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pet 3097 - 2

health and wellness exam 2

Flexibility The ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion
Cartilage A type of stiff but flexible tissue found in areas of the body, including joints, the ears and nose, and parts of the rib cage; not as hard as bone but stiffer than muscle
Joint capsule A sac or envelope enclosing a synovial joint, with an inner synovial layer and an outer fibrous layer
Synovial fluid Fluid found in the cavity of a synovial joint; secreted by the synovial membrane, the inner layer of the joint capsule
Ligament Fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
Connective tissue A type of fibrous tissue that is found in many body organs and systems, often providing support and structure; depending on its precise make-up, it may be soft and flexible, or hard and rigid. Cartilage and bone are examples
Collagen Key protein found in bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, skin, and connective tissue
Osteoarthritis Inflammation of the joint usually involving damage to the cartilage-covered surfaces in the joint
Hypermobility Excessive range of motion in a joint, making it less stable and more susceptible to injury
Static stretching A stretching technique that involves a slow, steady stretch with a hold at the end of the range of motion
Active stretching A technique in which the force for the stretch comes from a contraction of the muscles opposite those being stretched
Passive stretching A technique in which the force for a stretch comes from an object, partner, or other body part
Ballistic stretching A stretching technique that involves quick jerky or bouncing movements to move joints to the ends of their range of motion; force for the stretch is provided by momentum
Dynamic stretching A stretching technique that involves controlled movement through the active range of motion of a joint
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) A group of stretching techniques that involve a combination of stretching and muscle contraction; the most commonly used techniques use a combination of passive stretching and isometric contraction
Vertebra One of the ring-like bones that make up the spine; provides structural support, helps protect the spinal cord, and aids in movement
Intervertebral disk Fibrous, gel-filled disk found between vertebrae that acts as a shock absorber and allows the spine to move
Body mechanics Application of basic mechanical principles to the human body
Posture Position of body parts in relation to each other
Body composition Relative proportions of muscle, fat, bone, and other vital tissues; often expressed in terms of fat and fat-free body mass
Percent body fat The proportion (percentage) of total body weight that is fat
Essential fat Fat necessary for normal body functioning; found in nerves, cell membranes, bone marrow, the central nervous system, and other organs
Storage fat Fat stored under the skin and surrounding internal organs; provides insulation, protects organs, serves as an energy store, and releases hormones and other chemical messengers
Visceral fat Storage fat found around and between organs in the abdomen
Subcutaneous fat Storage fat found just under the skin
Metabolism All the processes required to maintain body functioning
Resting metabolic rate The energy required to maintain essential body processes at rest
Overweight Body weight above the recommended range suggested for good health
Obesity A serious degree of overweight characterized by an excessive amount of body fat
Female Athlete Triad A condition in active females that develops in a situation of low energy availability from excess exercise and/or insufficient energy intake; characterized by amenorrhea and loss of bone density
Body image An individual’s subjective mental representation of his or her body, including thoughts, attitudes, emotions, and perceptions
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) A psychological disorder characterized by extreme preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance
Muscle dysmorphia A form of BDD more common in males, characterized by preoccupation with perceived lack of muscularity
Body mass index (BMI) An indirect measure of body fatness calculated by dividing body weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meters); for non-athletic populations, BMI correlates closely with more precise measures of body composition
Nutrient Compound found in food that is required for growth and survival of an organism; must be obtained from food because the body cannot manufacture it at all or in sufficient quantities
Macronutrients Nutrients that must be consumed in fairly large amounts and that provide calories
Micronutrients Nutrients needed in small or trace amounts; vitamins and minerals are typically categorized as micronutrients
Calorie A measure of the energy in food; what is termed “calorie” in general usage and on food labels is technically a kilocalorie, which is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1ºC
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) A set of standards that includes recommended intakes of all essential nutrients, recommendations for balancing intake of macronutrients, and upper safe limits for selected nutrients
Energy density The amount of energy (calories) in a food per unit of weight
Nutrient density The amount of nutrients in a food per energy (calories) provided; a food high in nutrient density provides a substantial amount of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, and relatively few calories
Carbohydrates A category of essential nutrient that includes sugars, starches, and dietary fiber
Glucose A form of simple carbohydrate circulating in the blood; also called “blood sugar”; used by the body for energy production; derived from food sources
Glycogen A form of stored glucose; primarily found in skeletal muscle and the liver
Simple carbohydrates Carbohydrates containing one or two units of sugar per molecule; occur naturally in fruits, milk, and other foods; also commonly added to processed foods
Added sugars Simple carbohydrates added during processing and preparation of foods
Complex carbohydrates Carbohydrates containing chains of many sugar units; starches and dietary fiber
Legumes Cooked seeds of dried beans and peas; examples include white, black, and pinto beans, lentils, and chickpeas; dried forms are also called “pulses"
Whole grain The entire edible portion of a grain kernel, including the bran, germ, and endosperm
Glycemic index (GI) A scale that quantifies the effect of consumption of a carbohydrate-containing food on the level of glucose in the blood
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) One of the standards that make up the Dietary Reference Intakes; a set of recommended intake ranges for protein, fat, and carbohydrate as percentages of total daily calories
Dietary fiber Complex carbohydrates that cannot be broken down by the digestive system
Soluble (viscous) fiber Form of dietary fiber that soaks up water and turns into a gel during digestion; it may improve the body’s insulin sensitivity and cholesterol levels
Insoluble fiber Form of dietary fiber that binds water but does not dissolve; it adds bulk to the diet and improves elimination
Protein A category of essential nutrient; a compound made of amino acids
Amino acids Molecules that are the building blocks of proteins; essential amino acids are those that cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from food; nonessential amino acids can be made by the body
Complete proteins Dietary sources of protein that provide all the essential amino acids; found in animal foods and soy
Incomplete proteins Dietary sources of protein that are missing one or more essential amino acids; found in plant sources of protein
Fat (dietary) A category of essential nutrient; an organic compound made up of fatty acids; lipid
Triglyceride Major form of fat found in foods and stored in the body, consisting of three fatty acid molecules and a glycerol molecule
Saturated fatty acid A fatty acid with a carbon chain full of hydrogen atoms, meaning no carbon-carbon double bonds; usually from animal sources and solid at room temperature
Unsaturated fatty acid A fatty acid with a carbon chain that includes one (mono) or more (poly) carbon-carbon double bonds; usually from plant sources and liquid at room temperature.
Hydrogenation A process that adds hydrogen atoms to polyunsaturated fats to produce a more solid and stable fat; hydrogenated fats include a mixture of saturated fatty acids and standard and trans forms of unsaturated fatty acids
Trans fatty acids A type of unsaturated fatty acid with an atypical chemical shape that affects its functioning in the body; found naturally in small amounts in certain foods and produced during the process of hydrogenation
Dietary cholesterol A waxy substance found in the cell walls of animal tissues; in humans, produced by the liver and consumed in animal products
Phytosterol A plant-based compound that competes with dietary cholesterol for absorption by the body, resulting in lower blood cholesterol levels
Vitamins Organic (carbon-containing) compounds needed in small quantities by the body for normal functioning
Minerals Inorganic compounds essential for normal metabolism, growth and development, and regulation of cell activity
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) A standard for dietary intake of a nutrient set at a level to meet the needs of almost all (97-98 percent) individuals in a group in order to maintain good health
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) One of the standards that make up the Dietary Reference Intakes; the highest level of daily intake of a nutrient that poses no risk of adverse effects in healthy people
Antioxidant A compound that protects cells from damage by free radicals by reacting with them or counteracting their effects
Free radicals Unstable, highly-reactive molecules created during normal metabolism and in response to environmental factors; may play a role in the development of cancer, CVD, and other diseases of aging by reacting with and damaging DNA and other parts of cells
Phytochemical A naturally occurring chemical found in found in plant foods that may help prevent or treat chronic disease
Osteoporosis Loss of bone mass and density, causing bones to become fragile
Anemia Below normal number of red blood cells or lack of sufficient hemoglobin, resulting in reduced oxygen carrying capacity of the blood; most often caused by insufficient iron, which is needed to produce hemoglobin
Daily Values (DVs) Nutrient intake standards used on food labels that place the food in the context of a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet
MyPyramid The USDA-recommended eating plan based on five food groups plus oils; designed to ensure a balanced intake of essential nutrients within energy intake limits
Vegan A dietary pattern composed exclusively of plant foods, with no animal products
Lcto-vegetarian A dietary pattern composed of plant foods and dairy products
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian A dietary pattern composed of plant foods, eggs, and dairy products
DASH diet Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, designed to reduce blood pressure. Emphasizes potassium-rich fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products and includes whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts; limits sodium, red meat, and added sugars
Mediterranean diet A dietary pattern associated with cultures bordering the Mediterranean Sea; the pattern emphasizes whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, fish, and olive oil and limits meat, saturated fat, and full-fat dairy products
Foodborne illness An illness caused by consuming foods or beverages contaminated with disease-causing organisms
Pathogen A microorganism that causes disease, such as a virus or bacterium
Allergen A substance that is capable of producing an allergic reaction in the body’s immune system; most food allergens are proteins
Eating disorder A severe disturbance in eating patterns and behavior involving insufficient or excessive food intake
Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by extreme thinness, intense fear of gaining weight, distorted body image, and disturbed eating behaviors
Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by frequent binge-purge cycles, or rapid consumption of an unusually large amount of food followed by compensatory purging through vomiting, fasting, excessive exercise, or use of laxatives or diuretics
Binge-eating disorder An eating disorder characterized by binge eating, in which an individual rapidly consumes an unusually large amount of food; binges are not followed by purges, and most people with the disorder are overweight
Created by: selfstudy08
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