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Physio Ch. 14 A

renal functions include the regulation of...excretion of...synthesis of...and it involves the... internal fluids...metabolic wastes and foreign glucose...endocrine gland
regulating the internal fluid involves the volume of fluids and concentration of ions
excretion of metabolic wastes includes...from...and...from... urea and creatinine..muscle creatine...urobilin..breakdown of non-iron heme (old RBC)
excretion of foreign materials include things like drugs
synthesis of new glucose is called gluconeogenesis
endocrine gland secretes erythropoietin, renin and vitamin D
renal system includes kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
kidneys are...include...function to... paired and retroperitoneal...nephrons...urine production
ureters do...and are.. urine transport..retroperitoneal
urinary bladder does urine storage
urethra does urine transport
kidney structure renal capsule, renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis
the renal medulla contains the renal pyramids
nephrons and closely associated blood vessels include renal corpuscle, tubules, cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons
renal corpuscle includes two things bowman's capsule and glomerulus
3 types of tubules proximal, loop of henle, distal convulted
proximal tubule leads off of...and has two parts... glomerular capsule...convoluted and straight
loop of henle is also called the...and has two parts.. nephron loop...descending and ascending limbs
distal convoluted tubule goes to the collecting ducts
the cortical nephrons are the...going to... efferent artiole > peritubular capillary network
juxtamedullary nephrons go efferent artieroles > vasa recta
collecting ducts go to the...and include... minor and major calices...cortical and medullary collecting ducts
the glomerulus goes to... bowmna's space in bowman's capsule (both of these are in the renal corpuscle)
bowman's space goes to...then to... proximal convoluted tubules...proximal straight tubule
proximal straight tubule goes to...then to..then make up the.. descending limb of loop of henle...thin segment of ascending limb of loop of henle...thick segment of ascending limb of loop of henle...loop of henle
thick segment of ascending limb of loop of henle goes to... distal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule goes to..then make up the... cortical collecting duct...medullary collecting duct...collecting duct system
medullary collecting duct goes to the renal pelvis
renal corpuscle includes the...which then has the...going away from... afferent arteriole...glomerulus...efferent arteriole...glomerulus
efferent arterial in the renal corpuscle is either the vasa recta branch of the peritubular cap. network
nephron tubules include efferent artiole, peritubular capillary network and vasa recta
the peritubular capillary network includes the cortical nephrons in the cortex
vasa recta includes the juxtamedullary nephrons
renal corpuscle includes the bowman's capule and glomerulus
bowman's capsule has three parts parietal layer(outside), bowman's space, and visceral layer (inside)
visceral layer of bowman's capsule includes the podocytes (feet that interdigit and form filtration slits) and basement membrane
glomerulus structure endothelium (fenestrated capillaries) and basement membrane
fenestrated capillaries are intercellular clefts for filtration of material
nephron tubule structure simple epithelium and basement membrane
proximal tubule includes proximal convoluted next to glomerular capsule and proximal straight leading to the loop of henle
loop of henle includes the descending limb and ascendingn limb
the ascending limb leads into the distal convoluted tubule
juxtaglomerular apparatus includes the macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells
macula densa is responsible for na content in filtrate
macula densa is the junction of ascending loop of henle and distal convoluted tubule
juxtaglomerular cells include the...and produces... afferent arteriole ...renin to modify Na
mesangial cells are not part of...but are in the same area juxtaglomerular apparatus
mesangial cells are...that surround... smooth muscle cells(modified)...loops of glomerular capillary
mesangial cells regulate blood flow
mesangial cells reduce surface area of capillary to dec filtration
urine formation happens through 3 steps glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
glomerular filtration occurs in renal corpuscle
glomerular filtrat = product but it is not urine yet
tubular reabsorption happens along the entire length of nephron - past the corpuscle to collecting ducts
tubular reabsorption happens in the proximal tubule, loop of henle and distal convoluted tubule
tubular reabsorption involves moving materials order to... filtrate to blood..retain good material
tubular secretion is into the...and involves the... urine...distal convoluted tubule
tubular secretion involves materials moved order to... blood to filtrate...remove unwated material
the amount excreted = amnt filtered + amt secreted - amoutn reabsorbed
the amounts vary with physiological control
amt excreted = amt filtered + amt secreted - amt reabsorbed: glomerular filtration & some tubular secretion excretion > filtration
glomerular filtration and some tubular reabsorption excretion < filtration
glomerular filtration and total tubular reabsorption excretion< filtration (glucose)
filtrate components water and small dissolved substances
filtrate does not consist of cellular components or large plasma proteins/substances that are transported bound to plasma proteins
filtration process happens through bulk flow - net filtration
net filtration involves hydrostatic pressure (P) and osmotic force(pi)
hydrostatic pressure is the...vs... blood hydrostatic pressure of capillary...bowman's space hydrostatic pressure
hydrostatic pressure - what is greater than what Pgc (out) > Pbs(in)
net movement w/ hydrostatic pressure is out of blood to bowman's space
osmotic force (pi) is the protein concentration of glomerular capillary (no proteins in bowman's space)
piGC goes...which draws... in..water in
net movement of Pi is in
net glomerular filtration pressure = Pgc - Pbs - PIgc or Pgc - (Pbs + PIgc)
filtration means you should always...and not... filter...reabsorb in the glomerulus
glomerular filtrate rate is measured as volume per unit time
a 70 kg person - 180 L/24 hours or 7.5 L/hr
how many L of plasma is filtered how many times per get rid of... 3 L - 60 x per day..potential toxins
factors affecting glomerular filtration rate mesangial cells and afferent/efferent arteriole pressure
mesangial cells contraction results in dec surface area to glomerular capillaries (less ability to filter out)
if you vasoconstrict afferent/efferent arterioles then you ^ resistance, dec flow into glomerular, dec filtration
afferent and efferent arteriole pressure involves the equation...and also... f=change in pressure/r...NE transmitter and alpha-adrenergic receptors
NE does either vasoconstriction or vasodilation
vasoconstriction ^...which ^...which^...which ^..which dec... symp activity..NE...vasoconstriction...resistance...flow
vasodilation dec...dec..dec..dec..^ symp activity...NE...vasodilation...resistance..flow
effects of altering afferent arteriole diameter vasoconstriction > ^ resistance > dec flow > dec filtration rate
vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole means pressure dissipates in overcoming resistance
vasodilating the afferent arteriole > dec resistance > ^ flow > ^ filtration rate
effects of altering efferent artiole are opposite of afferent arteriole
vasoconstricting efferent arteriole...which essentially... ^ resistance > dec flow > ^ filtration rate ...backs up blood
vasodilating efferent arteriole > ..which essentially means dec resistance > ^ flow > dec filtration rate...blood flows through quickly
filtered load is the amount of non-protein or non-protein bound substance (bec they can't be filtered)filtered per day
filtered load = glomerular filtration rate x plasma concentration of the substance
net tubular reabsorption or net secretion is the amount in urine v filtered load
filtered does not equal excretion
possibilities for net tubular reabsorption or net secretion filtered = excretion (don't reabosrb or secret), filtered < excretion (secretion), filtered > excretion (reabsorption)
why do we reabsorb? bec we way over-filter in glomerular filtration - we want to return good material to the blood
mechanisms of reabsorption directions from tubule lumen to interstitial fluid or from interstitial fluid to capillary
from tubule lumen to interstitial fluid the stuff can be reabsorbed through either diffusion or mediated transport
diffusion from tubule means that you pass between cells (concentration gradients)
mediated transport is...through the... active transprot...transcellular pathway
going from interstitial fluid to capillary can happen through either diffusion or bulk flow
reabsorption by diffusion follows concentration gradient
reabsorption by mediated transport is often secondary active transport
secondary active transport sets up Na gradient using the pump
secondary active transport means that the second compound follows na movment (like w/ glucose)
transport maximum is abbreviated as...and it means there is a limit to... Tmax...rate of transport
limiting the rate of transport involves # of transporters, turn-over rate of transporters
if filtered load > tmax then... substance present in urine
filtered load > tmax then substance present in urine results in...and involves... glucosuria (plasma [glucose] > 180 mg/dl)...water soluble vitamins like vitamin C, B complex
regulation of transporters includes hormones, paracrine an autocrine chemicals
tubular secretion is into the...tubular reabsorption is into the... filtrate...blood stream
tubular secretion removes...from.. unwated material...peritubular capillary to tubule lumen
tubular secretion increases...and includes... the amount removed by glumerular filtration ...H+, K+, creatinine and drugs
mechanisms of secretion include going from...and to... capillary (or interstitial fluid) to interstitial fluid (tubule lumen)
secretion from capillary to interstitial fluid is done through diffusion and bulk flow
secretion from interstitial fluid to tubule lumen happens through diffusion into the tubule or mediated transport
diffusion into the tubule means that the substance passes between the cells
mediated transport involves...throught the... active transport...transcellular pathway
secretion by diffusion follows concentration gradient
secretion by mediated transport is often...and it involves...and it does... 2ndary active transport...transport maximum ...transporters
2ndary active transport sets up...and the second compound... na+ gradient...follows na+ movement
transport maximum is abbreviated...and itmeans there is a limit to Tmax...rate of transport (# of transporters and turn-over rate of transporters)
regulation of transporters via hormones and paracrin/autocrine chemicals
other functions of the tubules(kidneys) include metabolic action - anabolism and catabolism
anabolism involves...and catabolism involves gluconeogensis...cellular breakdown of organics and some peptides
the peptides weren't broken down by the intestines or processed by the liver
renal clearance is the v olume of plasma you removed a solute from
clerance of s = mass s excreted per time/plasma [s]
CS (US * V)/PS
cs = clearance of S
US = urine concentration of S
V = urine volume per unit time
PS= plasma concentration of S
(US*V) = total amount in the urine
example of clearance: CS = 5L/hr means the substance is removed from 5 L of plasma in 1 hour
clearance tells you how well the glomerulus and bowman's space is working
inulin clearance is perfect for...because... measuring is filtered but not reabsorbed or secreted
inulin is a..which means you get it in the body... polysaccharide not normally found in the body...intravenously
inulin clearance = ...thus it can be used to... GFR...montior GFR
P[IN] = 4 mg/L, U(IN) = 300 mg/L, V = .1 L/hr, C(IN) =? (300 * .1)/4 = 30/4 = 7.5L/hr
if the clearance is less than 7.5L/hr then the kidneys aren't working properly
other compounds besides inulin are either reabsorbed or secreted
clearance does not = GFR
howwould you get clearance < GFR?...such as with... reabsorbing...calcium
how would you get clearance > GFR?...which is seen with... more secretion...creatine from skeletal muscle (slight increase over GFR)
clinically, creatinine is used to determine..because... is only slightly > than GFR
how would you get clearance = seen with.. completely reabsorb....glucose
urination involves the urinary bladder and urethra
the urinary bladder is controlled by what 3 things detrusor muscle, internal and external urethral sphincter
the detrusor muscle in the normal state is...and it includes...that do what... relaxed(so it can fill and stretch with urine)...stretch receptors...tell brain the amt of stretch
internal and external urethral sphincter in the normal state are contracted/closed
neural innervation or control of the detrusor muscle parasymp
neural control of internal urethral sphincter sympathetic stimulation
neural control of external urethral sphincter somatic motor stimuatlion (voluntary)
micturation involves the...which involves stimulation of..and inhibition of... stretch reflex...detrusor...internal and external urethral sphincters
voluntary control means you can prevent and promote micturition
prevent micturition through stimulation of internal and external urethral sphincters
promote micturition through inhibition of internal and external sphincters
Created by: handrzej



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