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Midterm 3

Memory

QuestionAnswer
Memory is the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. Memory
When information is acquired and processed into neural code (just as information is entered with a keyboard)? Encoding
The retention of encoded information over time? Storage
The process of getting information out of memory storage? Retrieval
What does the “Modal Model of Memory” consist of? Sensory ----> working---->Long term Attending Encoding
Very brief memory of most recent sensory experience? Sensory Memory
There are two types of Iconic Memory what are they and what they mean? Iconic memory, allows pictures to last 1/3 of a second, increasing processing time. Static “mask” causes pictures to last only 1/10 of a second, decreasing processing time.
What are two types of sensory Memory? Iconic memory and Echoic Memory. Both fade very quickly.
Keeping information consciously available for current use. Working Memory
How long does Working memory Last? Last 20-30 seconds, but can last longer with rehearsal, and can only work with 7(+/-2) Units of information at once.
Chunking is a term used in what type of memory processing? Working Memory
What are two types of Rehearsals? Visual-spatial sketchpad - visualize information to rehearse it Phonological Loop - Auditorily repeat it over and over to rehearse it.
Going from working memory to long term memory and that success is not only determined by amount of rehearsal. and also depends on amount of importance and meaning given to information. Encoding
Rehearsal is not equal to? Storage without attention.
Recency Effect Last words on list, Why? still being rehearsed in working memory.
Primacy effect First words on list, Why? first items receive the most attention.
False Memory Other words activated the "memory of this word" for example "sweet" candy, cake...
Why is it hard to remember words that are in the middle? because they don't receive attention or rehearsal.
Von Restorff Effect We remember what surprises us, because it draws our attention. Example : Madonna.
Any tactic used to help store new information into long term memory. Mnemonic (most often works by adding meaning) Also increases storage
What are two types of Retrieval? Recognition Recall
What type of retrieval is when do you remember this and comes with memory cues (multiple choice). Recognition (process of elimination)
What type of retrieval is when what do you remember? and doesn't come with memory cues ( written response. Recall
What Gives your blood its red Color? Hemoglobin
What is the capital of North Carolina? Releigh
What are Two types of long-term memory? Declarative/Explicit Non-declarative/implicit
What are two types of Declarative/Explicit Sematic Memory Episodic Memory
What is the type of long term memory that can be stated in words? Declarative/Explicit
What type of Declarative/Explicit is when facts: often cannot remember when or how it was learned? Semantic Memories
What type of declarative/explicit is when memories of ones' life? Episodic Memories
What is the type of long-term memory when its difficult to state in words or learned actions or skills like driving, typing on a keyboard, talking... Non-declarative/implicit
In the case of H.M what type of memories he couldn't form? New Declarative Memories ( either Episodic or sematics)Note: that he could form new non-declarative memories
What did H.M show us what part of the brain involves Long term memory? Or Encoding and storage of declarative LTM the Hippocampal Regions(for non-declarative LTM) doesn't involve this region.
Where do we store non-declarative LTM? Cerebellum and Amygdala
What happen when Group A had Intact hippocampus, and destroyed amygdala? Recalled order of stimuli, but never showed signs of classical conditioning.
Group B: intact amygdala, destroyed hippocampus? Never remembered previous trials, but showed signs of classical conditioning (wincing to light, even in absence of sound)
What type of memory is when it usually stored and recalled as stores, with a clearly defined beginning, middle and ending. Episodic Memories.
Inability to recognize or recall information? Forgetting
What are some factors that cause the memory systems to fail? Encoding Storage (LTM) Retrieval
Encoding doesn't occur unless information is given? Attention & Meaning
What are some ways you can improve encoding? Paying close attention and adding meaning. If it all fails: rehearse all the time
What is it call when all memories eventually decay if not rehearsed, even if they were well encoded? it is call storage decay.
What is it call when learning similar bits of information makes it hard to know what to retrieve? Interference (Leaning Spanish and Japanese at the same times can make it difficult to remember either one)
Learning something new makes it harder to retrieve older information? Retroactive Interference
Older information makes it harder to learn new information? Proactive interference
When you get good sleep it protect Long term memory form? Retroactive interference
What are some ways to Improve Memory? -Maximize Encoding (interest,apply to life,Rehearse visually and auditorily, not sleepy) -Minimize Decay (rehearse regularly) -Minimize Interference (don't study related ares back to back)
What is the age before the areas of long term memory is constructed? age 4
False memories are more likely be created if? -the event is plausible -there seems to be evidence of the event -the individual vividly imagines the event -the event is suggested by someone who is a professional or trusted source.
What sort of processing does iconic memory intails? Imaging
What sort of processing does Echoic Memory intailes? Auditory information
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units: often occurs automatically. Chunking
Retention independent of conscious recollection Non-declarative/implicit momory
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare Declarative/explicit memory
Created by: jdolores11