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adv phys exam2

advanced physiology exam#2

water is housed in two places in the body 1.inside the cell-intracellular 2.outside the cell-extracellular
intracellular extracellular 66% of water in body 33% of water in body
2 components in extracellular space are interstitial space and blood vessels interstitial space-80% of 33% blood vessels- 20% of 33%
hormones(allow for movement of water between compartments) chemical substances that are made in one part of the body but act in another part of the body
extra cellular matrix made up of 4 major parts the area that houses different organs within the body. made up of interstitial fluid, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and elastin
interstitial fluid- fluid in interstitial space
proteoglycans- greater amounts of carbohydrates compared to proteins
glycoproteins greater amounts of proteins compared to carbohydrates
elastin connective tissue that allows structural reinforcement to the extracellular matrix
movement of substances occurs from one area to another through what? a semipermeable membrane
what two major factors influence the movement of substances through a semipermeable membrane? size of the molecule-the smaller the easier and the polarity of a molecule- nonpolar molecules move easier than polar molecules when you have polar molecule, you need to package the protein in a protein to facillitate its movement
transport of substances from one area to another can be categorized in what two ways? use of a carrier protein and use of energy
simple diffusion involves movement of a SOLUTE from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration across a semipermeable membrane without the use of a carrier protein, without the use of energy
solute molecule of substance being dissolved(sugar in sugar water)
solvent liquid medium that dissolves the molecule(water in sugar water)
what 4 factors influence the rate of simple diffusion w/i our body? difference in concentration gradient on either side of semipermeable membrane, permeability of semipermeable membrane to a given solute,temperature of the environment and the surface area available for sd
difference in concentration if there is a greater difference in hi-lo- simple diffusion
permeability of semipermeable membrane sometimes you have membranes more permeable to a certain solute and less permeable to others- facillitate or inhibit a diffusion. the more permeable the membrane is to a solute, the greater the rate of simple diffusion
temperature of the environment as you increase the temp, you increase the rate of simple diffusion up to a point and then it plateaus. if you increase the temp twoo much- you alter homeostasis (reduce amount of sd)
surface area available for simple diffusion greater surface area, greater rate of simple diffusion. lower surface area, decreased rate of simple diffusion
what two major organs is simple diffusion constantly occuring? the kidneys and lungs
kidneys major function is to get rid of waste products in our blood and to retain good substances within our blood through process of simple diffusion
renal failure failure to remove toxins in blood through simple diffusion in the kidneys
lungs(alveoli and pulmonary capillaries) important function is gas exchange; exchange of gases is based on difference in partial pressure of the gases
partial pressure pressure exerted by an individual gas withion a certain environment
osmosis movement of WATER from areas of high concentration to low concentration across a semipermeable membrane without the use of a carrier protein without the use of energy
in order for us to move water from high to low concentration there needs to be what? a difference in the concentration of the solute (concentration gradient)need a semipermeable membrane that is relatively impermeable to the solute
osmotic pressure/oncotic pressure invoves the pressure exerted by protein molecules that draws water twards itself-keeps water within the blood vessel
more protein in the blood vessel means what? more water attracted to the blood vessel/more water in the blood vessel
less protein in the blood means what? more water in the interstitial space, less water in the blood vessel
isotonic solution concentration of H2O within the solution = the concentration of H20 outside the cell
hypotonic solution concentration of H20 outside the cell > concentration of H20 within cell (CELL WILL SWELL)
hypertonic solution concentration of H20 inside the cell > concentration of H20 outside cell (CELL WILL SHRINK-CRENATION)
dehydration not drinking water at all
1. when you become dehydrated you lose water in your blood vessels--> now you have relatively more protein in your blood vessels- that protein is going to exert an oncotic pressure(concentration gradient) to pull water from the interstitial spaces into the vessels
2. on surface of blood vessel we have osmoreceptors--> job is to sense drop in the concentration of water within the blood vessel
what happens as soon as the osmoreceptor register that drop in blood pressure? sends signals to the hypothalamus in brain
what happens when the hypothalamus gets the signal of low blood pressure sent by the osmoreceptors? you drink water to get hydrated again
if i decide to not have any water despite the signal sent by the osmoreceptors to the hypothalamus to tell me to drink water? the hypothalamus contacts the posterior pituitary which will release the Antidiuretic hormone VASOPRESSIN -tells kidney not to diurese
what does it mean to diurese? to get rid of fluid/release fluid
facillitated diffusion involves the movement of the solute from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration across the semipermeable membrane WITH THE USE OF A CARRIER PROTEIN WITHOUT THE USE OF ENERGY
3 factors influence the rate of facilitated diffusion 1. concentration of the solute relative to the concentration of the carrier protein, specificity and competition
concentration of the solute relative to concentration of the carrier protein as you increase the concentration of the solute you increase the concentration of the solute you increase the rate of facilitated diffusion up to a point and then it plateaus(point of transport maximum)
point of transport maximum all carrier molecules are saturated/utilized. highest point of facillitated diffusion
specificity in facillitated diffusion certain solutes work with certain transport molecules/carrier proteins
when you have two solutes competing for the same carrier protein--> reduce the rate of facillitated diffusion. remove one of the solutes competing-->increase rate of fd
active transport moving substances from areas of LOW CONCENTRATION TO AREAS OF HIGH CONCENTRATION across a semipermeable membrane WITH THE USE OF A CARRIER PROTEIN AND WITH THE USE OF ENERGY
what are the 3 major pump mechanisms that occur within our body? sodium-potassium pump, calcium pump, hydrogen pump
sodium potassium pump is mainly seen where? in cardiac muscle cells and nervous cells
calcium pump is seen where? skeletal muscle
hydrogen pump is mainly seen where? in the stomach, pertinent to the digestive system
sodium potassium pump- sodium&potassium ions are present inside and outside of the cell moving to the surface of the cell at the surface of the cell they BIND TO A CARRIER PROTEIN CALLED ATpase-->hydrolyze the molecule. AS SOON AS YOU SHUNT OUT 3 SODIUM IONS YOU BRING IN 2 POTASSIUM IONS from outside- resulting in more sodiums outside and more potassiums inside
why is sodium always within a higher concentration outside the cell because if you keep alot of sodium inside the cell, the cell will burst
resting membrane potential potential difference caused by the difference of the concentration of ions- get a votage
potential difference when we alter the membrane potential, creating an electrical conduction
3 types of cell signaling paracrine signaling, synaptic signaling and endocrine signaling
paracrine signaling any cell cell realeases regulatory molecules that act within the same organ where it was released- molecules released by one cell influence other cells within the same organ
synaptic signaling cells that release neurotransmitters AT THE AXON END OF THE NERVE CELL to influence another nerve cell or the muscle tissue at the neuromuscularjunction
endocrine signaling the cell releases regulatory molecules that go out to other organs different from where they are released- secreted in one organ and utilized in another ex:posterior pituitary releasing ADH that works in the kidney
cells pertinent to the nervous system nerve cells(neurons)and supporting cells(glial cells)
neuron- 3 major parts cell body, dendrites and axon
cell body of the neuron nutritional center of neuron, lots of endoplasmic reticulum (protein synthesis and ribosomes)
Nissl bodies endoplasmic reticulum of the neuron
nuclei a collection of cell bodies together in the CENTRAL nervous system
ganglia a collection of cell bodies in the PERIPHERAL nervous system
dendrites responsible in transmitting information TO the cell body from other nerves
axon two major parts- axon hillock and axon co-laterals responsible for transmitting information or electrical impulses AWAY from the body
axon hillock junction between the cell body and the axon
axon colaterals side branches or extensions of the axon
we can classify neurons from a structural perspective or a funtional perspecitve
structural perspective 3 major types pseudounipolar neuron-a neuron with one process that comes out of the cell body bipolar neuron-one dendron and one axon coming out from opposite ends of the cell body multipolar-multiple dendrites and one axon coming out of the cell body
functional perspective- 3 major types sensory(afferent)-bring in information or conduct impulses into the CNS motor(efferent)- relay impulses out of CNS to PNS interneurons-association neurons- only found within the CNS-relay info w/i CNS afferent
supporting cells (glial cells) 4 types within the CNS&PNS, support the functioning of the neuron oligodendrocytes, microglia, astrocytes, ependymal cells
Oligodendrocytes form the white matter of the central nervous system (white matter-myelin sheath that covers the axons of the neurons in the CNS)
Microglial cells job is to engulf and destroy through the process of phagocytosis, debri&pathogens within the CNS
Astrocytes cover capillaries of the CNS to form the blood brain barrier- essential within CNS because it allows only certain molecules to get into the brain
Ependymal cells form the epithelial lining of the venricles of the brain
in the peripheral nervous system, 2 types of supporting cells schwann cells satellite cells
schwann cells based around the axons of the peripheral nervous system, the sheat covering of the axons is the neurilemma
Nodes of Ranvia between the schwann cells- facilitates the flow of electrical impulses down the axon
nerve regeneration if you damage a nerve, they can regenerate- can occur both in CNS&PNS (within CNS regeneration is slower b/c oligodendrocites secrete proteins that inhibit regeneration of nerves
grey matter all the dendrons & cell bodies
white matter axons of the neurons
brain is made up of 4 parts cerebrum diencephalon brain stem cerebellum
cerebrum largest part of the brain responsible for higher mental functions 2hemispheres (right&left) the 2 hemispheres can communicate through tracts/pathways-corpus callosum
the cerebral cortex is highly convoluted peaks troughs gyri sulci
within each hemisphere exists 5 lobes parietal temporal frontal occipital insula
parietal lobe of cerebrum primary sensory cortex of the brain responsible for integration of sensory information of the periphery(post central gyrus)
post central gyrus of the parietal lobe posterior to the central sulcus area in the parietal lobe where the sensory information from the periphery is integrated
temporal lobe of cerebrum primary auditory cortex of the brain recieves information from the inner ear there is a specific area that allows for language comprehension(wernicke's area)
Wernicke's area specific area within the temporal lobe that allows for language comprehension
frontal lobe of cerebrum primary motor cortex of the brain can be subdivided into 3 parts-precentral cortex,precentral gyrus, broca's area
pre-central cortex of frontal lobe emotions and judgement(if there is damage to this you have a flat affect-no emotions judgements are off) also where long term memory is stored
pre-central gyrus of frontal lobe (anterior to the central sulcus) involved with integration of motor information
Broca's area responsible for the production of speech- controls motor aspects of speech (if damaged, you know what you want to say but can't get it out)
aphasia altered ability to communicate via speech
receptive aphasia unable to communicate because they cannot understand what you are saying- damage to Wernicke's area
expressive aphasia patient is unable to expressively communicate because of damage to the Broca's Area (patients can sing but not talk clearly)
global aphasia unable to communicate because they cannot understand what you are saying &they cannot communicate what they want to say through speech- wernicke's and broca's areas are both damaged
occipital lobe of cerebrum primary visual cortex of the brain-responsible for vision and the coordination of eye movements
insula of the cerebrum (lies deep under the frontal&parietal lobes) important for integrating sensory information with visceral(organ) response and memory
peripheral impulses are always integrated in- a person with a problem in the right precentral gyrus will have the opposite side of the brain. problems with motor activity in the left side of the body
central sulcus the clear division between the frontal and parietal lobes
basal ganglia 3 major nuclei- corpus striatum caudate, lenticular-globus palladus,putamen amygdaloid claustrum specialized masses of grey matter that assist with the control of voluntary movements
cerebral domninance/lateralization refers to specialized function wihin specific hemispheres
right hemisphere dominance spacial/ visual
left hemisphere dominance language/analytical ability
limbic system emotion & motivation
memory occurs because of multiple areas of the brain working together in order
amnesia loss of memory
short term memory ability to created new memory- controlled by the hippocampus& the amygdala
hippocampus allows us to transfer memory from short to long term memory
long term memory stored in the prefrontal cortex of the frontal lobe of the frontal lobe
diencephalon part of the forebrain that contains the epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus and part of the pituitary gland
thalamus acts primarily as a relay center through which all sensory information (except smell) passes on the way to the cerebrum
sensory nuclei Collects sensory information from the face and body and relayed to the post central gyrus of the parietal lobe
motor nuclei recieve information from the cerebellum& global pallidus& sends that information to the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe
other nuclei responsibility is to collect info from the viscera(organs)to the cerebrum& other parts of the brain
hypothalamus primary responsibility is driving autonomic nervous system control maintains homeostasis
homeostasis- normal control of temperature, water balance within our blood vessels
3rd major part of brain brain stem made up of midbain, pons and medulla oblongata
mid-brain of brainstem -superior peduncles,substantia niagra, red nuclei relays sensory information signals to the cerebral cortex and carries motor commands to reflex centers. It controls ear and eye reflexes and the processing of pain, temperature, and touch.
Superior peduncles of midbrain of brainstem nuclei at the superior end of midbrainbetween midbrain& cerebrum that are involved in motor activity
Substantia Niagra of midbrain of brainstem secretes a hormone called dopamine- allows for motor activity to occur
Red Nucleus of midbrain of brainstem receives information from tracts within the midbrain
Pons of the brainstem important for the integration of information from the cranial nerves
medulla oblongata of brainstem also important for the integration of information from the cranial nerves- control breathing and cardiovascular control
tandem walking walking heel to toe
examples of rapid alternating movements supination-->pronation finger-->nose test
people with parkinsons disease have probems with the substantia niagra reduced levels of dopamine secreted from substantia niagra- slow movements, tremors
4th important part of brain cerebellum maintenance of balance, maintenance of posture, coordination of movements
if you have damage to the cerebellum (cerebellum infarct) you loose your coordination and ability to have an erect posture
atoxia a swayed gait
Spinal Cord cyllindrical mass of nerve tissue. divided into segments cooresponding to its relationship to the vertebral column- cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
looking at a cross sectional view of the spinal cord,you can see the spinal cord is made up of central grey matter which is made up of two sections -anterior/ventral horn- contains cell bodies that give rise to motor(efferent) neurons -posterior/dorsal horn- contains cell bodies of sensory(afferent)neurons
REFLEX LOOP-if i touch something, PNS brings it in-->enters the posterior/dorsal horn &is integrated at level of spinal cord--> comes out of anterior/ventral horn and goes to PNS
entire spinal cord is made of tracts ascdending tracts(from periphery) descending tracts(to periphery) relay information up to the brain bring information down from the brain
spinal nerves in PNS afferent(sensory)nerves efferent(motor)nerves bring information into the posterior horn of the spinal cord relay information out of the spinal cord
cranial nerves can have sensory function, motor function, or mixed sensory&motor function
3 cranial nerves are primarily sensory in funtion cranial nerve 1-ofactory- allows you to semell cranial nerve 2-optic-allows you to see cranial nerve 8- vestibulo cochlear-hearing
cranial nerve 1 ofactory- smell
cranial nerve 2 optic-see
cranial nerve 8 vestibulo cochlear-hear
there are three nerves that are primarily motor with respect to eye movements cranial nerve 3-ocular motor cranial nerve 4-trochlear cranial nerve 6- abducens
cranial nerve 3 ocular motor
cranial nerve 4 trochlear
cranial nerve 6 abducens
there are two nerves that are primarily motor going to skeletal muscle cranial nerve 11-accessory-muscles of neck and larynx&softpallate cranial nerve 12-hypoglossal-muscles of tongue and neck
cranial nerve 11 accessory-trapezious, sternocleidomastoid, larynx, and soft palate
cranial nerve 12 hypoglossal-muscles of tongue and neck
functions of skeletal muscle force production for locomotion and breathing force production for postural support heat production during cold stress
epimysium perimysium endomysium surrounds entire muscle surrounds bundles of muscle fibers surrounds individual muscle fibers
sarcolemma myofibrils muscle cell membrane strands within muscle fibers (sarcomeres, actin(troponin,tropomyosin), myosin)
1.A motor neuron, with signals from the brain or spinal cord, releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach) at the neuromuscular junction. 2.ACh crosses the junction and binds to receptors on the sarcolemma. 3.this initiates an action potential providing sufficient ACh 4.The action potential travels along the sarcolemma and through the T tubules to the SR releasing Ca2+.
5.The Ca2+ binds to troponin on the actin filament, and the troponin pulls tropomyosin off the active sites, allowing myosin heads to attach to the actin filament. 6.Once a strong binding state is established with actin, the myosin head tilts, pulling the actin filament (power stroke).
7.The myosin head binds to ATP, releasing energy. 8.Muscle action ends when calcium is depleted and actively pumped out of the sarcoplasm back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum for storage.
type 2x fibers type 2a fibers type 1 fibers fast twitch,fast glycolytic intermediate fibers, fast-oxidative glycolytic slow-twitch, slow-oxidative
power athletes-sprinters possess higher % of FT fibers
endurance atheletes-distance runners, cyclist, canoeists higher % of ST
others-weight lifters and non atheletes 50% of both ST&FT fibers
isometric contractions force production without length changes, postural muscles
isotonic contractions concentric:muscle shortens eccentric:muscle lengthens
isokinetic constant velocity
Muscular Force Generation depends on Number and type of motor units activated Greater number and/or FT greater the force Size of the muscle Muscles initial length when activated Angle of the joint Muscles speed of action
Cranial Nerves 5, 7, 9, and 10 are mixed nerves which means they have both sensory and motor function
relay sensory information from the head cranial nerves 5, 7 and 9
Created by: 1111770042



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