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ip routable protocol
subnetting seperates a network into multiple logically defined segments
ipv4 four 8 bit octets or bytes
nodes network class provides info about the segment or network to which the mode belongs
reasons to seperate traffic enhanced security, improve performance, simplify troubleshooting
classful addressing class a first 8 bits class b first 16 bits
classful addressing an ip addressing convention that adheres to network class distinctions class a class b class c
subnet mask indicates where network information is located in an ipv4 address
anding a logical process of combining bits.a bit value of
tcpip protocol suite use internet conectivity
tcp/ip fundamentals ip routable protocol
ip interfaces require unique ip address
ip node may use multiple ip addresses
networks assign ip addresses dynamically
class a 1 to 126
class b 128 to 191
class c 192 to 223
127 loopback
class a subnet
reasons for subnettting geographic locations, departmental boundaries,technology types
ipv4 addressing contains network and host information
subnetting limit the amount of broadcast traffic which limits potential for collisions
subnetting more efficient use of bandwidth gives better overrall performance
class full addressing network info first and host second
classful addressing in ipv4 drawbacks fixed network id size limits number of network hosts
classful addressing in ipv4 drawbacks difficult to separate traffic from various parts of network
class a 1 to 254
ipv4 subnet masks identifies how network subdivided
ipv4 subnet masks indicates where network info is located
ipv4 subnet masks 1 indicates network information
anding combining bits
anding bit value of 1 plus another bit value of 1 results in 1
anding you see a 1 put a 1
anding you see a zero put a zero
ip address plus subnet mask network id
ipv4 subnetting techniques subnetting alters classful ipv4 addressing rules
ipv4 subnetting techniques ip address bits representing host info change to represent network information
ipv4 subnetting techniques reduces usable host addresses per subnet
ipv4 subnetting techniques number of hosts,subnets available after subnetting depend on host info bits borrowed
create a subnet you borrow bits that would represent host information in classful addressing and use those bits to instead represent network information
calculating ipv4 subnets 2to the nth - 2 = y
n number of subnet mask bits needed to switch from 0 to 1 the number of bits to borrow
y number of resulting subnets
cidr classless interdomain routing
supernet a subnet created by moving the subnet boundary to the left
supernet mask a thirty two bit number when combined with a devices ipv4 address indocates the kind of supernet to which the device belongs
cidr conventional network class distinctions do not exist
classless routing supernetting
cidr notation slash notation
cidr notation network id followed by a forward slash,followed by the number of bits that are used for the extended network prefix
extended network prefix the combination of an ip address's network id and subnet information.a device can determine the subnet to which an address belongs
to take advantage of classless routing your networks routers must be able to interpret ip addresses that dont adhere to convential network class parameters
default gateway first interprets its outbound requests to other subnets and then interprets its inbound requests from other subnets
subnet prefix the sixty four bit prefix in an ipv6 address that identifies a subnet
route prefix the prefix in an ipv6 address that identifies a route.slash notation is used to define them
cidr block the number of bits used for an extended network prefix
moving the subnet boundary to the left allows you to use more bits for host info and generate more useable ip addresses on your network
ietf internet engineering task force
ietf recognized that additional measures were necessary to increase the availability and flexibility of ip addresses
cidr provides additional ways of arranging network and host info in an ip address
ipv6 address composed of 128 bits
ipv4 address composed of 32 bit
ipv4 address 2 to the thirty two available addresses
ipv6 addresses 2 to the 128 addresses available in ipv6
every ipv6 address is classless
ipv6 address do not use subnet masks
unicast address address assigned to a single interface on the network
unicast address represented in binary form
interfaces that share a subnet prefix belong to the same subnet
lan subnetting lan devices interpret device subnetting information
if you use subnetting on your lan only your lans devices need to interpret your devices subnetting information
subnetting does not affect how a device is addressed by external networks
subnetting in ipv6 classes and subnet masks are not used
subnetting in ipv6 subnet represented by leftmost 64 bits in an address
gateway combination of software and hardware that enables two different network segments to exchange data
gateways facilitates communication between different networks or subnets
gateways interface on router advantage one router can supply multiple gateways
default gateways may connect multiple internal networks or an internal to an external networks
address translation hide ip addresses or internal address transferred to public address
network address translation substitute private ip address with a publicly known ip address
get to gateway the router substitutes the private address with a public address
static network address translation useful when operating a mail server
snat each client is associated with one public and one private address that never changes
dynamic network address translation ip masquerading
supernetting goes to the left to give more hosts
subnetting goes to the right to give more networks
dnat limited pool of internet valid ip addresses is shared by multiple private network hosts
dnat internet valid ip address might be assigned to any clients outgoing transmission
port address translation each client session with server on internet assigned seperate tcp port number
pat send out info with a port number at the end. go to this street at this house.
port numbers registered well known open
Created by: cgeaski