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wan network that traverses some distance and usually connects lans
wan network transversing some distance
wan and lan common properties client host resource sharing
layer three and higher protocols
packet switched digitized data
lans and wans
adsl a variation of dsl that offers more throughput when data travel downstream,downloading from a local carriers switching facility to the customer,that when data travel upstream,uploading from the customer to the local carriers switching facility
asymmetrical the characteristic of a transmission technology that affords greater bandwidth in one direction than in the other direction,customer to the carrier or vice versa
asynchronous a transmission method in which data being transmitted and received by nodes do not have to conform to any timing scheme.
atm asynchronous transfer mode
atm data link layer technology.relies on fixed packets called cells that consist of forty eight bytes plus a five byte header
atm relies on virtual circuits and establishes a connection before send
b channel bears traffic from point to point
bri basic rate interface
bonding process of combining more than one bearer channel of an isdn line to increase throughput
bpl broadband over powerline
bri a variety of isdn that uses two 64 kbps bearer channels and one 16 kbps data channel
bri most common form of isdn employed by home users
wan and lan differences layer 1 and 2 access methods,topologies,media
wan and lan differences lan wiring,privately owned
wan and lan differences wan wiring:public thru network service providers,ex.at&t
broadband cable a method of connecting to the internet over a cable network
lan topologies differences distance covered,number of users,traffic
lan topologies differences connect sites via dedicated high speed links
broadband cable computers are connected to a cable modem that modulates and demodulates signals to and from the cable companys head-end
bus topology wan each location is connected to no more than two other locations in a serial fashion
cable drop the fiber optic or coaxial cable that connects a neighborhood cable node to a customers house
bus topology wan each site connects serially to two sites maximum
bus topology wan network site dependent on every other site to transmit and receive traffic
bus topology wan different locations connected to another thru point to point links
bus topology wan best use organizations requiring small wan dedicated circuits
bus topology wan drawback not scalable
cable modem a device that modulates and demodulates signals for transmission and reception via cable wiring
cell a packet of fixed size
cir committed information rate
cir the guaranteed minimum amount of bandwidth selected when leasing a frame relay circuit
co central office
ring topology wan each site connected to two other sites
ring topology wan forms ring pattern
ring topology wan connects location
ring topology wan relies on redundant rings
ring topology wan data rerouted upon site failure
ring topology wan expansion is difficult and expensive
ring topology wan best use connecting maximum five locations
co the location where a local or long distance telephone service provider terminates and interconnects customer lines
star topology wan single site as central connection point
star topology wan seperate data routes between any two sites
star topology wan single connection failure affects one location
star topology wan shorter data paths between two sites
star topology wan expansion is simple and less costly
star topology wan
star topology wan
csu channel service unit
mesh topolgy wan incorporates many directly interconnected sites
mesh topolgy wan data travels directly froom origin to destination
mesh topolgy wan routers can redirect data easily,quickly
mesh topolgy wan most faulerant type of wan
mesh topolgy wan every wan is directly connected to every other site
mesh topolgy wan expensive
csu a device used with t carrier technology that provides termination for the digitsl signal and ensures connection integrity thru error correction and line monitoring
csu/dsu channel service unit and data service unit
csu/dsu serves as the connection point for a t1 line at the customers site
csu/dsu may be a seperate device or an expansion card in another device such as a router
d channel in isdn the data channel is used to carry information about the call,such as session initiation and termination signals,caller identity,call forwarding and conference signaling
dedicated a continuously available link or service that is leased by another carrier
tiered topology wan sites that are interconnected in star or ing formation,interconnected at different levels
tiered topology wan interconnection points organized into layers,form hierarchial groups
tiered topology wan flexible,many variations
tiered topology wan requires careful considerations,geography,usage patterns
tiered topology wan
dialup a connection in which a user connects to a distant network from a computer and stays connected for a finite period of time
pstn network of lines,carrier equipment providing telephone service
pstn plain old telephone service
pstn encompasses entire telephone system
downstream data traffic that flows from a carriers facility to a customer
ds0 digital signal level 0
ds0 the equivalent of one data or voice channel in t carrier technology
dsl digital subscriber line
dsl a dedicated wan technology that uses advanced data modulation techniques at the physical layer to acheive extraordinary throughput over regular phone lines
pstn elements cannot handle digital transmission
dslam dsl access multiplexer
local loop last mile
local loop portion of the pstn that connects any residence or business to the nearest central office
niu network interface unit
niu the point at which pstn owned lines terminate at a customers premise
ftth fiber to the home
ftth telephone company connects residential users to its network with fiber optic cable
fttp fiber to the premises
fttp the use of a fiber optic cable to connect either a residence or a business
pon passive optical network
pon a carrier uses fiber optic cabling to connect with multiple endpoints
olt optical line terminal
olt device with multiple optical ports similar to interfaces on a router
onu optical network unit
onu distributes signals to multiple end poins via fiber optic cable
x.25 analog packet switching technology designed for long distance transmission
x.25 standard specifies protocols at the physical,data link, and network layers of he osi model
x.25 provides excellent flow control and ensures data reliability by verifying the transmission at every node
frame relay digital version of x.25 that relies on packet switching
frame relay protocols operate at the data link layer
frame relay seperated into frames which are then relayed from one node to another without any verification or processing
frame relay does not guarantee reliable delivery of data
virtual circuits
svc switched virtual circuits
pvc permanent virtual circuits
svc are connections that are established when parties need to transmit then terminate after the transmission is complete
pvcs are connections
isdn integrated services digital network
isdn transmitting digital data over the public switch telephone network
isdn specifies protocols physical,data link,and transport layers of the osi model
protocols handle signaling,framing,connection setup and termination,rouing,flow control,and error detection and correction
isdn can carry as many as two voice calls and one data connection on a single line
isdn channels b and d channel
single b channel maximum throughput 64 kbps
single d channel maximum throughput 16 or 64 kbps
data channel employing packet switching techniques to carry information about the call
bearer channel employing circuit switching techniques to carry voice,video,audio,and other types of data
isdn connections bri and pri
bri uses two b channels and one d channel
bri most economical type of isdn connection
nt1 network termination
te terminal equipment
ta terminal adapter
ta converts digital signals into analog signals for use with isdn phones and other analog devices
primary rate interface
network termination 2
disadvantage of isdn span a distance of only 18,000 linear feet before repeater equipment is needed to boost the signal
t-carrier standards specify a method of signaling which means they belong to the physical layer of the osi model
t carrier uses time division multiplexing
t1 circuit carry the equivalent of 24 voice or data channels,giving a maximum of 1.544 mbps
t3 circuit carry the equivalent of 672 voice or data channels,giving a maximum of 44.736 mbps
speed of a t carrier depends on its signal level
signal level
fractional t1 an arrangement that allows a customer to lease only some of the channels on a t1 line
smart jack a termination for t carrier wire pairs that is located at the customer demarc and which functions as a connection protection and monitoring point
csu/dsu connection point for a t1 line
csu provides termination for the digial signal and ensures connection integrity thru error correction and line monitoring
dsu provides converts the t carrierframes into frames the lan can interpret and vice versa
multiplexer a device that seperates a medium into multiple channels and issues signals to each of those subchannels
dsl digital subscriber line
dsl wan connection method
dsl uses data modulation techniques at the physical layer to acheive extraordinary throughput over regual phone lines
types of dsl adsl, g.lite,hdsl,sdsl,vdsl,shdsl,
asymmetrical dsl offers more throughput in one direction than another
downstream data traveling from the carriers switching facility to the customer
symmterical provides equalcapacity for data traveling both upstream and downstream
upstream data traveling from the customer to the carriers switching facility
dsl modem
Created by: cgeaski