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INTRO CH 8

MARITIME GEOGRAPHY

QuestionAnswer
NAME THE SEVEN OCEANS 1 NORTH ATLANTIC 2 SOUTH ATLANTIC 3 NORTH PACIFIC 4 SOUTH PACIFIC 5 ARCTIC 6 ANTARTIC OR SOUTHERN 7 INDIAN
NAME THE SEVEN LAND MASSES 1 ASIA 2 AFRICA 3 EUROPE 4 NORTH AMERICA 5 SOUTH AMERICA 6 AUSTRALIA 7 ANTARTICA
WHAT ARE THE LINES THAT TRAVEL EAST TO WEST CALLED. EXPLAIN HOW THESE ARE DETAILED KNOWN AS PARALLELS OF LATITUDE. 0 DEGREES IS THE EQUATOR AND NORTH POLE IS 90 DEG NORTH. IF YOU TRAVEL 60 NAUTICAL MILES THIS EQUATES TO 1 DEGREE OF MOVEMENT NORTH OR SOUTH.
EXPLAIN WHAT YOU UNDERSTAND THE MERIDIANS OF LONGITUDE ARE. THERE ARE 360 DEG OF LONGITUDE. GREENWICH MEAN IS THE 0 DEGREE. THE INTERNATIONAL DATELINE IS AT 180 DEG, ALTHOUGH NOT A STRAIGHT LINE. ONE HOUR OF SUN MOVEMENT WEST IS 15 DEG
WHAT ARE MAP PROJECTIONS. WHICH ONES D MARINERS OFTEN USE FOR NAVIGATION AND WHY THE EARTH ISN'T FLAT. MERCATOR DREW STRAIGHT LINES ON A MAP WHICH TOOK INTO ACCOUNT THE CURVATURE OF THE EARTH. SO YOU COULD DRAW A STRAIGHT LINE BETWEEN 2 POINTS ON THE MAP AND THIS WOULD GIVE YOU YOUR ANGLE TO SET YOUR COMPASS. GERARD MERCATOR 16 CEN
WHAT ARE THE ADV AND DISADV OF MERCATOR THE LAND MASSES ON THE EQUATOR LOOK TO SCALE AS YOU MOVE OUTWARDS THE MAP DISTORTS LAND MASS I.E. GREENLAND IS SHOWN TO BE BIGGER THAN AUSTRALIA. ADV BEING THAT AS THE LONG AND LAT LINES ARE USED THEY TO ARE DISTORTED AND DOESNT IMPACT NAVIGATION.
NAME SOME OTHER MAP PROJECTIONS THAT ARE IN USE GALLS PROJECTION
UNDER SOLAS WHAT TYPE OF CHARTS MUST BE USED BY VESSELS. EXPLAIN WHAT ECDIS IS AND WHAT WILL AFFECT THIS IN THE FUTURE VESSSELS MUST USE NAT HYDROGRAPHICAL CHARTS IE UKHO IN THE UK. ECDIS IS AN ELECTRONIC CHART AND DISPLAY INFO SYSTEM, WHICH COMBINES THE RADAR WITH CHARTS IN A SINGLE SCREEN. UNDER SOLAS WILL BE MANDATORY. THE ECDIS MUST BE ABLE TO DISPLAY OFF ENC CHARTS
WHAT TIME IS NAVIGATION ALWAYS BASED UPON. WHY IS KNOWLEDGE OF TIME ZONES IMPORTANT. VESSELS ALWAYS BASE ON GMT AND DONT ALTER FOR DAYLIGHT SAVING AT ALL. IF YOU DEAL ACROSS CONTINENTS THEN YOU NEED TO BE AWARE OF THE LOCAL TIMES IN THAT AREA.
WHY DO WE HAVE TIDES. EXPLAIN HOW SPRING TIDES AND NEAP TIDES OCCUR. WHY ARE THESE IMPORTANT TIDES ARE AFFECTED BY THE MOONS GRAVITATIONAL PULL AND WORKING WITH THE EARTHS OWN GRAVITY. WHEN THE SUN & MOON PULL TOGETHER WE HAVE SPRING TIDES HIGH/LOW WATERS. WHEN THEY ARE AGAINST EACH OTHER WE HAVE NEAP TIDES IE VERY LOW WATER. SHIPS NEAPED.
HOW HAVE SOME PORTS WORKED AROUND THE TIDES, WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES USING SEA LOCKS TO A PORT CAN MAINTAIN A CONSTANT DEPTH OF WATER IN PORT. AS LONG AS THE VESSEL CAN GET IN. HOWEVER PORT RESTRICTIONS AND EVER INCREASING VESSEL SIZES IMPACT ON TRAFFIC.
HOW CAN CURRENTS AFFECT SHIPPING SOME TIDAL CURRENTS CAN FLOW AT APPRECIABLE SPEEDS WHICH COULD MEAN A SMALL COASTER NOT BEING ABLE TO MAKE HEADWAY WHEN IT CAN ACHIEVE ONLY SAY 8 KNOTS. ALSO CURRENTS LIKE THE GULF STREAM CAN AFFECT NAVIGATION.
WHERE CAN YOU SEE TROPICAL STORMS AND WHEN 1. GULF OF MEXICO AND CARIBBEAN - JUNE/NOV 2. FAR EAST MAY/JAN 3. INDIAN OCEAN VARIOUS SEASONS 4. AUSTRALIA - NOV TO APRIL
NAME AREAS WHERE ICE WILL BE A PROBLEM AT SOME TIME DURING THE YEAR 1. BAY OF BOTHNIA, WHITE SEA AND BALTIC SEA 2. ST LAWRENCE SEAWAY AND THE GREAT LAKES 3. BARENTS SEA
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF WATERWAYS MAN MADE AND NATURAL. NATURAL WATERWAYS PROVIDE SHELTER FOR VESSELS TO DISCHARGE AND LOAD. MANY CITIES HAVE SPRUNG UP FROM THEM. GIVE EXAMPLES 1. BUENOS AIRES - RIVER PLATE 2. CALCUTTA - HOOGHLY RIVER 3. HAMBURG - RIVER ELBE 4. LISBON - RIVER TAGUS 5. MONTREAL - ST LAWRENCE 6. PHILADELPHIA - DELAWARE
GIVE DETAILS OF SOME MAN MADE WATERWAYS 1. KIEL CANAL LINKS NORTH SEA TO BALTIC OPENED IN 1895. SHIPS TO 235.5 MTRS LOA/BEAM 32.5 MTRS CAN HAVE MAX DRFT OF 7.0 MTRS. VESSELS UP TO 160 MTRS LOA CAN HAVE 9.5 DRAFT. 2.PANAMA 1914 2.SUEZ CANAL OPENED IN 1869 LINKS MED TO RED SEA. DRAFT 20 MTR
HOW DID MANY PORTS DEVELOP OVER THE YEARS MANY PORT HAVE DEVELOPED AS A RESULT OF MINERAL OR IRON, COAL ETC BEING FOUND AND EXTRACTED. THE PORT THEN DEVELOPED TOP EXPORT THEM, KEEPING TRANSPORT COSTS DOWN AS LOW AS POSSIBLE.
WHAT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PORTS HAVE WE SEEN DUE TO CONTAINER TRAFFFIC -CONTAINER VESSELS INCREASED IN SIZE TO FIND ECONOMIES OF SCALES. -SOME PORTS NOT ABLE TO BERTH LARGER VESSELS DUE TO RESTRICTIONS. ALSO LARGE VESSELS WISH TO KEEP TO MAIN SEA TRADE ROUTES. -HUB PORTS DEVELOPED - GLOBAL/REGNL - GATEWAY PORTS USED FEED
WHERE WOULD YOU NORMALLY SEE A HUB DEVELOP -GENERALLY LOCATED CLOSE TO THE MAIN MARITIME ROUTES. -GENERALLY OFFSHORE SO DRAFT RESTRICTIONS ARE NULLIFIED. NEGATES THE NEED OF COSTLY DREDGING.
WHAT WERE THE TOP CONTAINER PORTS IN 2011. 1. SHANG HAI 2. SINGAPORE 3. HONG KONG 70.5% OF ALL TRAFFIC IS ASIA/AUSTRALASIA
THE TRAMP TRADE DONT TEND TO USE HUBS AND SPOKE NETWORKS. WHAT CONSIDERATIONS OF PORT NEED TO BE MADE WHEN NEGOTIATING A CHARTER. 1.DEPTH OF WATER - NAABSA OR ENCL SEA LOCK 2.TIDAL MOVEMENTS AT TIME 3 WEATHER CONDITIONS 4.POLITICAL STABILITY 5.PORT COSTS - PILOTS/TUGS/DOCK DUES 6.BUNKER/WATER AVAIL AND COSTS 7.LOAD/DISCHARGE PROSPECTS - PUB HOLS 8.HUSBANDRY FACILITIES 9.GOO
Created by: KJPARKER28
 

 



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