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cryptography the science of transforming information into a secure form while it is being transmitted or stored so that unauthorized persons ccant access it
hashing the process for creating a unique digital fingerprint signature for a set of data
key a mathematical value entered into the algorithim to produce ciphertext
algorithim procedures based on a mathematical formula,used to encrypt data
block cipher a cipher that manipulates an entire block of plain text at one time
ciphertext data that has been encrypted
clear text unencrypted data
blowfish a block cipher that operates on 64 bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits
data encryption standard a symmetric block cipher that uses a 56 bit key and encrypts data in 64 bit blocks
advanced encryption standard a symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for des
asymmetric cryptographic algorithim encryption that uses two mathematically related keys
decryption the process of changing ciphertext into plaintext
elliptic curve cryptography an algorithim that does not use prime numbers to compute keys
encryption the process of using plaintext into ciphertext
gnu privacy guard free and open source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt email messages
gpg gnu privacy guard
hsm hardware security module
hsm a secure cryptographic processor
hash the unique digital fingerprint created by a hashing algorithim
md message digest
md a common hash alggorithim of several different versions
md5 a revision of md4 designed to address its weaknesses
nonrepudiation the process of performing that a user performed an action
ntlm new technology lan manager
ntlm hash password hash that is no longer recommended for use
otp one time pad
otp using a unique truly random key to create ciphertext
plaintext data input into an encryption algorithim
pretty good privacy pgp
pgp a commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt email messages
private key an asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected
pulic key an asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected
rc4 an rc stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length
rc rivest cipher
rc a family of cipher algorithims designed by ron rivest
rsa an asymmetric algorithim published in 1977 and patented by mit in 1983
sha secure hash algorithim
sha creates hash values of longer lengths than message digest algorithims
stream cipher an alorithim that takes one algorithim and replaces it with another
steganography hiding the existence of data within text,audio,or video file
ripemd a hash algorithim
ripemd uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and combines the result at the end
ripemd race integrity primitives evaluation message digest
symmetric cryptographic algorithim encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message
3des triple data encryption standard
3des a symmetric cipher that was designed to replace des
tpm trusted platform module
tpm a chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services
twofish a later derivation of the blowfish algorithim that is considered to be strong
whole disk encryption cryptography that can be applied to entire disks
metadata data that is used to describe the content or structure of the actual data
stenography hides the existence of data
cryptography transforms info into secure form
cryptography scramble info so it is unreadable
encryption changing the original message into a secret message using cryptography
decryption changing back into original form
cleartext data data in an unencrypted form
confidentiality only authorized parties can view it
integrity ensures info is correct and unaltered
availability authorized users can access it
crytography has five basic functions confidentiality
crytography has five basic functions integrity
crytography has five basic functions availability
crytography has five basic functions authenticity
crytography has five basic functions nonrepudiation
hashing primarily used for comparison purposes
hash algorithims basic type of cryptography
hashing used to determine the integrity of a message or contents of a file
hashing can be used to verify the integrity of data
hashing can not be reversed
hashing checking that you have what you are suppose to
hash message authentication code uses secret key provided by sender and receiver
hmac hash message authentication code
md2 takes plaintext of any length and creates a hash 128 bits long
md2 padding added to make short messages equal to 128 bits in length
md4 used for computers that process 32 bits at a time;takes plaintext of any length and creates a hash 128 bits long,padded to 512 bits
sha patterned like md hashes but created a hash that is 160 bits in length
the number following SHA indicates the length in bits of the hash that is generated
whirlpool recent cryptographic hash that creates a hash of 512 bits
cryptographic one way function the password itself is the key
salt a salt consists of random bits, creating one of the inputs to a one-way function
cryptographic algorithims are sequences of processes, or rules, used to encipher and decipher messages in a cryptographic system. In simple terms, they're processes that protect data by making sure that unwanted people can't access it
symmetric cryptographic algorithims uses a single private key to both encrypt and decrypt data. Any party that has the key can use it to encrypt and decrypt data. They are also referred to as block ciphers
two categories of symmetric algorithms stream cipher
stream cipher a symmetric key cipher where plaintext digits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream)
substitution ciphers takes a character and replaces it with a character
homoalphabetic substitution cipher maps a single plaintext character to multiple ciphertext characters
transposition cipher rearranges letters without changing them
stream cipher each plaintext digit is encrypted one at a time with the corresponding digit of the keystream, to give a digit of the cyphertext stream
one time pad a system in which a private key generated randomly is used only once to encrypt a message that is then decrypted by the receiver using a matching one-time pad and key
transposition cipher the positions held by units of plaintext (which are commonly characters or groups of characters) are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext. That is, the order of the units is changed.
cipher an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
block cipher a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.
block cipher important elementary components in the design of many cryptographic protocols, and are widely used to implement encryption of bulk data
data encryption standard a previously predominant algorithm for the encryption of electronic data.
triple data encryption standard applies the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher algorithm three times to each data block.
aes the official encryption for the u.s. government
aes The key size used for an AES cipher specifies the number of repetitions of transformation rounds that convert the input, called the plaintext, into the final output, called the ciphertext.
rivest cipher generates a pseudorandom stream of bits (a "keystream") which, for encryption, is combined with the plaintext using XOR as with any Vernam cipher; decryption is performed in the same way
IDEA The algorithm was intended as a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard
Blowfish provides a good encryption rate in software and no effective cryptanalysis of it has been found to date
IDEA operates on 64-bit blocks using a 128-bit key, and consists of a series of eight identical transformations (a round, see the illustration) and an output transformation (the half-round).
twofish symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits.
asymmetric cryptographic algorithms a pair of keys is used to encrypt and decrypt a message so that it arrives securely
important principles regarding asymmetric cryptography principles key pairs
important principles regarding asymmetric cryptography principles public key
important principles regarding asymmetric cryptography principles private key
important principles regarding asymmetric cryptography principles both directions
the basis for a digital signature rests on the ability of asymmetric keys to work in both directions
rsa algorithm most common asymmetric cryptography algorithm
rsa an algorithm for public-key cryptography that is based on the presumed difficulty of factoring large integers, the factoring problem.
rsa creates and then publishes the product of two large prime numbers, along with an auxiliary value, as their public key.
elliptic curve cryptography an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields.
elliptic curve cryptography is a public key encryption technique based on elliptic curve theory that can be used to create faster, smaller, and more efficient cryptographic keys.
elliptic curve cryptography generates keys through the properties of the elliptic curve equation instead of the traditional method of generation as the product of very large prime numbers.
quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects (in particular quantum communication and quantum computation) to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
quantum cryptography based on the usage of individual particles/waves of light (photon) and their intrinsic quantum properties to develop an unbreakable cryptosystem
quantum cryptography essentially because it is impossible to measure the quantum state of any system without disturbing that system.
quantum cryptography This is a random sequence of bits, sent using a certain type of scheme, which can see two different initial values represent one particular binary value (0 or 1).
quantum cryptography fiber optic cables with incredibly pure optic properties have successfully transmitted photon bits up to 60 kilometers.
quantum cryptography exploits the properties of microscopic objects
NTRUEncrypt public key cryptosystem, also known as the NTRU encryption algorithm, is a lattice-based alternative to RSA and ECC and is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice (i.e. is not known to be breakable using quantum computers). Operations
lattice based cryptography generic term for asymmetric cryptographic primitives based on lattices.
file system method used by operating systems to store,retreive and organize files
Created by: cgeaski