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CS - General Terms


Arithmetic operators takes two operands and returns the result of the mathematical calculation ( +, - , /, %, * )
Assignment statement sets or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name on the left
Attribute (instance variable or field) a specification that defines a property of an object
boolean primitive data type which stores true or false
Boolean Expression an expression that evaluates to true or false (Ex. summer == true , x < y.)
Braces { } Define the beginning and ending of blocks of code or data, used to block classes, methods, conditionals, and loops. Causes the compiler to treat multiple statements as a single statement block
Byte code The computer object code that is processed by a program, converted to each generalized machine instruction into a specific machine instruction or instruction that a computer’s processor will understand. This is used by the JVM(Java Virtual Machine)
char one letter, number or punctuation, it occupies one byte of memory and denoted by single quotes ‘ ‘
class A set of attributes and methods that define a object; such as a blueprint or template
class methods a subroutine that is exclusively defined in the class with the keyword static and are called using the class Ex. Math.pow(b,e);
Compound statement multiple statements that are held inside a brace block and treated as a single statement for control purposes
Conditional statement a statement that controls the execution of a single statement or block of code by evaluating a boolean expression to determine which code should be executed. Includes if, if…else, and switch
Constructor creates an object of the class typically by initializing all the instance variables and creating a place in memory to hold the object
Data type A classification identifying one of various types of data, such as a floating-point (double), integer, char, String , boolean or a class. It is used when declaring a variable or in a parameter list in the method signature.
Decrement subtract one from the variable (--)
Default constructor – (1) a constructor without parameters that typically initializes attributes (2) generated constructor made in the absence of an explicit constructor
Do while loop a while loop that evaluates the Boolean expression at the bottom of the loop instead of the top, will execute at least once and the loop will continue when Boolean expression is true
double data type used for variables which allows storage of real numbers (numbers with decimals)
Expression a finite combination of symbols (boolean and mathematical) that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context
For loop allows the code to be repeatedly executed using the format for(start; boolean expression; change to loop variable)
If statement a statement used to determine whether or not to execute succeeding statement(s) based on a boolean expression
If else statement a statement that executes a block of statements based on a boolean expression; if a boolean expression is true; the following statement/block is executed if the boolean expression is false, the statement/block following the else is executed
Increment adding 1 to a variable (++)
Initialize set to the value or put in the condition appropriate to the start of a program or method
Initialization constructor a constructor with parameters that sets the starting value of the attribute(s) when an object is created
Instance variable a variable defined in a class (attribute)
int primitive data type used to store integers(whole numbers, positive and negative)
Iteration The process of repeating a set of instructions a specified number of times or until a specific result is achieved(usually checked against sentinel or flag)
Local scope specific locations where a variable can be accessed. It is defined by a compound statement, delimited by {}
Loop a sequence of instructions that repeats either a specified number of times or until a particular condition is met
Loop variable variable whose value controls the number of times the statements in a repeat statement are executed
Method a subroutine(set of statements for a common purpose ) associated with a class
Method call invokes the code in the method definition to be executed
Method signature (method heading) consists of 1)scope identifier (public, private, protected) 2) void or return type 3) method name 4) parameter list
Nesting Embedding one structure in another structure ex. loop into a conditional
Object entity created from a class that consists of attributes and methods that act on the attributes
Object data attributes of a class that belong to an individual object
Object dot notation accesses the methods and the attributes of the object by using the object name followed by a period and the name of the method or attribute(not common to access the attribute this way)
Object methods a subroutine that requires an object to be associated with it (does not contain the word static in the method signature)
post-test boolean expression that is evaluated after a block of code is executed when true, the block is executed when false, control is passed to next statement after the block
pre-test boolean expression that is evaluated before a block of code is executed- When true, the block is executed When false, control is passed to the next statement after the block
parameter storage location declared in a method signature which requires a specific value to be passed when the method is called
primitive data a data type not defined in terms of other data types, and serves as a basis of all other data types(Ex. int, double, boolean, char)
Return method subroutine which requires a return type in the method signature and a return statement in the method body(definition) and the data type of what is being returned must match the data type in the signature
Return statement ends a method and sends whatever is after “return” back to the statement that called it (data type must match return type in method signature)
Scope the block in which a variable can be defined and used
Source Code a text listing of commands to be compiled or assembled into an executable computer program; such as java
Sentinel a value that indicates when the execution of a loop should stop
Static 1) word used to indicate class variables or methods at declaration or definition 2)variables or methods that are common to all objects. They may be constants,class variables or class methods
Switch statement control statement used with integers or chars
Variable A storage location and an associated symbolic name (an identifier) which contains some known or unknown quantity of information, a value
Void method there is no return type so there is nothing to return; when called it’s a statement by itself
While loop a control flow statement that allows code to be executed repeatedly based on a given Boolean condition. The while loop is like a repeating if statement. It is a pre-test loop.
Parentheses ( ) 1. placed after a method name to enclose parameter(s) 2. placed to enforce order of evaluation
Created by: shoemakers09