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CellularReprod.9

Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction (Biology)

QuestionAnswer
Process in which a membrane allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out. Selective permeability
Cells grow until they reach their ___, then they either stop growing or divide. Size limit
The ratio of surface area to volume ___ as the cell gets bigger. Decreases
In order for the cytoskeleton to be an efficient transportation method, the ___ substances must travel within a cell must be limited Distances
The ___ controls the movement of substances because it is selectively permeable. Plasma membrane
Cells often remain small to maximize the ability of ___ and motor proteins to transport nutrients and waste products. Diffusion
The cell cycle involves ___ stages. 3
The need for ___ proteins to move through the cell also limits cell's overall size in order to be able to communicate properly Signaling
Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing called ___ Cell cycle
Stage during which the cell grows, carries out cellular functions and replicates it's DNA Interphase
Stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus and nuclear material divide Mitosis
Method which a cell's cytoplasm divides, creating a new cell Cytokinesis
For most normal, actively dividing animal cells, the cell cycle takes approximately ___ hours 12-24
Relaxed material that condenses to form chromosomes during cell division Chromatin
From the Greek words meaning "hollow vessel" and "putting in motion" Cytokinesis
The cell spends most of the cell cycle in ___ Interphase
Period immediately after a cell divides in which it's growing, carrying out normal functioning and preparing to replicate DNA G1 phase
Structures that contain the genetic material passed from one generation to the next Chromosomes
The period when the cell prepares for the division of it's nucleus after DNA has been replicated. G2 phase
Period in which a new copy of DNA has been synthesized Synthesis phase
Cytokinesis results in two cells, daughter cells, with ___ nuclei Identical
Prokaryotic cells can reproduce in a manner very similar to mitosis, known as ___ Binary fission
Sequence of growth and development stages that an organism goes through during it's lifetime Life cycle
Chromsomes in ___ are actually sister chromatids that are attached at the centromere Prophase
During ___, the nuclear envelope disintegrates and the chromosomes begin to condence Prophase
During ___, chromosomes attach to spindle apparatus and align along the equator of the cell Metaphase
During ____, microtubules shorten and move chromosomes to opposite poles Anaphase
During ____, chromosomes reach the poles, nuclear envelope reforms and the chromosomes decondense Telophase
In plant cells, a ___ forms during cytokinesis Cell plate
In animal cells, a ___ forms during cytokinesis Cleavage furrow
Structures that contain identical copies of DNA Sister chromatids
Protein complex that attaches one sister chromatid to another in the form of a chromosome (X-shaped structure) Centromere
In animal cells, the ___ is made of spindle fibers, centrioles and aster fibers Spindle apparatus
The arrangement of the chromosomes along the metaphase plate ensure that each daughter cells receives a(n)... Complete set of DNA
One of the shortest stages of mitosis, but when completed successfully, ensure that new cells have accurate copies of chromosomes Metaphase
At the end of telophase, the spindle apparatus disassembles and some of the microtubules are recycled by the cell to build various parts of the ___ Cytoskeleton
Subunit that makes up DNA and RNA molecules Nucleotide
The normal cell cycle is regulated by ___ Cyclin proteins
___ molecules made of a cyclin bound to a CDK kick off the cell cycle and drive it through mitosis Signaling
___ monitor the cell cycle for errors and can stop the cycle if an error occurs Checkpoints
CDK... Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
Different ___ combinations control various activities that take place in the cell cycle Cyclin/CDK
If left unchecked, a(n) ___ can grow to the point where it can kill it's host organism Cancerous tumor
The ___ monitors for DNA damage and can stop the cycle before entering the S stage of interphase if problems are detected G1 checkpoint
Checks for the failure of spindle fibers and if present, can stop the cycle before cytokinesis Spindle checkpoints
Uncontrolled growth and division of cells, a failure in regulation Cancer
Substances and agents that are known to cause cancer Carcinogens
Often times, a ___ change or damage that occurs is repaired by various systems and never gets the chance to cause a problem for the cell/body Genetic
Passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring Inheritance
Government agency that works to make sure that the things you consume are safe Food and Drug Administration
___ help protect people from exposure to cancer-causing chemicals such as asbestos Industrial laws
Some ___, such as ultraviolet from the sun, is impossible to avoid completely but precautions can still be taken Radiation
Some forms of radiation, such as ___, are used for medical purposes and over-exposure is avoided by heavy lead aprons, etc X-rays
To have reached full natural growth or development Mature
Programmed cell death Apoptosis
Cells that are not locked into becoming one particular type of cell and could very well be the key to curing many medical conditions and genetic defects Stem cells
Mass of cells which repeatedly divide just after fertilization... Embryonic stem cells
Found in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissue in which they are found Adult stem cells
Embryonic stem cell research is controversial because of ethical concerns about the ___ of the cells Source
Adult stem cell research is not as controversial as ESCs because they can be obtained with the ___ of their donors Consent
As a cell's volume increases, the proportional amount of surface area (that which is present to transfer molecules, etc) Decreases
Created by: SavannahElkins