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Hormonal Control

Hormonal Control During Exercise

Upregulation An increased cellular sensitivity to hormone, often caused by increased hormone receptors.
Triiodothyronine (T3) A hormone released by the thyroid gland that increases the rate of cellular metabolism and the rate and contractility of the heart
Thyroxine (T4) A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases the rate of cellular metabolism and the rate and contractility of the heart
Target Cells cells that possess specific hormone receptors
Thyrotropin (TSH) A hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes the release of the thyroid hormones
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) An enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that regulates fluid and electrolyte balance in the blood by reducing urine production
Catecholamines Biologically active amines (organic compounds derived from ammonia), such as epinephrine and nor epinephrine, that have powerful effects similar to those of the sympathetic nervous system
Cortisol A corticosteroid hormone released from the adrenal cortex that stimulates gluconeogenesis, increases mobilization of free fatty acids, decreases use of glucose, and stimulates catabolism of protein
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) Intracellular second messenger that mediates hormone action
Direct gene activation The method of action of steroid hormones. they bind to receptors in the cell, and then the hormone-receptor complex enters the nucleus and activates certain genes
Downregulation Decreased cellular sensitivity to a hormone, likely the result of a decreased number of cell receptors available to bind with the hormone
Epinephrine A catecholamine released from the adrenal medulla that, along with norepinephrine, prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response. it is also a neurotransmitter.
Erythropoietin (EPO) The hormone that stimulates erythrocyte (red blood cell) production
Glucagon A hormone released by the pancreas that promotes increased breakdown of liver glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis) and increased gluconeogenesis
Glucocorticoids A family of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that help maintain homeostasis through a variety of effects throughout the body
Growth hormone An anabolic agent that stimulates fat metabolism and promotes muscle growth and hypertrophy by facilitating amino acid transport in the cells
Hemoconcentration A relative (not absolute) increase in the cellular content per unit of blood volume, resulting from a reduction in plasma volume
Hemodilution An increase in blood plasma, resulting in a dilution of the blood's cellular contents
Hormone A chemical substance produced or released by an endocrine gland and transported by the blood to a specific target tissue
Hyperglycemia An elevated blood glucose level
Hypoglycemia A low blood glucose level
Inhibiting Factors Hormone transmitted from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary that inhibit release of some other hormones
Insulin A hormone produced by the B-cells in the pancreas that assists glucose entry into cells
Mineralocorticoids Steroid hormones released from the adrenal cortex that are responsible for electrolyte balance within the body, for example aldosterone
Nonsteroid Hormones Hormones derived from protein, peptides, or amino acids that connot easily cross cell membranes
Osmolality The number of solutes (such as electrolytes) dissolved in a fluid divided by the weight of that fluid; usually expressed in units of osmols (or milliosmols) per kg.
Prostaglandins Substances derived from a fatty acids that act as hormones at the local level
Releasing factors Hormones transmitted from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary that promote release of some other hormones
Renin An enzyme formed by the kidneys to convert a plasma protein called angiotensinogen into angiotensin II
Created by: Kimbo8