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Dimorphic Fungi

Mod 3 Lec 2

Dimorphic Fungi cause what kind of infections? Mycoses that involve major body systems or more than one kind of tissue. Don't need "situational" help.
What is a granuloma? Collection of macrophages, giant cells, and proteinaceous material that walls off the infection.
How can yeast forms be disseminated to other organ systems? Can enter the lymph through macrophages.
How should these specimens be processed? Tissue - minced; Pleural fluid and CSF - concentrated; Mucus or pus - mucolytic agent
When a dimorph is suspected what should be done? Quick transport; don't hold at room temp; don't refrigerate
How should dimorphic fungi be set up for culture? Primary isolation on SDA or SABHI w/ and w/out antimicrobials; incubate at 30C, possibly BHI; PDA for subculture
What should not be performed on dimorphic fungi in the lab? Slide cultures
What type of immune response do they cause? Cellular
Where is Blastomyces dermatitidis found? Endemic in Mississippi river valley; soil saprobe, wood, bark, rotting vegetation, river banks
What is Blastomycosis? Chronic granulomatous disease affecting lungs, skin, mucous membranes
Blastomyces dermatitidis macro At 25C slow growth mould on SDA, white to beige waxy colony; 37C yeast after 10-15 days on enriched media (BHI)
Blastomyces dermatitidis micro Mould = fine, septate, hyaline hyphae; conidia directly on hyphae or on lateral conidiophores; Yeast = hyaline, large cells, Broad Based Budding
Where is Coccidioides immitis found? Endemic in SW US and northern Mexico; saprobe in mould form (desert soil); occupational hazard
What is the most virulent of all agents of human mycoses? Coccidioides immitis; causes mild infection in all who inhale it
Coccidioides immitis macro 3-5 days on SDA/SABHI; arthroconidia in 7-10 days; white and cottony, cobwebs; yeast form not found in lab
Coccidioides immitis micro Septate hyaline hyphae; whide arthroconidia that are barrel shaped; disjuncture cells; easily aerosolized - extremely hazardous
Where is Histoplasma capsulatum found? Endemic to Mississippi and Ohi river valleys; soil saprobe w/ high nitrogen content; chicken, bird, bat guano; occupational hazard
What is Histoplasmosis? Chronic granulomatous lung disease; 5% progress to acute fulminating, rapidly fatal disease = mostly children
Histoplasma capsulatum macro Slow growing mould; tan, fluffy; yeast form in 10-15 days on enriched media (BHI or SABHI)
Histoplasma capsulatum micro Fine, septate hyphae; micro and macroconidia; macroconidia become tuberculate w/age; yeast cells bud at narrow neck
Where is Paracoccidioides brasiliensis found? Endemic to NW, central, and SE South America, Central America, Southern Mexico; Soil saprobe in acid soil
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis macro 2-3 weeks mould colony; flat, white colonies; Yeast will form on enriched media at 37C
Paracocccidioides brasiliensis micro Fine, septate, hyaline hyphae; conidiation absent on modified SDA; Yeast form - multiple thin necked buds "mariners wheel"
Where is Sporothrix shenckii found? Worldwide soil saprobe, occupational risk, gardening "rose gardeners disease"
What is Sporotrichosis? Chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis characterized by ulcers and abcesses along lymphatic channels; not usually in lungs
Sporothrix shenckii macro Mould in 3-5 days at 25C; mature colonies are dark and flat; Yeast at 37C, white or tan
Sporothrix shenckii micro Mould: delicate, thin hyphae, septate, frequently found at ropes; conidiophores produce multiple conidia in flowerette arrangements; 2 types of conidia: small oval unicellular / large dark walled spheres. Yeast: Cigar shaped at 37C
Created by: blackicecreamcat