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INTRO CH 2

SUPPLY OF SHIPS

QuestionAnswer
WHAT WERE THE FIRST DEVELOPMENTS IN SHIPPING FROM SAIL DRIVEN VESSELS TO PRESENT DAY. 1 WOOD TO IRON THEN STEEL (1877. STRONGER MATERIALS 2 STEAM PROPULSION - ADHERENCE TO TIMETABLES. PASSENGER VESSELS MADE USE OF THIS 3 WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY - GMDSS AND IMMARSAT C
WHAT IS IMMARSAT C AND GMDSS. WHAT DOES IT DO PART OF THE GLOBAL MARITIME DISTRESS AND SAFETY SYSTEM. IT SENDS PREFORMATTED DISTRESS SIGNALS TO A RESCUE STATION. ALSO ALLOWS EMAILS OF MOVING WEATHER FRONTS. GMDSS CAME INTO BEING LATE 1990'S
WHAT WERE MADE IN THE LATE 1800'S AND EARLY 1900'S WHICH CHANGED THE WAY SHIPPING ROUTED THEIR CARGOES. HOW DID THE SUEZ AFFECT SHIPPING 1. SUEZ 1869 2. KIEL 1895 3. PANAMA 1915 SUEZ CAUSED OVERSUPPLY OF VESSELS IT WAS SO EFFECTIVE IN REDUCING VOYAGE TIME.
EXPLAIN HOW THE WW2 CHANGED THE MERCHANT SHIPPING MARKET. DUE TO HUGE LOSSSES, AMERICAN BUILT LIBERTY CLASS MASS PRODUCED VESSELS ON LEND LEASE. THE LOSSES TAILED OFF AS SUBS HUNTED. OVERSUPPLY POST WAR - THEREFORE NO REQ TO ADVANCE MERCHANT VESSEL TECH.
WHAT WERE THE POST WAR DEVELOPMENTS FOR OIL TANKERS, WHAT WERE THE DRIVERS FOR CHANGE. OIL COMPANIES STARTED TO EXTEND REFINERY JETTIES TO TAKE LARGER VESSELS AND EXPLOIT ECONOMIES OF SCALE. VLCC AND ULCC TON VESSELS QUICKLY DEVELOPED FOR CRUDE. AFTER 1974 SIZES SEEMED STATIC AS DEMAND WASN'T NEEDED FOR ANY VESSELS BIGGER. STENNA LINE VMAX
WHY WERE THE LINER TRADES NOT DEVELOPING AT THE SAME RATE AS DRY BULK AND TANKERS THE BIGGER THE VESSEL IN PORT THE LONGER IT STAYED.THEREFORE UNTIL CONTAINERISATION IN 1960'S THERE WERE NO ECONOMIES TO BE HAD.
HOW DID THE CONTAINER VESSELS DEVELOP. ORIGINALLY AROUND 2K TEU'S WERE COMMON. 1970'S DESIGNERS CREATED PANAMAX THE LARGEST VESSELS TO TRANSIT PANAMA CANAL. 5K TEU. THEN POST PANAMAX 12K. TRIPLE E MAERSK 18K 2013. NO LONGER NEED TO TRANSIT PANAMA CANAL. PORTS IMPROVED CONTAINER MOVEMENTS YR
HOW HAVE THE TRADE ROUTES FOR CONTAINERS CHANGED OVER THE YEARS. IN 2009 14 OF THE WORLDS BUSIEST CONTAINER PORTS WERE IN ASIA.1990 THAT FIGURE WAS 3.LINES HAVE TO BE DEVELOPED TO UTILISE SHIP CAPACITY.THEREFORE CAN REDUCE NUMBER OF PORTS VISITED. ROUTING VIA HUBS IS USED AND FEEDER LINES.PORTS CANT ACCOM SIZES OF SHIP
WHAT HAVE BEEN THE KEY DRIVERS TO ENGINE DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS. IMO EMISSION REGULATIONS INTRODUCED. DIESEL ENGINES NEED HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO INCREASE BEST SPEED BUT ALSO WIDEST ECONMICAL STEAMING RANGE.JAPANESE DEVELOPED AN ENGINE WHICH MEETS TIER 3 TARGETS IN 2011. CONTAINER VESSELS 24-27 KNOTS.BULK 15 KN
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES TO HAVING A HOME FLAGGED MERCHANT FLEET 1. EARNS FOREIGN CURRENCY 2. MANY NEWLY INDEPENDENT COUNTRIES SEE THIS AS A BADGE OF PRESTIGE 3. IN TIMES OF WAR THEY CAN APPROPRIATE VESSELS TO PROVISION. 4. OWNER MAY BE ABLE TO USE GRANTS TO PURCHASE VESSELS OR TAX BREAKS 5. GOVT KEEP PEOPLE EMPLO
WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF A HOME FLEET 1.INITIAL CAPEX IS HIGH 2.IF BOUGHT CHEAP ORIGINALLY THE COST TO REPLACE IS GROWING. FUNDING OVERSEAS NEEDS TO BE SOUGHT AND THIS DEFEATS THE OBJECT OF FX INTO THE COUNTRY. 3.GOVT HAVE PREV PUT TAX BURDENS AND CREWING CONSTRAINTS ON THE OWNERS.
HOW HAVE OWNERS SOUGHT TO OVERCOME THE ISSUES OF REGISTRATION. IN RESPONSE WHAT HAVE GOVERNMENTS DONE IN RESPONSE. 1. MANY SEEK FOC WHICH ARE LESS ONEROUS, EASILY ACHIEVED BY SETTING UP A SHELL CO IN SOMEWHERE LIKE LIBERIA OR PANANA OR A & B NOW COUNTERED BY COUNTRIES I.E. NORWAY USING OPEN OR SECOND REGISTRIES LESS ONEROUS RESTICTIONS
WHAT HAVE BEEN THE MAIN ISSUES WITH FOCS IN THE PAST 1.SOME HAVE NOT RATIFIED THE IMO CONVENTIONS FOR SAFETY AT SEA,MARPOL, CREWING CONDITIONS AND PAY. AS NO ONE TRADE UNION CAN INTERVENE ITF WORK HARD TO TACKLE THESE FOR CREW. VESSELS NOT NECESS KEPT UP TO STANDARDS
HOW DID PORT STATE CONTROL COME ABOUT AND WHAT DO THEY DO PSC BASED ON PARIS MOU IN 1982. PUBLIC PRESSURE ON ENVIRONMENT AND SAFETY TO PROTECT COASTS. FOREIGN SHIPS TARGETED FOR INSPECTION , UK USE MCA. CHECK SHIP COMPLIES WITH REGS. CAN DETAIN VESSEL. FLAG STATE ULTIMATELY RESP FOR FLAGGED VESSELS. FOC ISSUE
WHAT ARE CLASSIFICATION SOCIETIES, WHAT DO THEY DO. 1 BASICALLY A CERT OF QUALITY 2 VESSEL CAN BE BUILT UNDER SUPERVISION OF CLASS SOCIETY. MALTESE CROSS DENOTE UNDER LR 3.CLASS CAN BE GOVT OR COMMERCIAL 4.IASC 13 MEMBERS ENSURE UNIFORM STANDARDS. 5 PERIODIC SURVEYS AFLOAT AND DRY DOCK INSPECTIONS.
WHAT ARE THE TIME FRAMES FOR CLASS SURVEYS 1 TO MAINTAIN CLASS ANNUAL SURVEYS TO MAINTAIN CLASS. WITHOUT THIS OWNERS CANNOT INSURE VESSEL. 2 SPECIAL SURVEYS EVERY 5 YEARS WHICH ARE MORE IN DEPTH - DRY DOCK 4 IF NOT ANNUAL 3.FOR SOME NEW VESS FROM 2010 EXTENDED DRY DOCK 7.5 YEARS
Created by: KJPARKER28
 

 



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