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Physio Ch. 14 C

pH regulation involves either the..or the... gain of H+ > dec pH ...loss of H+ > ^ pH
gain of H+ > dec pH is generated from... co2, metabolic production of nonvolatile acids from proteins, loss of bicarb in diarrhea and loss of hco3- in urine
gain of H+ generation from co2 through the equation...and most... co2 + h20 <> h2co3 <> hco3- + H+...H+ is bound to Hb
generate more H+ from co2 as a result of hypoventilation or respiratory disease
metabolic production of nonvolatile acids from proetins include..through... phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and lactic acid...cellular anaerobic respiration
loss of bicarb in diarrhea is the same as a.. gain of H+
loss of hco3- in urine is the same as a gan of h+
loss of H+ > ^pH caused by hyperventilation, metabolism of organic ions, vomitting and urinating
pH ranges necessary for life:...variance beyond this range can... 6.8 < pH < 7.8...not maintain life
blood pH normal value is...which [H+] =.. 7.4...40 nmol/L
acceptable ranges pH: 7.35-7.45, [H+]: 35 - 45 nmol/L
acidemia or acidosis is when the pH is less than 7.35
alkalemia or alkalosis is when the pH is more than 7.45
emia is the...and osis is the... condition...process
pH buffers (acid buffers) do what... reversibly binds H+ (buffer- + H+ <> Hbuffer_
buffer- + H+ =...and Hbuffer=... buffer...weak acid
pH buffers help maintain..and involves the... pH...CO2 & HCO3- system
free hco3- can buffer nonvolatile acids(lactic acid, etc)
pH buffers also include Hb and H+ system (H+ +Hb <> HHb)
classification of acidemia/acidosis: artial blood pH....and can either be... < 7.35...respiratory or metabolic
respiratory acidosis means you altered...and you have excess...>...>... patterns of respiration...co2 > ^ pco2 & [H+] > dec blood pH
excess co2 > ^ pco2 & [H+] > dec blood pH is caused by...and is seen with... hypoventilation...lung diseases like copd
metabolic acidosis is... nonrespiratory altered patterns of H+ and HCO3- excretion and production
metabolic acidosis is the result of either excess production of acids or excess loss of hco3-
excess production of acids > dec blood pH > ^ production of metabolic acids (H+ from nonvolatile acids)
excess loss of hco3- > dec blood pH > loss of bases or buffers from gastrointestinal tract
classification of alkalemia/alkalosis: arterial blood pH:...and is either... > 7.45...respiratory or metabolic
respiratory alkalosis: altered...with low...caused by... patterns of respiration...co2 > dec pco2 and [H+] > ^ blood pH...hyperventilation
metabolic alkalosis is...from things like... nonrespiratory altered patterns of H+ & hco3- excretion and production ...vomitting
metabolic alkalosis is produced by either excess loss of acids or excess production of hco3-
excess loss of acids >...from the... ^ blood pH...GI tract
excess production of hco3- > ^ blood pH
mechanisms of pH regulation is called...and can be done by either the... compensation...lungs or kidneys
the lungs compensate for non-respiratory changes in [H+] (metabolic only)
in metabolic acidosis the lungs excret excess H+ via co2(hyperventilate)
in metabolic alkalosis the lungs retain H+ via co2 (hypoventilate)
the kindeys are the major means of compensation for changes in [H+] (metabolic or respiratory)
in metabolic or respiratory acidosis the kidneys excrete excess H+
in metabolic or respiratory alkalemia the kidneys... retain H+ by getting rid of Hco3-
acidemia/acidosis is when the blood pH is...and the respiratory response is to... < 7.35...hyperventilate
hyperventilating increases..>...>... [H+] > ^ stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors > ^ stimulation of medullary inspiratory neurons
blowing off co2 % dec alveolar Pco2 means that pco2...and its effect on blood pH is what? pco2 < 40 mm Hg....^ pH
alkalemia/alkalosis: blood pH is...and you... > 7.45...hypoventilate
hypoventilating decreases...>...>... [H+]...dec stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors...dec stimulation of medullary inspiratory neurons
hypoventilating helps you retain co2 & ^ alveolar Pco2
hypoventilating means you pco2 is...and what effect does this have on pH? pco2 > 40 mm Hg...dec pH
addition of hco3- is equivalent to...and during acidosis you... removing H...reabsorb hco3 (basically means you're not losing any)
removal of hco3- from the kidneys is equivalent to...so with alkalosis you...which does what to pH? adding H...excrete hco3-...decreases it
hco3- excretion = hco3 filtered + hco3 secreted - reabsorbed
glomerular filtration of hco3- fully filtered
tubular reabsorption of hco3- is the...and happens in the.. most important mechanism....prox tubule, ascending limb and cortical collecting duct
tubular reabsorption depends upon H+ tubular secretion
tubular secretion is...bec its all... insignificant....filtered so either it gets reabsorbed or it doesn't
tubular reabsorption of hco3- happens indirectly from filtered hco3-
tubular reabsorption of hco3 happens in...and the equation goes tubules..backwards (hco3 + h > h2co3 > h2o + co2)
tubular reabsorption of hco3: the co2 is in the...and the equation goes... cell..forward (co2 + h > h2co3 > hco3 + h)
co2 in the cell: hco3 diffuses into...and h+ is... interstitial space and into capillary...secreted into lumen
tubular reabsorption process can be... repeated
in tubular reabsorption of hco3 there is no... net gain of hco3 or net loss of h+
no net gain of hco3 because there is only reabsorption
no net loss of h+ because co2 and h2o are taken back in to the cell so they are available to cycle again
tubular production of new bicarb means that no filtered hco3 is available
tubular production of new bicarb uses alternate buffer in lumen - usually phosphate (hpo)
co2 in the cell (for tubular production of new bicarb) co2 + h20 > h2co3 > hco3 + h, hco3 diffuses into interstitial space and into capillary and h+ transported back to lumen
during tubular production of new bicarb there is net gain of hco3 in the blood and excretion of h in urine
tubular production of new bicarb also involves glutamate metabolism
glutamate metabolism: glutamate from...and is converted to... peritubular capillaries and lumen...hco3 and nh4
during glutamate metabolism hco3 diffuses into interstitial space and into capillary
during glutamate metaboism, nh4 is transported back to lumen (excreted)
during glutamate metabolism there is net gain of hco3 in the blood and excretion of h in the urine
acidemia/acidosis response is H excretion and hco3 reabsorption
acidemia completely...and... reabsorbs all hco3...generates new hco3 & excrete H
generation of new hco3 and excretion of h involves an alternation of...as well as..and the urine becomes... tubular buffers (hpo)...glutamate metabolism...acidic
alkalemia/alkalosis response reduced h secretion and increased hco3 excretion
alkalemia doe snot reabsorb all hco3 and it does not generate new hco3
alkalemia doesn't reabsorb all hco3 bec there isn't enough h available to reabsorb all hco3
alkalemia doesn't generate new hco3 which reduces...and the urine becomes... glutamate metabolism...basic
normal blood values or concentrations pH 7.34-7.45 PCO2: 35-45 mm Hg and hco3: 22-30 mEq/L
ex. pH 7.32, pco2 28 mm Hg, hco3 14 mEq/L metabolic acidosis, respiratory compensation
ex. pH 7.58, pco2 20 mm Hg, hco3 14 mEq/L respiratory alkalosis, metabolic compensation
Created by: handrzej