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Physio Ch. 14 B

QuestionAnswer
H20 and Na+ intake = output
nephron activity include glomerular filtraion(from plasma): excessive, tubular reabsorption = 99% and tubular secretion
tubular reabsorption occurs in the... prox. convoluted tubule
mechanisms of Na+ reabsorption (and thus h20) involve going from...to... lumen to cell and cell to interstitial fluid
Na+ going from lumen to cell is specifically to the...and involves...which sets up the... luminal membrane of cell...Na+ pump on interstitial side of membrane...cotransport and countertransport
Na+ from cell to interstitial fluid (or the...) involves... basolateral membrane of cell...primary active transport Na+/k+ atpase pump
na+ is reabsorbed in the proximal tubules, ascending loop, distal convoluted, cortical collecting duct
H20 diffusion follows...through... Na+...cell junctions and aquaporins (osmosis)
the proximal tubule is extremely water permeable for reabsorption
h20 absorption =...and is also influenced by... Na+ absorption...movement of other osmotically active chemicals like glucose
h20 absorption in the loop of henle varies w/... location on loop: descending limb is permeable, ascending limb is impermeable
distal convoluted tubule is impermeable to h20
cortical and medullary collecting ducts can...and involves a fine tuning hormone called... reabsorb h20...vasopressin
vasopressin is also called...and it alters the... ADH...# of aquaporins
^ ADH > ^ AQP2 aquaporins > ^ H20 reabsorption
urine concentration involves the countercurrent multiplier system function
countercurrent multiplier system function produces a hypertonic medullar interstitium
countercurrent multiplier system alters the osmolarity of the urine relative to plasma
hypoosmotic urine is...so what is less than what... dilute (low sollute, lots of h20)...osmolarity of urine < osmolarity of plasma
what is the osmolarity of the plasma normally 300 mOsm
where is the urine hypoosmotic? top of ascending limb, distal convoluted,
isoosmotic urine is...which means... equivalent to plasma (300 mOsm)...osmolarity of urine = osmolarity of plasma
where is the urine isoosmotic? proximal tubule, cortical collecting duct
hyperosmotic urine is...so what is greater than what... concentrated (^ solutes, less h20)...osmolarity of urine > osmolarity of plasma
where is urine hyperosmotic? descending limb, medullary collecting duct, bottom of ascending
hyperosmotic urine is up to...obligatory or miniaml water loss =... 1400 mOsmol/L urine... .444 L/day
hyperosmotic urine starts with...and ends with... isoosmotic glomerular filtrate...hyperosmotic urine
urine is most conentrated in the medullary collecting duct
countercurrent multiplier system components include loop of henle - juxtamedullary nephrons, distal convoluted tubule, cortical collecting duct and medullary collecting duct
loop of henle - juxtamedullary nephrons constitutes...and the thin descending limb is...and the thick ascending limb is... 15% of nephrons...permeable to water...impermeable to water
the thick ascending limb also includes the nacl pumps
distal convoluted tubule also includes the...and is... nacl pumps...impermeable to h20 (also hypoosomtic)
cortical collecting duct also includes the...and has...in order to... nacl pumps...vasopressin (ADH) and aquaporins...reabsorb water
medullar collecting duct has...and is... vasopressin (ADH) and aquaporins..hyperosmotic
the loop of henle establishes nacl gradient for water reabsorption
the action of the...causes the.. ascending limb...descending limb
thick ascending limb: ^ nacl reabsorption >...by dec. urine osmolarity (hypoosmotic urine leaves loop)...removing the ions
thin descending limb: ^ h20 reabsorption >...by.. ^ urine osmolarity...concentrating the ions
in the thick ascending limb the Nacl is pumped to the...so...is moved from... interstitium...200 mOsm/L...filtrate to interstitium
thin descending limb is where water moves from...to...and the filtrate is... limb...interstitium...concentrated as solutes are left behind
nacl is pumped out of the filtrate along the...which decreases...and increases... entire length of the ascending limb...filtrate osmolarity...interstitium osmolarity
water moves from the...along the...which decreaes..and increases... entire length of the descending limb...interstitium osmolarity...filtrate osmolarity
nacl and water have moved from...which results in... filtrate to interstitium...hypoosmotic urine leaves the loop of henle
cortical collecting duct includes the....and also... nacl pumps..vasopressing > ^ aquaporins
cortical collecting ducts w/ vasopressin > ^ aquaporins > ...and...leaves the duct ^ h2o reabsorption...isoosmotic urine
medullary collecting duct: interstitial tissues w/...w/...>... high osmolarity...vasopressin...^ aquaporins
^ aquaporins > ... and ...leaves the duct ^ h20 reabsorption...hyperosmotic urine...
medullary collecting duct: interstitial fluid w/o vasopressin means there are...and it is relatively... few aquaporins in collecting ducts...impermeable to h20
medullary collecting ducts w/o vasopressin means that what kind of urine from the...leaves the.. hypoosmotic urine...distal convoluted tubule...collecting duct
medullary circulation maintains the osmolarity of the interstitium
medullary circulation: descending limb of vasa recta carries blood into the...enters as...and loses... interstitium...300 mOsm...h20 and gains NaCl > ^osmolarity of plasma
medullary circulation: ascending limb of vasa recta gains...and loses... which... h20...nacl...dec osmolarity of plasma
ascending limb of vasa recta leaves only slightly > 300 mosm
medullary circulation is driven by..not by.. concentration gradients...active transport
the majority of urea is...to use as part of... reabsorbed...solutes in interstitium
urea recycles through the...how much is filtered? reabsorbed? excreted? nephron...100%, 85%, 15%
reabsorbed urea: a small amount goes to the...but most remains in the... blood..interstitium(helps establish and maintain the osmotic gradient)
Na+ excreted = na+ filtered - na+ reabsorbed
na excreted can either increase or decrease GFR
GFR can modify...of.. blood pressure..glomerular capillary
^ PGc > ^ GFR > ^ Na+ excretion
dec PGC > dec GFR > dec Na+ excretion
tubular reabsorption is the...and you can either... most important mechanism to manipulate Na+...increase or decrease tubular reabosrption
tubular reabsorption involves...from... aldosterone...adrenal cortex
^ aldosterone > ^ Na+ reabsorption
dec aldosterone > dec Na+ reabsorption
the sensory mechanism that modifies Na+ filtration are the baroreceptors in the carotid, aortic, lg veins, atria
amount of plasma Na+ impacts... plasma volume
^ plasma na+ > ^ plasma volume > ^blood pressure
^ plasma na+ > ^ plasma volume > ^blood pressure > ...which means you... ^ baroreceptor firing > dec symp output > vasodilation of afferent arteriole > ^ GFR...filter more na+ out of the blood
dec plasma na+ > dec plasma volume > dec blood pressure
dec plasma na+ > dec plasma volume > dec blood pressure > ...and means you... dec baroreceptor firing > ^ symp output > vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole > dec GFR..filter less Na+ out of blood
baroreceptors modify GFR and activity of juxtaglomerular cells at the afferent arteriole
dec baroreceptor firing > ^ symp output > ^ action of juxtaglomerular cells
macula densa is part of the...and is located in the...and monitors... juxtaglomerular apparatus...distal convoluted tubule...Na+ in filtrate
macula densa: dec Na+ delivery to macula densa > ^ action of juxtaglomerular cells > ^ renin
renal juxtaglomerular cells on the...part of the...are stimulated by the... afferent arteriole..juxtaglomerular apparatus...symp system
renal juxtaglomerular cells respond to ^...dec...dec.. symp stimulation...renal arteral pressure...na+ delivery to the macula densa
order of events ^ renin production > ^ angiotensin II > ^ aldosterone
hormone control of plasma Na and na excretion involves the renin-angiotensin system
order of events in the renin-angiotensin system renin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone
renin is an...prodced in the...and functions in the... enzyme...juxtaglomerular cells...bloodstream
renin main function catalyze angiotensinogen to angiotensinI
angiotensin I is..until... inactive...further modification by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
ACE is produced in the lumen of capillaries by endothelial cells
angiotensin II is the...and stimulates... active form...adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
angiotensin II also causes vasoconstriction
aldosterone increases na+ reabsorption
aldosterone does not work in the...and it is a...produced in the... nephron loop...steriod hormone...adrenal cortex
aldosterone impacts...as well as the... distal convoluted tubule and cortical collecting duct...large intestine and sweat glands
aldosterone alters...by increasing... protein synthesis...production of protein transporters and protein channels
aldosterone ^ na reabsorption and ^ K+ secretion
release of aldosterone is stimulated by angiotensin II
aldosterone basically gets cells to put more...into.. na pumps..membranes on interstitial side for reabsorption
ANP is also called... anh - hormone and anf - factor
anp is produced by the...the release is stimulated by...and it increases.... cardiac atria...^ blood volume and atrial pressure...glomerular filtration rate
ANP increases glomerular filtration rate causes vasodilation of afferent arteriole and vasoconstriction of efferent arteriole
anp inhibits tubular reabsorption of Na and aldosterone secretion
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II blockers are often used to...why? control blood pressure...you can't get angiotensin II (no vasoconstriction) and no aldosterone (no na reabsorption to regulate volume)
what would a diet low in na do to blood levels of: renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, II, aldosterone ^, activate/convert, ^ but not for long bec you convert it, ^, ^ secretion
what would a diet high in na do to blood levels of: renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, II, aldosterone? dec, not converted, no conversion, dec, no secretion
the response of the atria is to an increase in... . How does increasing Na+ excretion via ANP reduce blood volume? blood volume (& thus presure), ^ Na+ excretion (bec of ANP inhibiting its reabsorption) means less blood volume bec it isn't reabsorbed
h20 excreted = h20 filtered - h20 reabsorbed
glomerular filtration of H20 can either...which means you can modify blood preassure of glomerular capillary increase or decrease gfr
^ PGC > ....dec PGC > ^ GFR > ^ h20 excretion...dec GFR > dec h20 excretion
tubular reabsorption is...and the effect of Na+ movement is... most important mechanism for h20 regulation in the plasma...h20 follows Na
factors that affect na reabsorption will also affect h20 reabsorption
collecting ducts are a form of...include...which is produced in the... tubular reabsorption...vasopressin...hypothalamus
vasopressin increases h20 reabsorption - not na
modification of h20 filtration include baroreceptors in the carotid, aortic, lg veins and atria
^ plasma volume > ^ blood pressure > ^ baroreceptor firing > dec symp output > vasodilation of afferent arteriole > ^ GFR
^ gfr means you filter more fluid out of the blood
dec plasma vol > dec blood pressure > dec firing > ^ symp output > vasoconstriction of afferent arteroile > dec gfr
dec gfr means you filter less fluid out of the lbood
^ pressure > ^ baroreceptor firing > ^/dec in vasopressin? dec vasopressin secretion from posterior pituitary
dec vasopressin > ^ h20 excretion (dec reab)
baroreceptor firing is ...to... inhibitory..posterior pituitary
dec pressure > dec firing > ^ vasopressin secretion from posterior pituitary
^ vasopressin secretion from post. pituitary > dec h20 excretion (^ reab)
osmoreceptors are in the...and are hypthalamus...sensory cells that detect osmolarity of plasma
osmoreceptors modify...w/o modifying... h20...na
osmoreceptors detect changes in...so if you intake pure water > osmolarity of fluids...dec osmolarity
dec plasma osmolarity (hypoosmotic) > dec vasopressin secretion from posterior pituitary > ^ h20 excretion (dec reab)
^ plasma osmolarity (hyperoosmotic) > ^ vasopressin secretion from posterior pituitary > dec h20 excretion (^ reab)
hormone control of h20 and h20 excretion is via vasopressin
vasopressin is produced by the...and released from the.. hypothalamus..post pit
vasopressin impacts...by increasing... cortical and medullary collecting ducts...number of aquaporins > ^ h20 reabsorption
vasopressin release is stimulated by....and is inhbited by... low blood pressure(baroreceptors)...low plasma osmolarity (hypothalamus osmoreceptors)
vasopressin is disrupted by...which is... diabetes insipidus...water diuresis
water diuresis is a large volume of... urine bec you filter a lot of water that you can't reabsorb
diabetes insipidus means there is a lack of vasopressin effect
central diabetes insipidus > no vasopressin production
nephrogenic diabetes insipids > kidney vasopressin receptors are non-functional: no detection of vasopressin
how does altering na+ reabsorption or excretion alter water reabsorption or excretion? water follows na
how is plasma osmolarity regulated vasopressin
what would the body's response be to a plasma osmolarity greater than 300 mOsm?..less than 300? secrete vasopressin...no vasopressin
what hormones would be involved in regulation of excretion if plasma volume is low...and if plasma osmolarity is high?... vasopressin and aldosterone...vasopressin
what regions of a nephron and its associated collecting ducts would you expect to be affected by a diruetic drug? medullary collecting ducts and descending limb
diruetic drugs increase...which blocks...and thus blocks... urine production...insertion of aquaporins...h20 reabsorption
sweating means there is a loss of hypoosmotic salt solution
while sweating you dec..and increase... plasma volume...osmolarity
sweating triggers reabsorbing na and h20 in kidney
thirst and salt appetite: stimulation of thirst by the...or by the... baroreceptors (dec plasma vol > ^ thirst)...osmoreceptors (^ plasma osmolarity > ^ thisrt)
angiotensin II > ^ thirst
other signals for thirst dry mouth and gi tract monitoring
salt appetite: we like salt so we have an...appetie hedonistic
we also crave salt because of a... physiologic deficit (regulatory appetite)
K balance: amt excreted = amt ingested - amt in feces - amt in sweat
the renal system removes (K) what is left after defecation and sweating
amt of k excreted = amt filtered -amt reabsorbed + amt secreted
tubular reabsorption of K happens in the...and is most or not much reabsorbed? prox. tubuler and ascending loop of henle...most
tubular secretion is the...and happens in the... major manipulatory aspect of K...cortical collecting duct
hyperkalemia is..and stimulates... excess K...aldosterone
hypokalemia is low k
modification of k secretion happens in the cortical collecting duct
the cortical collecting duct does...via.. active transport...na/k atpase pump
in the cortical collecting duct, K moves in...so that increases... opposite direction of Na+...[k+] inside cell
other tubules lack K channels in the luminal membrane
modification of K secretion involves sensory mechanisms and activation
^ K+ > ^ basolateral membrane Na/K atpase pump activity > ^ K+ secretion
hormone control of K involves aldosterone
aldosterone ^ k which directly stimulates adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
aldosterone also ^ na+ reabsorption > ^K+ secretion
Created by: handrzej