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Physio Ch. 12 C

QuestionAnswer
artery structure is either conducting/elastic or distributing/muscular
conducting or elastic arteries have a high..and because of this they are able to... elastic content...recoil or snap back to keep flow of blood continuous
recoiling changes...and maintains... buffer pressure...flow during heart diastole
distributing or muscular arteries have high...for what kind of fuction smooth muscle content...regulatory (vasodilation and vasoconstriction)
arterioles are made of...and have what sort of function... smooth muscle...regulatory function(vasodilation and constriction)
arterioles can also be/have...for... metarterioles and precapillary sphincters...regulatory function of directing flow to or away from capillaries
arterial blood pressure involves compliance and systolic v diastolic pressure
compliance occurs...and is the ability of the... all over, not just in the heart...structure to stretch
compliance = delta volume/delta pressure
^ volume or stretch w/...>... little change in pressure...^ compliance
^ volume/stretch with...>... big change in pressure...decreases compliance
systolic v diastolic pressure: systolic pressure is the result of...and diastolic is the result of... systole of vents...diastole of vents
arterial blood pressure is found by...or... systolic pressure/diastolic pressure...max pressure/min pressure (120/80 mmHg)
pulse pressure is found by subtracting SP and DP (SP-DP ... 120-80 = 40 mmHg)
factors affecting pulse pressure include stroke volume(systolic = ^ P.P during exercise), compliance(systolic = ^ P.P w/ arteriosclerosis) and ejection velocity (increase contractility and ejection of blod= systolic = ^ P.P during exercise)
arterial blood pressure includes...and is... mean systemic arterial pressure MAP...what arteries are constantly under
MAP is the "average" pressure in arteries ( MAP = DP + 1/3 pulse pressure or 1/3( SP + 2DP)
MAP is the...into tissues driving pressure behind blood flow
MAP is...throughout the body consistent
measurment of blood pressure uses sphygomomanometer and stethoscope
laminar flow should be...and turbulent flow results in... quiet...korotkoff's sounds
1 + 2nd korotkoff's sounds are 1 = thump = systolic pressure, 2 = diastolic pressure
arteriole structure smooth muscle to regulate diameter
arteriole variable resistance means...or... vasodilation > ^ diameter...vasocontriction > derease diameter
what is the effect on resistance and flow of vasodilation in arterioles? Decrease resistance and increase flow
what is the effect on resistance and flow of vasoconstriction in arterioles? increase resistance and decrease flow
ability to alter resistance allows regulation of... blood flow (blood isn't equal in all organs)
blood flow in organs (F organ) = MAP - venous pressure (which is delta p)/RESISTANCE organ
F = delta p/r
F =...because... MAP/r because venous pressure is nearly 0
resistance..between... varies...arterioles of different organs
control of arteriole resistance in organs can either be local or a reflex/extrinsic control
local control of arteriolar resistance occurs because of self regulation of arterioles based on what's happening in the organ (autocrine and paracrine)
reflex or extrinsic controls of arteriolar resistance involve nerve and hormonal control
local arteriole control can result in...which is.. active hyperemia (metabolic activity(active) and increased flow - hyperemia0
active hyperemia ^...>... metabolic activity...blood flow
stimuli for arteriole dilation in active hyperemia include metabolic byproducts (CO2, ADP, H+, K+ - WASTE PRODUCTS) and locally produced chemicals like bradykinin and nitric oxide
local arteriole control also happens through flow autoregulation (similar to a blinking light)
flow autoregulation involves arteriole pressure and myogenic responses
decreaseing arteriole pressure > vasodilation > ^ blood flow
stimuli for arteriole dilation in flow autoregulation are... same as for active hyperemeia - monitering waste products
stimuli for flow autoregulation means...but...because... metabolic activity is constant...blood flow can't keep pace...blood hast't been moving for a few msec
^ arteriole pressure> vasoconstriction > decreased blood flow
stimuli for arteriole constriction ^ O2and removal of vasodilating chemicals
myogenic responses occur in gthe... muscle
myogenic esponses either... ^ stretch (pressure) > ^smooth muscle contraction > decreses blood flow or decrease stretch (pressure) > smooth muscle contraction decreases which increases blood flow
increasing stretch in myogenic responses opens...and the effect of..is... stretch gated ca2 channels...^ intracellular ca on smooth muscle...more constriction because calmodulin binds and kinase does its thing so yeah
decreased stretch means... closed stretch gated ca channels and means decreased intracellular ca to vasodilate
local arteriole control - reactive hyperemia means...and....occurs after increase blood flow...reperfusuion...after an occlusion is released
reactive hyperemia is similar to flow autoregulation
local arteriole control - response to injury activates... platelets and the inflammatory response (increases blood flow and vasodilates)
local arteriole control - endothelial cells (which include...) are... arterioles and arteries...paracrine and autocrine vasodilators (nitric oxide and others like bradykinin)
endothelial cells can also be paracrine and autocrine vasoconstrictors
extrinsic control of arterioles through symp nerves (fight/flight) and noncholingergic, nonadrenergic autonomic neurons and hormones
sympathetic nerves go directly to....and they release some blood vessels...ne neurot, e hormone and they go to alpha adrenergic receptors
symp nerves do vasoconstriction and vasodilation
vasoconstriction from symp nerves is caused by ^ symp activity > ^ NE and E a receptor activation > vasoconstriction
vasodilationg from symp nerves is caused by decreased symp activity > decrease NE and E alpha receptor activation > decreased vasoconstriction > ^ vasodilation
symp nerve large scale/whole body effects include redistributing blood flow (skin - cold ^ symp activation > vasoconstriction or skin - warm decreased symp activation > vasodilation)
extrinsic control of arteries, noncholinergic include..and nonadrenergic include not ACh...non NE and E
noncholinergic, nonadrenergic autonomic neuons use..which... nitric oxide neurotransmitters...vasodilate and are part of the enteric system (GI tract)
extrinsic control through hormones includes what hormones epinephrine, angiotensin II, vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide
epinephrine as a hormone effects both alpha adrenergic (vasoconstrict)and beta adrenergic rectpros(vasodilate)
epinephrine is also called...and is released from...and is controlled by... adrenaline...adrenal medulla..symp nervous system
epinephrine causes vasodilation in...and what is greater than what... skeletal muscles..# beta adrenergic receptors > # alpha adrenergic receptors
epinephrine causes vasoconstriction in...and what is greater than what... every other part of the body...# of alpha receptors > # of beta
angiotensin II goes from..and does what renin-angiotensin system > ^ blood pressure (effects BP)
angiotensin II does vasoconstriction and kidney salt/water retention
vasopressin is from the...and release from... hypothalamus..posterior pituitary or neurophyophysis
vasopressin increases...>.. kidney water retention...^ blood pressure (F= delta p/r)
atrial natriuretic peptide effects the...and is made in/secreted in response to... atria...^ atrial pressure
atrial natriuretic peptide decreases kidney salt and water retention > decreases blood pressure
capillary structure endothelium and basement membrane
capillaries have intercellular cleffts and fused vesicle clefts (exocytotic and endocytotic)
regulation of capillaries through arteriole vasodilation and vasoconstriction, metarterioles and precapillary sphincters
capillary blood flow involves total cross-sectional area/velocity
why is reduced velocity advantageous in the capillaries further from heart and it spreads out (more exchange can occur here)
exchange mechanisms include diffusion (primary mechanism), vesicle transport (endo and exo), bulk flow (pressure gradient) and mediated transport (brain)
diffusion involves concentration gradients (transcapillary)
diffusion uses water filled channels (intercellular and fused vesicle clefts)
water filled channels in diffusion (intercellular clefts and fused vesicle clefts allow ions and small polar molecules to fit through
size of clefts regulates passage of chemicals (blood braine barrier - no clefts , liver - discontinuous capillaries
diffusion has a phospholipid bilayer fo lipids
vesical transport for some proteins
bulk flow is the movement of extracellular fluid including protein free plasma and interstitial fluid
bulk flow works with pressure gradients (blood v. interstitial fluid)
pressure gradients also include hydrostatic pressure (P) and osmotic force(pi)
hydrostatic pressure is the blood pressure of capillary v. interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
hydrostatic pressure causes Pcapillary (out) > Pinterstitial fluid (in)
hydrostatic pressure has net movement out
osmotic force is the concentration of proteins in capillary v. protein concentration of interstitial fluid
osmotic force (pi) requires pressure for water to move into an area
in osmotic force PIcapillary (in) > PI interstitial fluid (out)
osmotic force requies net movement in
net filtration pressure - effect of the starling forces
NFP net filtration pressure
Pc capillary hydrostatic pressure (filtration - out)
Pinterstitial fluid interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (absorption - in)
PIcapillary capillary osmotic force (absorption - in)(water)
PIinterstitial fluid interstitial fluid osmotic force (filtration - out)
net filtartion pressure = Pc + PIif - Pif - PIc or NFP = (Pc +PIif) - (Pif +PIc)
Pc changes as flow from arteriole to venule end
in net filtration fluid loss shifts to fluid gain
venule end = and hydrostatic force - lower...reabsorb
modification of starling forces in the arterioles effect of vasodilation and constriction on net filtartion
modification of starling force: vasodilation > decrease resistance > ^ hydrostatic pressure > ^ filtration
modification of starling force: vasoconstriction > ^ resistance > decrease hydrostatic presasure > decrease filtrationb
edema is another way to modify starling forces
edema results in heart failure and ^ venous pressure > ^Pc, inflammatory response and^ arteriole dilation > ^ Pc and inflammatory response w/ ^ leak of plasma proteins to interstitial fludi > ^ PIif
what is the effect of heart failure and increase venou spressure > ^ Pc can't pump blood effectively so there is a buildup capillary pressure and no reabsorption
what is the effect of the inflammatory response and increase arteriole dilation > ^Pc more blood leaking out w/ no reabsorption
effect of inflammatory resp and ^ leak of plasma proteins to interstitial fluid > ^PIif draw more water out
decreased plasma protein is another way to modify starling forces
decreased plasma protein happens through kidney disase, liver disease and malnutrition
kidney disease and decreased...>... plasma protein concentration > decrease PIc
liver disease and...>... decrease plasma protein concentraion...decreased PIc
malnutrition and...>... decreased plasma protein concentration...decreased PIc
effect of malnutrition can't draw fluid back into blood stream
mediated transport through endocytosis and carriers (especially with the BBB)
vein structure venules, peripheral veins and great veins
venules have...and do... one-way valves...some exchange
peripheral veins have one-way valves
great veins have no valves
vein function blood return to heart and act as blood reservoir (60% of blood is in the veins at rest)
venous pressure involves pressure gradient, vein compliance and blood volume, control of venous pressure
pressure gradient in veins: in peripheral veins it is...in the right atrium it is...and the gradient does what... 10-15 mm Hg...nearly 0 mmHg...helps flow of peripheral veins to heart
vein compliance and blood volume ^ compliance (not as much smooth muscle) and ^ volume to act as a blood reservoir
control of venous pressure through symp nerves and autocrin/paracrine hormones
symp nerves effect the veins through NE which ^ symp activity > ^ NE > ^ vasoconstriction
autocrine and paracrine hormones do what to nerves vasoconstriction and vasodilation
vasoconstriction in the veins causes more blood to circulate
normal flow for venous blood return is 10 mmHg > 0 mm Hg pressure gradient
vasoconstriction in the veins means ^.. venous pressure > ^ gradient to heart
venous valves are one-way flow
what assits in venous blood return? skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump
skeletal muscle pump does what contraction of skeletal muscles (squeezes veins to close one valve and open the one above it so blood is forced to go up
respiratory pump involves diaphragm contraction
diaphragm contraction does increases pressure in abdominal cavity and decreases pressure in thoracic cavity
increased pressure in abdominal cavity bec of the respiratory pump means increased pressure on abdominal veins
decreased pressure in thoracic cavity bec of resp pump means decreased pressure on great veins and atria
venous return and cardiac output ^ venous pressure > ^ venous return> ^ EDV > ^CO
as venous return changes... CO will also change
lymphatic structure lymphatic capillaries and vessels
lymphatic capillaries join to form...and are... lymph vessels...open ended
lymph vessels help return extra filtrate
lymph vessels have...which...and also... lymph nodes...house WBCs...one way valves
lymph vessels dump into circulatory system
lymphatic function interstitial fluid return
mechanisms of interstitial fluid return include vessel smooth muscle contraction and other mechanisms similar to veins
purpose of lymph vessels return interstitial fluid prevent edema(filters) and fatty acids from GI tract - go to lacteals(absorp)
problems with returning interstitial fluid route for cancer metastasis (moved from site of origin)
Created by: handrzej