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Conditions Test 2

Conditions Chap 4 & Lymph SRM

QuestionAnswer
Acute Edemas (handout) Short duration, RAPIDLY progressive, & in need of urgent care
Sub Acute Edemas (handout) Short duration, CAN BE progressive, & in need of care
Chronic Edemas (handout) Persisting for a long time or recurring, still in need of care
How do you measure for Edema (handout) 1. Always use same landmark 2.Same time of day 3. Same position 4. same measuring technique (or use Anthropemetric Measuring Tape)
DVT is usually DX how but what should you ALWAYS remember? (handout) By use of a venous doppler & duplex U/S BUT KNOW YOUR FACILITIES PROTOCOL
T/F: Your pat. has just had a total hip replacement & is post op & complaining of severe calf pain. You should massage their calf for them. (handout) FALSE--could dislodge clot
T/F: Your pat. has DVT. You should sit them up & let their legs dangle over the end of the stretcher. (handout) FALSE--cause pooling of the blood
What are the Contraindications for TX of Lymphadema (handout) Unknown etiology; cellulitis or active infections/fungus; cardiac; uncontrolled HBP; prego; Severe Renal; DVT;Acute stages of wound healing;severe pulomonary;active CXR-except for comfort;malignant lymphedema
Hyperglycemia pg 190 An increase in the normal blood glucose level (excessive sugar),
Diabetes Mellitus pg 190 A chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism caused by inadequate production of insulin by the pancreas or faulty use of insulin by the cells.
Polyuria pg 190/175 Excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine
Pruritus pg 190 Itching
Thyroxine (T4)pg 176 One of the tyrosine-based hormones that is the major form of thyroid hormone in the blood, containing 4 iodine molecules. It is primarily responsible for regulating our metabolism (metabolic rate)
What are the symptoms of Hyperglycemia? pg 190/191 it produces symptoms of polyuria, polyphagia (excessive hunger), polydipsia (excessive thirst), weight loss, and fatigue (as seen in diabetes Mellitus), fruity breath, ab pain,nasea/vomit, drowsy,flushed,dehydr.,heavy resp,lethargy, LOC, coma
What does the endocrine system control? (That's "En-doe-crin" Shannon!!)pg 167 Homeostasis, stress response, & body activities
The endocrine & nervous syst's work together for homeostasis,etc. what are the differences between the 2? pg 167 Endocrine is slower response (onset)but longer duration of affect (Nervous is immediate but short lived)
What are hormones? (NO comments Marco :>) JK!!) pg 167 Chemical messengers that have targeted responses (specific gland/tissue) but affect multi systems
What 2 hormones are found in the Pancreas that regulate sugar? pg 170 Insulin & Glucagon
What 3 hormones help regulate the Thyroid? pg 170 Thyroxine (T4), Tri-iodo-thyronine (T3), Calcitonin=childhood regulation
Atrophy pg 168/863 wasting away of body tissues due to degeneration of cells
Hyperplasia pg 168/867 Increased cell production in a normal tissue or organ (# of cells)
Hypertrophy pg168/867 Increased volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of the individual cells (cell size increases)
Gigantism pg 169 (pituitary) hypersecretion of GH before puberty. TX w/SX
Dwarfism pg 174 (pituitary) Hyposecretion of GH before puberty=growth retardation. TX w/hGH (somatotropin)injections
How will OT assist pat's w/gigantism or dwarfism? pg 175 By providing adaptive equipment & positioning, Patient/family education
What are TROPIC hormones? (Nope, not the islands:) pg 167 Hormones that target/stimulate secretion of other hormones
How do all endocrine diseases occur? pg 168 from an abnormal increase/decrease in the secretion of hormones
What are the 3 reasons that glandular secretions may diverge from normal? pg 168 Atrophy, hypertrophy, or hyperplasia =usually due to an "insult" to the gland (infection, trauma, SX, Inflammation)
What are COMMON abnormal endocrine symptoms? pg 168 1.Growth Abnorms 2.Emot.Disturbs/psych probs 3.skin,hair,nail changes 4.Edema 5.Hyper/Hypo-tension 6.Arrhythmia 7.+/- urine output 8.Muscle weakness/atrophy 9.Menstrual irregularity/amenorrhea 10.Impotence/libido changes 11.Sterility 12.+/- Energy levels
What are the modalities for DX endocrine disorders? pg 168 Blood tests (RIAs)& Urinalysis. MRI,US,& scans determine type/location of lesions
What is diabetes Insipidus (sip, sip, sip, pee,pee,pee)**symptoms can onset abruptly** pg 175 Disturbance of H2O metabolism=extreme thirst/excessive secretion of diluted urine due to lack of ADH(vasopressin)causing polyuria & polydipsia. May also exhibit signs fatigue & dehydration:dry mucous membranes,LBP, poor skin turgor, dizziness, fatigue
Can thyroid diseases be resolved? pg 176 Yes (through med's & SX)
What usually causes disturbances in the thyroid? pg 176 +/- secretions of T3, T4, & mass lesions
What is one of the 1st signs of thyroid disease pg 177 A goiter (simple)
Goiter (Simple)=(nontoxic) pg 177 any enlargement of the thyroid gland evidenced by a conspicous,swollen mass in the neck (hyperplasia). Typical fem. pat's
What thyroid diseases/symptoms fall into the hyperfunction category? pg 177 Grave's (auto imm), Polydipsia, polyuria,dyspnea,dysphagia,wt.loss, tachycardia, anxiety, ++sweating, heat intolerance, diarrhea, thin hair, exophilalmos (bug eye), CHF, hyperflexia, enlarged thyroid-warm to touch(palpate),nodules,1 solitary toxic nodule
How are goiters usually TX? pg 178 1 drop KI/week(pot.iod) (seafood/vege's)..AVOID turnips,cabbage,broccoli,br.spouts,cauliflower,radishes,soy (goitrogenic foods), lithium medication,SX if nec.
What endocrine organ produces pathology most often? (There's always 1 in the crowd!!)pg 176 Thyroid (T4 & T3 affect the meabolism of all body tissues thru systemic circulation)
In the early stages, might a patient be aware that they have a simple goiter? pg 177 No--asymptomatic
How much iodine is considered adequate in the diet? pg 179 150-300mg daily
What is one symptom you typically will NOT see in hypER thyroidism? (lecture) Cholesterol/plaque build up
When the entire thyroid hypertrophies resulting in a diffused goiter & thus resulting in overproduction of T-hormones, what condition do you have? pg 180 Graves' Disease (primary hyperthyroidism)
A sudden exacerbation (increase) in symptoms due to exaggerated T-hormone levels can be life threatening. What is this called? pg 180 Thyrotoxicosis (thyroid storm)
T/F: Hyperthyroidism tends to be familial & genetically caused F: Familial & suggested genetic causation, but cause is still unknown: thought to be A/I response
T/F: Hypothyroidism tends to be familial & more common to women False: Familial but can strike either sex at any age (iodine deficient areas-major cause of mental deficiency)
Cretinism Congential Hypothyroidism (develops in infancy or early childhood) Causes mental & growth retardatiion
What causes cretinism error in fetal development (absence of enzyme needed for T3/4 synthesis), Maternal thyroid deficiency, iodine deficient diet
Myxedema Acquired hypothyroidism developing in older child/adult--usually female: menorrhagia, bloated face, thick tongue, puffy eyelids, excess tired, fatique, slow/slurred speech, dry skin (see hypo symptoms)
Common symptoms of HypOthyroidism? loss of hair, brittle/coarse hair,periorbital edema, puffy face, Norm/small thyroid, CHF-Bradycardia, constipation, Cold intolerance, muscle weakness, Extremity weakness,
If someone is in a diabetic coma,you should call a code, & then grab juice/soda & graham crackers to try to stabilize their glucose levels NO!! You just killed them! Hyperglycemia=NO Sweets!! Give insulin & fluids & NaHCO3
Diabetes Mellitus refers to "sugar" diabetes with 2 types which are what: Type 1=)"diabetic Coma" pancreas/insulin dependent HYPERglycemic (aka juvenile: give insulin TYPE 2="Insulin shock/Reaction"Diet/non-insulin (aka adult onet/ NIDDM) can be either HYPER or HYPO--give sugars
What are the symptoms of HYPOglycemia RAPID onset!, hunger, tremble/shakes, paleness, syncopy, COLD SWEATS, HEADACHE,IRRITABILITY, CONFUSION, seizures, rapid HB,anxiety,vision imprmt,LOC
What causes someone to have Insulin Shock? forgot to eat, didn't eat enough, ate too late/delayed, exercise too much
If you have an insulin reaction, are you Hypo- or hyperglycemic Hypo-your body produced too much insulin/not enough sugar. give juice/soda & graham crackers/candy
If you have a diabetic coma, are you Hypo-/hyperglycemic HYPER--you are OD'ing on sugar!! Need Insulin ASAP
What causes someone to have a diabetic coma? Eat too much, STRESS/infection, skipped meds/insulin dose, Not prev. DX!!
What do we need to be aware of in OT for Hypoglycemics: RAPID ONSET, watch for symptoms! careful of injuries (healing), may be anxious or lethargic,Don't overexercise, educate pat. of diet & meds, give simple sugars if needed
What do we need to be aware of in OT for Hyperglycemics: May be lethargic, doesn't heal well, need lots of fluids, educate diet/meds NO SWEETS!
Why would it be important to know if your pat. was using Glucophage to TX their type 2 diabetes? 1. side effect=lactic acidosis: weakness, fatigue, unusual muscle/ab pain, dyspnea, dizziness, light headed, bradycardia or arrhythmias, 2. should not be taken by ppl w/HX of renal disease, CHF, Liver disease, alcoholism. Must stop before taking contrast
What are some names of Glucophage meds? Avandia-being removed from mkt, Actos
What is Metabolic Syndrome: "syndrome x" Collection of signs/conditions that existing together may increase person's potential for Type 2 diabetes & CV disease
What are the 5 main components of Syndrome X (pre-diabetic) 1. Central obesity F=35"+/M=40"+ 'visceral fat' 2.++BP over 130/85 M/F 3.Abnorm lipid levels (cholesteral LDLs) 4.Insulin resistance or increase in amt needed to control 5.impaired glucose tolerance. ALSO poor nutrition & inadequate exercise contribute.
What is a brittle diabetic A type 2 that progresses to a type 1
What type of test is given to people who have several of the syndrome x factors? Glucose Tolerance Test (YUCK!!)
Created by: RadGirl13