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DSMS Heredity & DNA

Genetics, Heredity, and DNA

Mendel the father of genetics.
Watson & Crick discovered the shape of DNA.
trait a characteristic that is determined by genes.
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring.
dominant trait a trait that is observed in the offspring when parents that have different traits are bred.
recessive trait a trait that reappears in the second generation after disappearing in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred.
gene part of the DNA that is used to make a protien.
allele different versions of a gene.
phenotype an organism's inherited physical appearance
genotype an organism's inherited combination of genes.
probability the mathematical chance that an event will occur
variation differences amongst organisms
DNA a molecule that determines the traits a living thing inherits and needs to survive
RNA a copy of DNA used to make proteins
ribosomes an organelle that makes proteins
nucleus the organelle that stores and protects DNA
nucleotide a subunit of DNA made of a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
double helix the geometric shape of DNA
chromosome coiled structure of DNA and protein
protein a molecule used to build and repair cells and regulate chemical reactions in living things
mutation a change in the order of the nucleotides in DNA
mutagen anything that can cause a mutation
meiosis cell division that results in cells with half the original number of chromosomes
Punnett Square a tool used to predict the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a mating pair
genetic engineering the process of putting the genes from one organism into the DNA of another organism
codon three nucleotides in RNA that are read as a single unit
incomplete dominance inheritance pattern where heterozygous genotypes have a mixed pheotype
codominance inheritance pattern where heterozygous genotypes have two dominant phenotypes appear
Created by: csimpson