at the end |

ripemd | race integrity primitives evaluation message digest |

symmetric cryptographic algorithim | encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message |

3des | triple data encryption standard |

3des | a symmetric cipher that was designed to replace des |

tpm | trusted platform module |

tpm | a chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services |

twofish | a later derivation of the blowfish algorithim that is considered to be strong |

whole disk encryption | cryptography that can be applied to entire disks |

metadata | data that is used to describe the content or structure of the actual data |

stenography | hides the existence of data |

cryptography | transforms info into secure form |

cryptography | scramble info so it is unreadable |

encryption | changing the original message into a secret message using cryptography |

decryption | changing back into original form |

cleartext data | data in an unencrypted form |

confidentiality | only authorized parties can view it |

integrity | ensures info is correct and unaltered |

availability | authorized users can access it |

crytography has five basic functions | confidentiality |

crytography has five basic functions | integrity |

crytography has five basic functions | availability |

crytography has five basic functions | authenticity |

crytography has five basic functions | nonrepudiation |

hashing | primarily used for comparison purposes |

hash algorithims | basic type of cryptography |

hashing | used to determine the integrity of a message or contents of a file |

hashing can be used | to verify the integrity of data |

hashing | can not be reversed |

hashing | checking that you have what you are suppose to |

hash message authentication code | uses secret key provided by sender and receiver |

hmac | hash message authentication code |

md2 | takes plaintext of any length and creates a hash 128 bits long |

md2 | padding added to make short messages equal to 128 bits in length |

md4 | used for computers that process 32 bits at a time;takes plaintext of any length and creates a hash 128 bits long,padded to 512 bits |

sha | patterned like md hashes but created a hash that is 160 bits in length |

the number following SHA | indicates the length in bits of the hash that is generated |

whirlpool | recent cryptographic hash that creates a hash of 512 bits |

cryptographic one way function | the password itself is the key |

salt | a salt consists of random bits, creating one of the inputs to a one-way function |

cryptographic algorithims | are sequences of processes, or rules, used to encipher and decipher messages in a cryptographic system. In simple terms, they're processes that protect data by making sure that unwanted people can't access it |

symmetric cryptographic algorithims | uses a single private key to both encrypt and decrypt data. Any party that has the key can use it to encrypt and decrypt data. They are also referred to as block ciphers |

two categories of symmetric algorithms | stream cipher |

stream cipher | a symmetric key cipher where plaintext digits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream) |

substitution ciphers | takes a character and replaces it with a character |

homoalphabetic substitution cipher | maps a single plaintext character to multiple ciphertext characters |

transposition cipher | rearranges letters without changing them |

stream cipher | each plaintext digit is encrypted one at a time with the corresponding digit of the keystream, to give a digit of the cyphertext stream |

one time pad | a system in which a private key generated randomly is used only once to encrypt a message that is then decrypted by the receiver using a matching one-time pad and key |

transposition cipher | the positions held by units of plaintext (which are commonly characters or groups of characters) are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext. That is, the order of the units is changed. |

cipher | an algorithm for performing encryption or decryptionâ€”a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. |

block cipher | a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key. |

block cipher | important elementary components in the design of many cryptographic protocols, and are widely used to implement encryption of bulk data |

data encryption standard | a previously predominant algorithm for the encryption of electronic data. |

triple data encryption standard | applies the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher algorithm three times to each data block. |

aes | the official encryption for the u.s. government |

aes | The key size used for an AES cipher specifies the number of repetitions of transformation rounds that convert the input, called the plaintext, into the final output, called the ciphertext. |

rivest cipher | generates a pseudorandom stream of bits (a "keystream") which, for encryption, is combined with the plaintext using XOR as with any Vernam cipher; decryption is performed in the same way |

IDEA | The algorithm was intended as a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard |

Blowfish | provides a good encryption rate in software and no effective cryptanalysis of it has been found to date |

IDEA | operates on 64-bit blocks using a 128-bit key, and consists of a series of eight identical transformations (a round, see the illustration) and an output transformation (the half-round). |

twofish | symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits. |

asymmetric cryptographic algorithms | a pair of keys is used to encrypt and decrypt a message so that it arrives securely |

important principles regarding asymmetric cryptography principles | key pairs |

important principles regarding asymmetric cryptography principles | public key |

important principles regarding asymmetric cryptography principles | private key |

important principles regarding asymmetric cryptography principles | both directions |

the basis for a digital signature | rests on the ability of asymmetric keys to work in both directions |

rsa algorithm | most common asymmetric cryptography algorithm |

rsa | an algorithm for public-key cryptography that is based on the presumed difficulty of factoring large integers, the factoring problem. |

rsa | creates and then publishes the product of two large prime numbers, along with an auxiliary value, as their public key. |

elliptic curve cryptography | an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. |

elliptic curve cryptography | is a public key encryption technique based on elliptic curve theory that can be used to create faster, smaller, and more efficient cryptographic keys. |

elliptic curve cryptography | generates keys through the properties of the elliptic curve equation instead of the traditional method of generation as the product of very large prime numbers. |

quantum cryptography | describes the use of quantum mechanical effects (in particular quantum communication and quantum computation) to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems. |

quantum cryptography | based on the usage of individual particles/waves of light (photon) and their intrinsic quantum properties to develop an unbreakable cryptosystem |

quantum cryptography | essentially because it is impossible to measure the quantum state of any system without disturbing that system. |

quantum cryptography | This is a random sequence of bits, sent using a certain type of scheme, which can see two different initial values represent one particular binary value (0 or 1). |

quantum cryptography | fiber optic cables with incredibly pure optic properties have successfully transmitted photon bits up to 60 kilometers. |

quantum cryptography | exploits the properties of microscopic objects |

NTRUEncrypt | public key cryptosystem, also known as the NTRU encryption algorithm, is a lattice-based alternative to RSA and ECC and is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice (i.e. is not known to be breakable using quantum computers). Operations |

lattice based cryptography | generic term for asymmetric cryptographic primitives based on lattices. |

file system | method used by operating systems to store,retreive and organize files |

Created by:
cgeaski