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Physio Ch. 13

the lungs include the...and is the organ for alveoli and capillaries...gas exchange (functional organ)
alveoli is made of simple squamous epithelium and basement membrane
capillaries are made of endothelium and basement membrane
o2 and co2 only have to diffuse through 2 thin layers of cells into/out of body
airways include...and they seperate at the upper and lower airways...esophagus and epiglottis
upper airway is for food and air
lower airway is for air only
respiratory or bronchial tree includes two zones conduction and respiratory
conduction zone moves air in and out - no gas exchange between lungs and blood
repsiratory zone is where gas exchange happens and this is where o2 can now diffuse into capillaries and co2 can diffuse out
the lungs monitor...defend agaisnt... and facilitate...and also assist with blood pH...microbes (cilia escalator)....cheical messengers...movement/dissolve of clots
alveoli can either be type I or type II
type I alveoli cells do exchange
type II alveoli produce...which helps... fluid surfactant..reduce water tension (need lining of lungs moist for exchange but this cuases alveoli collapsing and sticking together)
alveoli have...that do... from inhaled pathogens
alveoli are the..of the lungs functional units
capillaries pick up 02 and transport it
the conduction zone includes the respiratory escalator (mucus production and cilia) through the respiratory bronchioles
respiratory escalator uses mucus and ciliated epithelium
respiratory zone is where external gas exchange occurs
additional functions of the conduction zone include low resistance pathway for air flow, moisten/warm air (turbinate bones in nose), phonation/vocal cords
the chest wall is also called...and includes.. chest wall...vertebrae, ribs, sternum, muscles and CT
the lungs and thorax include chest wall, diaphragm, and pleural sac
the pleural sac includes 3 things visceral pleura, parietal pleura, pleural cavity
the visceral pleura is on the lungs
the parietal pleura sits against the chest wall and diaphragm
the pleural cavity is the space between...and contains... visceral and parietal pleura...intrapleural fluid(very thin)
steps of respiration include ventilation, external gas exchange, bulk flow transport, internal gas exchange, bulk flow transport
external gas exchange is between lungs and blood
initial bulk flow transport is through pulmonary veins and systemic arteries
internal gas exchange involves the... blood and systemic tissues
internal gas exchange does cellular respiration
second bulk flow transport invovles systemic veins and pulmonary arteries
ventilation includes the resp. cycle, breathing, inhalation (pressure gradients), exhalation, inspiration/expiration
components of bulk flow air flow, gas pressure and resistance
air flow is symbolized as...and is measured in... F...L/min
gas pressure is symbolized as...and is measured in... Hg
gas pressure is the change in... pressure between alveoli (alv) and atmosphere (atm)
equation for gas pressure delta P = Palv - Patm
Patm = 0
Palv =..when there is... air movement
Palv <...during Patm...inspiration
Palv >...during Patm..expiration
resistance is symbolized as...and is measured as... Hg/mL/min
R is inversely proportional to airway radius (smooth mucscles bronchoconstrict/dilate)
R is directly proportional to airway length
the most changeable factor for resistance is airway radius
equation for flow was...and now is... f = delta P/R...F = (Palv-Patm)/R
lung vol vs. alveolar pressure introduces boyles law (P1)(V1)=(P2)(V2)
if you ^ lung vol > dec alveolar pressure
reducing Palv > inspiration
dec lung vol > ^ alveolar pressure which leads to expiration
ventilation pressure involves the primary pressure values at rest (atmospheric, alveolar, intrapleural, transmural pressures)
atmospheric pressure: 1 atm =...which is set to... 760 mm Hg...0 (no movement)
alveolar pressure (Palv) at rest w/ no air exchange is Palv = Patm = 0 mm Hg
intrapleural pressure (Pip) = -4 mm Hg
why is intrapleural pressure negative? to keep the space open
transmural pressures include transpulmonary pressure, chest wall pressure, respiratory system pressure
transmural means across a wall (pressure inside v. pressure outside)
transpulmonary pressure is symbolized as... and is measured across the Ptp...lung
Ptp = ...and is the pressure that holds... Palv - Pip (0-(-x)) = + ...lungs open, opposing recoil
chest wall pressure is symbolized as...and is the pressure between... Pcw...outside body and intrapleural space
Pcw =...and it is the pressure that holds... Pip - Patm...chest wall in and opposing recoil
respiratory system pressure is symbolized as...and is the... Prs...driving force for air flow
Prs = Palv - Patm
the most important ventilation pressure is the respiratory system pressure
transpulmonary pressure at rest (Ptp = Palv - Pip) = 0 - (-4) = 4 mm Hg to pull lung outward and oppose recoil
chest wall pressure at rest (Pcw = Pip - Patm) = -4 - 0 = -4 mm Hg to pull chest inward
respiratory system pressure at rest (Prs = Palv - Patm) = 0-0 = 0 mm Hg - balanced so no movement of air
respiratory system pressure is balanced at end of exhale and start of inhale
elastic recoil of lungs opposses stretch or distortion
lungs recoil in what oppose... inward...lung over-expansion
lungs are held open prevent... Ptp (which = Palv- Pip)...collapse
chest wall recoils in what direction...and this promotes... outward...lung expansion
chest wall is held in by...which prevents... Pcw (which = Pip - Patm)...excessive expansion
importance of an intact intrapleural cavity includes the transpulmonary pressure - negative pressure opposes both inward and outward recoil
if the intraplaural cavity is not maintained closed, then...occurs because... pneumothorax...there is a balance in pressure between the intrapleural cavity and the atmospher
losing pressure in the intrapleural cavity means there is nothing to oppose recoil and it makes it difficult to re-inflate
opening into the intrapleural cavity resulting in pneumothorax happens bec of stab/gunshot wound or high air pressure that ruptures the lung tissue
if air enters the intrapleural cavity during pneumothorax then the Ptp goes to...thereis no...and the lung can... 0 atm...opposition to lung elastic recoil...collapse
during inspiration the thorax volume...which leads to... ^...dec Pip (gets more negative)
the thorax volume increases during inspiration by contacting the diaphragm vai phrenic nerve and contact inspiratory intercostal muscles (both of which ^ intrapleural space)
inspiration results also in an increase in transpulmonary pressure
an increase in transpulmonary pressure pulls...>...>... against elastic recoil of lungs...^ vol of lungs...dec Palv
inspiration results in a dec in respiratory system pressure ( - Palv - 0 Patm) = air goes in
decreasing respiratory system pressure demonstrates the pressure gradient from atmosphere to alveoli
how would a pheumothorax impact inhalation? can't change internal pressure
expiration decreases... thorax volume and transpulmonary pressure
decreasing thorax volume > ...and it relaxes... ^ PiP (doesn't oppose recoil as much)...the diaphragm and inspiratory intercostal muscles
decreaseing the transpulmonary pressure decreases.. elastic recoil of lungs > dec vol of lungs> ^ Palv
expiration increases respiratory system pressure
what is the effect of exercise on the inspiration-expiration cycle - particularly the chest wall and abdominal muscles? the chest wall will contract/expand more for deeper breaths and the abdominal muscles will increase action to push abdominal organs up for forceful exhalation
lung compliance is symbolized as...and the equation is... CL...CL = change in VL/change in Ptp
Change in Ptp = Palv - Pip
^ CL = easier to expand lungs (hard to recoil)
dec CL = more difficult to expand lungs
determing factors for lung compliance include lung tissue elasticity, surface tension
the surface tension of lungs is naturally...but... sticky..surfactant reduces surface tension
deep breathing stimulates...which.. type II alveolar cells...^ surfactant release
deep breathing stimulates type II alvolar cells and involves respiratory therapy for post-anesthesia and yawning
respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn happens in premature infants w/ underdeveloped type II alveolar cells
respiratory distress syndrom happens bec of a lack of surfactant - too difficult for them to breathe
airway resistance equation F = change in pressure/R....F = (Palv-Patm)/R
if you ^ tube length....if you ^ tube diameter... ^ resistance...dec resistance
factors that can modify airway diameter include transpulmonary pressure, lateral traction, symp system and inflammatory respones
transpulmonary pressure modifies airway diameter during inspiration by... increasing small airway diameter (due to ^ Ptp)
transpulmonary pressure modifies airway diameter during exhalantion by dec small airway diameter (due to dec Ptp)
lateral traction is the...and is done by... pulling from sides..CT anchoring airways to its surrounding alveolus
during inspiration, lateral traction causes ^ small airway diameter (due to alveolus enlarging)
during expiration, lateral traction causes dec small airway diameter (due to alveolus shrinking)
forceful expiration does what dec airway diameter more
sympathetic system modifies airway diameter through epinephrine and beta adrenergic receptors that relax the smooth muscle
inflammatory response modifies airway diameter by producing leukotrienes in the lungs that contract smooth muscles (bronchitis = inflammation - ^ mucus)
disease impacting airway resistance include asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disase
asthma causes airway chronic inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and bronchoconstriction via smooth muscles
bronchoconstrictiveness via smooth muscles in asthma can be cured through anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and block bronchoconstrictors
bronchodilators include epinephrine and epinephrine mimics
block bronchoconstrictors involve the...and they block.. parasymp...muscarinic cholinergic receptors
people with chornic obstructuve pulmonary disease are sometimes called blue bloaters
COPD increases...which results in... resistance...emphysema and chornic bronchitis
emphysema is the collapsing of small airways
chronic bronchitis is the accumulation of mucus
chronic bronchitis results in barrel chested bec of trouble exhaling so air gets trapped
increased resistance does what to alveoli breaks them down so airways don't have good elastic tissue
lung volumes include TV, IRV, ERV, RV
TV stands for...and it is the... tidal volume...normal inhalation volume
IRV stands for...and is the.. inspiratory reserve volume...amount of air you can forcefully inhale after TV
ERV stands for..and is... expiratory reserve volume...forceful exhale after passive exhale
RV stands for...and it is what... right ventricular volume...keeps the alveoli open
capacities include VC, IC, FRC, TLC
VC stands for...and = ... vital capacity...ERV+TV+IRV
VC is everything... you can exchange
IC stands for...and =... inspiratory capacity...TV+IRV
IC is how much you can inhale
FRC stands for...and = .... functional residual capacity...ERV+RV
FRC is the amount of gas in the lungs at... start of respiratory cycle(before inhalation)
TLC stands for...and =... total lung capacity...RV+ERV+TV+IRV
TLC can be summed up as vital capacity plus residual capacity
What changes with exercise? IRV decreases
pulmonary functions test involves max. breath and forced exhale (fast and forceful)
pulmonary functions test is the amount of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV) & pulmonary functions test
Pulmonary functions test can determine if someone has obstructive lung diseases or restrictive lung diseases
obstructive lung diseases would be things like...where there is a dec in... asthma and COPD...FEV/VC
in obstructive lung diseases what happens to the small airways they collapse during forceful exhale
obstructive lung diseases have good...but bad...and it does what to flow? compliance...recoil...obstructs it
restrictive lung diseases include...and they exhibit... fibrosis and muscular distrophy...normal FEV/VC
restrictive lung diseases restrict what...and have good or poor compliance expansion...poor
alveolar ventilation includes minute ventilation, anatomic dead space and alveolar ventilation
minute ventilation is abbreviated as...and the equation is...which means... VE...VE+ VT(f)...tidal volume(ml/breath) * resp. rate(breaths/min)
minute ventilation is equivilant to 500 mL*16 breaths/min
anatomic dead space is abbreviated...and is located in the VD...conducting zone
the anatomic dead space is equivilant to 150 mL
alveolar ventilation is abbreviated as..and the equation is...which means... VA...VA = (VT-VD) * f...[tidal volume(ml/breath)-dead space (ml/breath)] * resp. rate (breaths/min)
what can you do to change the alveolar ventilation? ^ TV vs. ^ resp rate or both
physiologic dead space is in the...and it =... lung tissue itself...alveolar dead space + anatomic dead space
what is happening in the physiologic dead space? nothing
alveolar dead space is usually...and the alveoli are... very small volume...inactive
physiologically inactive alveoli have low blood flow to the capillary around the alveoli
gas exchange happens either through bulk flow or diffusion
mechanism of transport for O2 & CO2 is done by bulk flow
mechanism of exchange for o2 and co2 is done by diffusion and concentration gradients
diffusion happens in two palces lungs(o2 to blood and co2 to alveoli) and other tissues (o2 to cells and co2 to blood)
partial pressure of gasses is the same thing as concentration gradients
partial pressure of gasses is the pressure exerted by an individual gas
PO2 is proportion to the [o2] (brackets = concentration gradient)
PO2 is the % of gas... in the air *atmoshperic pressure = Pgas
PO2: .21 * 760 mm Hg = 160 mm Hg at sea level
diffusion is driven by the gradients between the PO2 in the alveoli, the blood and the cells
factors affecting PO2 include atmospheric PO2, rate of alveolar ventilation, rate of O2 consumption by the body and alveolar PO2
atmospheric PO2 (think high altitude): if you dec atmospheric PO2 >... dec alveolar PO2
if you dec. rate of alveolar ventilation (BPM) > dec alveolar PO2
increasing the rate of O2 consumption by the body(moving into the blood) > ... dec alveolar PO2
alveolar PO2 = ...and is < or > than.. 105 mm Hg...less than atmospheric bec some O2 has diffused to blood
factors affecting PCO2 include atmospheric CO2, rate of alveolar ventilation, rate of O2 consumption by the body
atmospheric PCO2 has... no real effect since ATM PCO2 = 0
decreasing the rate of alveolar ventilation >... ^ alveolar PCO2
increasing rate of O2 consumption by the body >... ^ alveolar PCO2
PCO2 =...and is ... 40 mm Hg...greater in the lungs/alveoli than atmospheric bec some CO2 has diffused to alveoli
alveolar ventilation can be effected by hypoventilation or hyperventilation
hypoventilation means you aren't exhanging gas fast enough to deal with how much CO2 you're producing
during hypovent, CO2 production...which means what is greater than what? exceeds alveolar ventilation...metabolic production > alveolar ventilation
during hypovent what increases?...which means? alveolar PCO2...PCO2 > 40 mm Hg
hyperventilation is when CO2 production is less than alveolar ventilation (metbolic production < alveolar ventilation
what do you do during hypervent? blow off CO2
hyperventilation decreases alveolar PCO2 (PCO2 < 40 mm Hg)
good blood means you have...and is in the.. high O2 and low CO2...pulmonary veins and systemic arteries
alveolar - blood exchange diffuses to equilibrium of alveolar and blood PO2 & PCO2
in a healthy lung there is rapid diffusion of alveolar - blood exchange
in a diseased lung there is slower diffusion of alveolar - blood exchange
diseased lung could be things like pulmonary edema or pulmonary fibrosis
in pulmonary edema (heart failure) there is accumulation of fluids in the alveoli (dec lung space so the gases have to diffuse through more than just the two thin layers)
pulmonary fibrosis results in thickened alveolar CT (basement membrane) = harder to diffuse
ventilation perfusion matching is when air supply is balanced with blood supply to lungs
ventilation and perfusion are normal breathing:... perfectly distributed through the lungs...increased blood flow to the base of the lung compared to the apex
why is there more blood flow to the base of the lung compared to the apex? gravity and pulmonary blood pressure is so low that it doesn't keep the capillaries of the lung apex open
exercise it... increases blood flow to the apex of the lung...increases ventilation - perfusion matching and increases pulmonary blood pressure
ventilation-perfusion inequalities affects O2 exchange more than CO2 exchange
healthy individuals have the...because of... blood flow...base of the lung compared to the apex..gravity
in the healthy individual the pulmonary venous and systemic arterial PO2 is... lowered to 100 mm Hg instead of the expected 105 mm Hg with equilibrium
disease of ventilation-perfusion inequalities do what increase alveolar dead space so the alveoli don't work bec of low air flow, collapsed resp. bronchioles and edema
diseases that increase alveolar dead space result in shunts and ventilated alveoli w/ reduced blood flow
a shunt is decreased air flow to a section of alveoli w/ an adequate blood supply (edema)
ventilated alveoli w/ reduced blood flow means that...and is seen in... capillaries aren't working...interstitial fibrosis
responses to ventilation-perfusion inequalities include dec PO2 in pulmonary capillaries and dec PCO2 in alveoli
there is a dec PO2 in pulmonary capillaries due to...>... PO2 in their alveoli...vasoconstriction of the capillaries in that area of the lung
dec PO2 in pulmonary capillaries due to dec PO2 in their alveoli > vasoconstriction of the capillaries diverts blood to capillaries around functional alveoli
dec PCO2 in alveoli is due to...>... poor blood supply to alveoli (ventilated but no exchange)...bronchoconstriction of the airways
dec PCO2 in alveoli due to poor blood supply to alveoli > bronchoconstriction of the airways diverts air to alveoli with functional capillaries
blood-cell echange means net diffusion follows partial pressure gradients
PO2 is always lower in cells than in blood (higher in alvoeli)
PCO2 is always higher in cells than in blood (lower in alveoli)
blood O2 content is either dissolved in the plasma (1%) or bound to hemoglobin (99%)
dissolved O2 amount depends upon...and it is proportional to.. PO2 in blood..blood PO2
O2 binds to..which is a...and contains... hemoglobin...multimeric protein...4 globin molecules (each w/ 1 heme group w/ Fe2+)
each hemoglobin can carry 4 O2 molecules
if hemoglobin has O2 bound to it, it is called...and if it doesn't its called... oxyhemoglobin...deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2 <> Hb)
percent hemoglobin saturation is how well is the hemoglobin carrying oxygen vs. how well it could
percent hemoglobin saturation equation O2 bound to Hb/max O2 carrying-capacity
total amount of HbO2 is essentially... total O2
what helps determine HbO2? PO2 (but HbO2 does not determine blood PO2)
amount of Hb less Hb - less HbO2 - anemia
there is a constant gradient into.. blood until no more O2 can bind to hemoglobin
where is O2 hidden? in the RBC when it is bound to hemoglobin
O2-hemoglobin dissociation curve is how well hemoglobin will let go of O2 in systemic tissues
where is the plateau stage for the HbO2 dissociation curve?...and there is a change in...w/... PO2 70-100...PO2...small change in % saturation
90% saturated stage of the HbO2 dis. curve?...and there is lower... PO2 60...lower PO2 still 90% saturated
rapid dissociation occurs during...and happens at the... PO2 20-60...systemic capillaries
association happens at pulmonary capillaries
75% -100% Hb saturation > 40 mm Hg - 100 mm Hg
normal exchange range 25% O2 extracted from blood
range extended with exercise increased concentration gradients between cells and blood, and blood and alveoli
O2 from alveoli to blood: diffusion of O2 to blood > ^ blood PO2 > association of O2 and Hb > dec blood PO2 > more diffusion to blood > continue to 100% Hb saturation
O2 from alveoli to blood involves the PO2 gradient
alveolar PO2 = 105 mm Hg
pulmonary arterial blood PO2 = 40 mm Hg
pulmonary venous PO2 = 100 mm Hg
O2 transport from blood to tissue: diffusion of O2 to tissues > dec blood PO2 > dissociation of O2 from Hb> ^ blood PO2 > more diffusion to tissues > continue to 75% Hb saturation
O2 transport from blood to tissues involves the PO2 gradient
cell PO2 < 40 mm Hg
systemic arterial PO2 = 100 mm Hg
systemic venous PO2 = 40 mm Hg
carbon monoxide also binds to Hb at same site as O2
CO is...times the.. 210...the affinity for Hb as O2 (binds faster and easier)
Co occupies the...and reduces... O2 binding sites on Hb...amount of O2 transported by Hb
CO does not increase ventilation reflexes (none of the normal triggers happen - such as the ventilation reflex)
CO results in...which is different than... asphyciation (no O2 transported)...suffocation (can't ventilate)
asphyxiation turns people pink
other factors that affect O2 transport include 2,3 DPG, temp and acidity
2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG) is produced in...and it mimics the effects of... conditions of low O2...acidity
increasing [DPG]> ...and this causes the dissociation curve to shift to the..which means... dec Hb affinity for release O2 and ^ partial pressure
dec [DPG] > ...which causes the dissociation curve to...and it makes... ^ Hb affinity for O2...left...hemoglobin hang on to O2
^ temp > ...and this causes... dec Hb affinity for O2(O2 is released)...curve to shift to the right
^ temp occurs at the systemic capillaries
dec temp > ...and this causes... ^ Hb affinity for O2...curve to shift to the left
dec temp occurs at pulmonary capillaries
acidity involves H+ and CO2
^ acidity >...and causes... dec Hb affinity for O2...the curve to shift to the right
^ acidity occurs at systemic capillaries
dec acidity > ...and causes...and occurs at... ^ Hb affinity for O2...curve shifts to the left...pulmonary capillaries
there is a direct relationship between O2 and pH
the real workhorses that are constantly effecting O2 transport are temp and acidity
CO2 transport is either dissolved CO2 or bound CO2
dissolved CO2 amount depends upon PCO2 in blood
what percentage of CO2 is dissolved? 10 - in plasma
dissolved CO2 is proportional to blood PCO2
bound CO2 is bound to...and what percentage is bound? hemoglobin...30%
hemoglobin <->... = ... carbaminohemoglobin...Hb + CO2 > HbCO2
conversion of CO2 to...through the equation... bicarbonate...CO2 + H20 <-> H2CO3 <-> HCO3- + H+
how much CO2 is converted 60%
so, in review, CO2 does one of three things... it either dissolves, binds or is converted to bicarbonate
total blood CO2 means you must consider dissolved + bound + converted CO2
conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate occurs in RBC and can happen in plasma
what converts carbonic to bicarbonate? carbonic anahydrase - catalyst in RBCs for H2CO3 production
chloride shift is seen during exchange of Cl- for HCO3
Cl- stored in... plasma...RBC
during chloride shift, HCO3- is moved to...and is important bec it is... plasma...pH buffer
there is a ...shift at the.. reverse...alveoli
CO2 transport from systemic tissue to the blood: diffusion of CO2 to blood >... ^ blood PCO2 > diffusion of CO2 > diffusion CO2 to RBCs > dec blood PCO2 > more diffusion of CO2 to blood
diffusion of CO2 to blood > ^ blood PCO2 > diffusion of CO2 to RBCs > dec blood PCO2 > more diffusion of CO2 to blood involes the... PCO2 gradient
tissue PCO2 > 46 mm Hg
systemic arterial PCO2 = 40 mm Hg
systemic venous PCO2 = ...and this is where.. 46 mm Hg...equilibrium is met
which is the highest PCO2 gradient? tissue PCO2 bec this is where it is produced
CO2 transport from blood to alveoli: diffusion of CO2 to alveoli > dec blood PCO2 > release of CO2 from Hb > ^ blood PCO2 > more diffusion to alveoli
diffusion of CO2 to alveoli > dec blood PCO2 > release of CO2 from Hb > ^ blood PCO2 > more diffusion to alveoli involves the PCO2 gradient
alveolar PCO2 = 40 mm Hg
pulmonary arterial PCO2 = 46 mm Hg
pulmonary venous PCO2 = 40 mm Hg
H+ transport involves either dissolving H+ or binding H+
dissolved H+ undergoes what equation? CO2 + H20 <-> H2CO3 <-> HCO3- + H+
does a very small or very large amount of H+ get dissolveD? very small
bound H+ also goes through...and it can bind in the... the same equation as dissolved H+...systemic capillaries & veins and pulmonary arteries & capillaries
in the systemic capillaries and veins - deoxyhemoglobin <->... reduced hemoglobin...Hb + H+ <-> HHb
in the pulmonary arteries and capillaries goes reduced hemoglobin <-> deoxyhemoglobin (HHb <-> Hb + H+)
blood pH acceptable range 7.35+7.45
systemic arterial blood pH is 7.4
systemic venous blood pH is 7.36
why is venous blood slightly more acidic it carries more co2, but not not much more than arterial blood because of reduced Hb(HHb) that maintains blood pH
respiratory acidosis is also called...and it means acedemia...not getting rid of enough CO2
resp acidosis involves a build-up of...and arterial blood pH < ...and excess... H+...7.35...co2
excess co2 in resp. acidosis is caused by...and can lead to... hypoventilation (produce more co2 than you blow off)...lung disease (COPD)
respiratory alkalosis is also called...and is more..because...'ve gotten rid of too much co2
respiratory alkalosis involves a...of blood H+ and an arterial blood pH > ...and lastly... decrease...7.45...low co2 (hyperventilation)
osis = ...and emia = ... process...blood condition
during inspiration the...are... diaphragm and external intercostal muscles...voluntarily controlled by somatic motor system stimulation
somatic motor system stimulation involves...and is only... ACh neurotransmitter...excitatory(contract)
normal expiration is...and involves stopping... passive...somatic motor stimulation to diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
deep expiration happens with help from abdominal and internal intercostal muscles through somatic motor system stimulation (ACh neurot and excitatory only)
neural control of respiration involves medulla oblongata, pons, pulmonary stretch receptors
medulla oblongata does...and the specific part that controls respiration is the... basic life functions and regulations...medullary respiratory center
medulla oblongata has two groups dorsal respiratory (DRG) and ventral respiratory (VRG)
DRG gives...via... rhythmic stimulation to inspiratory skeletal muscles...spinal nerves
DRG responds to lung stretch receptors and arterial chemoreceptors
VRG has two components pre-botzinger complex and lower neurons of VRG
pre-botzinger complex is the..and has... respiratory rhythm generator..pacemaker cells and neural network
the pacemaker cells and neural network of the pre-botzinger complex set the basal resp. rate
lower neurons of VRG are the inspiratory and expiratory neurons
lower neurons of VRG responds stimulate DRG and pre-botzinger complex...inspiratory and expiratory muscles via spinal nerves
there is...between inspiratory and expiratory neurons reciprocal inhibition
medulla oblongata: medullary resp. center in summary includes DRP, VRP (upper pre-botzinger complex and lower active expiration)
pons helps fine regulate the medullary resp center
pons includes two parts apneustic center and pneumotaxic center
apneustic center does what...and... fine tuning actions of the medullary inspiratory neurons..inhibits medullary inspiratory neurons > expiration
pneumotaxic center regulates...and provides a... apneustic center...smooth transition between inspiration and expiration
pulmonary stretch receptors involve the hering breuer reflex
the hering breuer reflex is a...involving... neg feedback system...stretch receptors in airways
the hering breuer reflex inhibits (or?) stimulates... inhibits..medullary inspiratory neurons when receptors are triggered
the hering-breuer reflex functions only during deep breathing
inhibition of the medullary resp center involves barbituates and morphine
overdosing on barbituates and morphine leads to cessation of breathing
control of respiration can also happen through chemicals (peripheral and central)
chemical control involves...which are sensitive to peripheral chemoreceptors...o2, co2 and pH
peripheral chemoreceptors are in the same areas as the... baroreceptors (carotid bodies and aortic bodies)
the carotid bodies are innervated by the glossopharyngeal CN IX
aortic bodies are innervated by the vagus CN X
stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors > stimulates medullar inspiratory neurons > stimulates inspiration
peripheral chemoreceptors are stimulated by dec PO2, ^ H+ and ^ PCO2
dec PO2 is called...and is not very effective until... hypoxia...systemic arterial blood reaches PO2
hypoxia is activated by high altitude or lung disease COPD
^ H+ is called metabolic acidosis
metabolic acidosis: dec blood pH due to acid production via metabolism not CO2 production
metabolic acidosis: ^ blood pH due to dec H+ > reduce firing of peripheral chemoreceptors
^ PCO2 is called... respiratory acidosis
resp. acidosis can either be small ^ PCO2 > ^ stimulation to breath or small dec in PCO2 > dec stimulation to breath
central chemoreceptors are located in the medulla oblongata
stimulation of central chemoreceptors > stimulates medullary inspiratory neurons > stimulates inspiration
what stimulates central chemoreceptors ^ [H+]
in the BBB, H+ ..but CO2 does not cross the barrier...does
[H=] is proportional to CO2 diffusing into the CSF
central chemoreceptors are actually monitoring...and is responding it monitors... CSF...CO2..chemoreceptors respond to pH...pH in CSF but its PCO2 in blood that activates the cent. chemoreceptors
control of ventilation in exercise: does systemic arterial PCO2 increase? no it doesn't
why are we looking at systemic arterial PCO2 during exercise? monitoring this assesses how well your lungs are working
during exercise there is ^...and only ^ in.. cellular metabolism...systemic venous and pulmonary arterial PCO2
during exercise you blow... co2 off w/ expiration (hyperventilation)
blowing off so much CO2 during exercise causes no^ in systemic arterial PCO2
no ^ in systemic arterial PCO2's effect on peripheral chemoreceptors?...on central?... less firing
does systemic arterial PO2 decrease during exercise? no it doesn't
during exercise there is ^... cellular metabolism (only dec systemic veins and pulmonary arterial PO2)
during exercise you re-supply blood w/ inspiration so that the PO2 stays constant
during exercise there is no dec in systemic arterial PO2 - how does this effect central and peripheral chemoreceptors it doesn't
does systemic arterial [H+] increase during exercise? yes but not due to ^ PCO2...co2 is blown off in expiration
during exercise you ^...>... metabolism...^ lactic acid as a result of cellular activity
^ metabolism causes ^ [H+] > dec pH
^ metabolism increase.. peripheral chemoreceptors...minute ventilation
^ metabolism doesn't effect...bec... central chemoreceptors because H+ can't cross the BBB
other stimuli (that increase breathing) during exercise include reflex w/ ^ joint & muscle mechanoreceptor stimulation
^...increases breathing body temp
^ input to the...via...increases breathing medulla...branches of neurons from motor cortex to skeletal muscles
increasing blood...causes increase in breathing epinephrine(symp system)
^ blood...leaked from... plasma K+...skeletal muscle cells increases breathing
conditioned response for train athletes is immediate increase in respiration
cough reflex is done to...and the receptors are in the... lower respiratory system...larynx, trachea and bronchi
cough reflex involves...tomove particulates and mucus from...and to prevent... deep inspiration and forceful expiration ...small airways to larger airways for removal..aspiration
what inhibits the cough reflex? alcohol
sneeze reflex clears the....which receptors in the... upper resp. system...nasal cavity and pharynx
sneeze reflex involves deep inspiration and foreceful expiration to remove particulates and irritants from upper resp. system
cessation of breathing happens when exposed to noxious chemicals (smelling skunk)
smokers can lose the reflex of stopping breathing in noxious chemicals
speech involves deeper inspiration and controlled expiration
swallowing means you can't breath at the same time
breath holding is called...and is controlled by voluntary apnea...skeletal muscles (over-riding)
reflex overide during voluntary apnea alters blood gas pressures (hypoventilating) by ^ arterial PCO2, ^ arterial [H+] and dec arterial PO2
underwater swimming: usually you... hyperventilate (dec PCO2)
underwater swimming results in a loss of stimulus to breath (no voluntary ability)
during underwater swimming you dec PO2 to levels that may lead to unconsciousness
hypoxia is..and anoxia is... deficiency of O2 at tissues...lack of O2 at tissues
forms of hypoxia include hypoxic hypoxia, anemic or carbon monoxide hypoxia, ischemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia
hypoxic hypoxia is also called...and it results in... hypoxemia...dec arterial PO2
during hypoxemia you're not picking up enough O2 at the lungs
anemic or carbon monoxide hypoxia is normal arterial PO2 but dec total blood O2 bec lack of Hb or Hb has too much CO2
ischemic hypoxia is also called..and involves... hypoperfusion hypoxia...dec blood flow to tissues
histotoxic hypoxia means the cells are unable to... utilize O2
hypoxia and hypercapnia a reuslt of... ^ CO2...hypoventilation
Created by: handrzej



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