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physio ch 18

immune defenses do self v. non-self protection and immune surveillance
self v. non-self; non self would be bacteria, viruses, allergens, splinters, etc
immune surveillance means that...such as... your own cells go bad...cancer/pre cancerous cells
immune defenses are cell mediated
cells that mediate immune defense are the...which there are how many per microliter leukocytes...5000-10000
leukocytes are either..which include... granulocytes (neutrophils 50-70%, eosinophils 1-5% and basophils < 1%) or agranulocytes (monocytes 1-6% and lymphocytes 20-40%)
leukocytes - other cell names include plasma cells, macrophages and mast cells
plasma cells are...that are... b lymphocytes...specialized for antibody production
plasma cells or b lymphs are located in peripheral lymphoid tissue
in the tissues, macrophages are called...and in blood they are called... macrophages...monocytes
macrophages are located in exposed epithelium and lymph tissues and organs
mast cells are...and blood functional in tissues...basophils
mast cells are located body wide in CT
cytokines are released a... WBCs...chemical messengers/cell signaler
cytokines do communication between immune cells
non specific immune responses use generalized receptors
generalized recetors recognize things only as non-self
generalized receptors recognize...of non-self structures lipids and carbohydrates
generalized receptors do not produce antibodies
1st line of defense does what stop things from getting in
1st line of defense include barriers , anti-microbial secretions and sneeze/cough reflexes
barriers include skin and mucous membrane(sticky trap)
mucous membrane are seen in the...where..moves stuff to throat to be swallowed respiratory escalator...cilia
anti-microbial secretions do what...and include... damage pathogens...secretory glands, mucous membranes, stomach acid
anti-microbial secretions are somtime secreted with enzymes like in tears
sneeze and cough reflexes do what expel things from the system
inflammation has what symptoms redness, heat, pain and swelling
inflammation involves vasodilation, increased protein permeability and chemotaxis
inflammation is chemically...some cytokines
vasodilation for inflammation means you...and this thus... dilate vessels...increase blood flow
advantages of dilating vessels and symptoms? more WBC to the area...heat, redness and swelling
increased protein permeability for inflammation means you expand intercellular gaps (increase plasma permeability)
expanding intercellular gaps means the plasma protein can...and the advantages/symptoms are... leave vessels...take pathogen fighting things to the area to fix the problem/swelling
when you expand the intercellular gaps...follows the...into the... water...solute ...interstitium
edema is fluid in the tissues
when things are inflammed there is pain because of increased pressure internally on the nociceptors bec of swelling
chemotaxis means you use chemicals to attract
chemotaxins are...from... cytokines..damaged endothelial cells
chemotaxis involves...which means... margination...neutrophil attachment to endothelium
margination means the neutrophil moves to the wall of capillary and works through cellular gap into interstitial tissue for direct interaction with pathogens
chemotaxis also involves diapedesis of neutrophils
chemotaxis of other...with other...such as... WBCs...cytokines...monocytes > macrophages(in tissue), basophils > mast cells(secret heparin and histamine for inflammatory response), eosinophils and lymphocytes
eosinophils are the...and lymphocytes mainly stya.. clean up the lymph tissue
inflammation triggers phagocyte action
phagoytosis involves 5 things attachment via receptors or opsonins, phagosome formation, phagolycosomes, digestion and exocytosis of wastes
extracellular secretions are either cytotoxis or inflammatory mediators
cytotoxic extracellular secretions are for damage to pathogen
inflammatory mediators do positive feedback with chemotaxic cytokines
inflammation also triggers the...which occurs in.. complement...specific and non-specific immunity
complement promotes destruction of pathogen without phagocytosis but it can influence it
complement is the extracellular killing of cells
extracellular killing of cells involves two steps nonspecific/alternate complement pathway protein activation and complement cascade
nonspecific or alternate complement pathway protein activation involves the interaction between inactive complement proteins in the blood and microbes
complement cascade involves the...which forms.. membrane attack complex..pores in bacteria cell wall to destroy it
complement cascade also involves...which... an opsonin for phagocytosis (increases liklihood of phagocytosis)
inflammation: tissue repair has 2 steps replace damaged cell with CT and tissue regeneration/remodeling
replacing damaged cell with CT uses...which produce..and forms... fibroblasts...collagen...scars
tissue regeneration/remodeling is the replacement of CT with functional tissue
functional tissue is also called parenchyma
interferons are chemicals produced by cells to prevent viral attacks
interferons non-infected cells...inhibiting viral replication
viral replication requires cells because virus' can't reproduce on their own
infected cells...and have two types of action produce and release interferons...paracrine and endocrine (on adjacent cells)
infected cells trigger production of other intracellular anti-viral proteins
specific immune defense means you have to know the exact pathogen
specific immune defense is acquired immunity
acquired immunity means there must be recognition of antigens(usually protein) by lymphocytes, then a specific defense against that non-self substance or cell
stages of acquired immunity/specific are encounter/recognition of antigens, lymphocyte activation, lymphocyte action
lymphocyte development is in...through red bone marrow(trabecular)...hematopoiesis
hematopoiesis produce... lymphoid stem cells...lymphocytes
primary lymphoid organ include...and do what bone marrow and thymus...either produce lymphocytes or mature them
bone marrow is where...are produced b lymphocytes(and matured) and t lymphocytes(just produced)
in the thymus... t lymphocytes are matured into helper t cells and cytotoxic t cells
secondary lymphoid organs are where...and include.. clones are produced...things like the spleen and tonsils and lymph nodes
secondary lymphoid organs do mitosis and activation of helper/cytotoxic t cells, mitosis of b lymphocytes and activation of plasma cells
b lymphocytes are...that are... plasma and functioning to make antibodies
plasma cells remain in...activated to...and produce... secondary lymph organs, specific antigen, antibodies released into blood
cytotoxic t cells are activated (to make...) to (more cytotoxic t cells) specific antigen in secondary lymphoid organs
cytotoxic t cells travel in...and bind to.. blood stream to target...antigens on target
cytotoxic t cells secrete cytotoxic chemicals
helper t cells are activated to...and remain... specific antigen in secondary lymphoid secondary lymphoid organs
helper t cells produce cytokines(chemical messenger) which stimulate active B and cytotoxic t cells
steps of lymphocyte action include encounter and recognition(in 2 lymph organ), activate (in 2 lymph organ) and attack (in blood)
encounter and recognition involves the t lymphocytes and major histocompatibility complex(surface antigens)
t lymphs and major histocompatibility complex in encounter and recogniztion require...and that interaction requires... a receptor-antigen interaction(macrophage keps a piece to present)...antigen presentation to Tcells
major histocompatibility complex (MCH) genes are on what chromosome...and they are... 6...unique to each genetically unique individual
MHC code for...and MHC proteins are embedded in... MHC proteins...plasma membrane of cells
MHC protein is either... class I (all cells except RBCs) or class II (macrophages, b lymphs, macrophage-like cells)
encounter and recognition: helper t cells are...which are either... class II MHC proteins...macrophage or b lymphocytes
helper t cells: macrophage or b lymphs do what antigen internalized, antigen partially digested and antigen fragment presented
activation of helper t cells is the job of macrophages
helper t cell activation starts with MHC class II presentation of antigen
step two of helper t cell activation co-stimulation with non-antigenic plasma membrane protein of the macrophage
step three of helper t cell activation secretion of interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor(TNF) and other cytokines
last stage of helper t cell activation is mitosis of activated helper t cells(functional)
clones of cells already know the antigen
attack step for helper t cells; there is no direct attack on non-self things (helper t cells jus help other cells get going)
helper t cells produce...which have two types of effects cytokine...autocrine and paracrine
autocrine effects of cytokines from helper t cells include production of clone helper t cells
paracrine effects of cytokines from helper t cells include b lymphocyte activation, cytotoxic t cell activation, macrophage activation, NK cells nonspecific binding to viral infected or cancer cells
NK cells are activated by...but response is... specific immune system...non specific
steps of lymphocyte action are in the specific immune s ystem
encounter and recognition of cytotoxic t cells look for... MHC class I cells (general cells)
general cells produce...inside the cell and include... antigens (endogenous)...virus infected cells and cancer cells
cytotoxic t cell activation uses helper t cell cytokines to produce interleukin 2
interleukin 2 stimulates...and some cells are not... production of cytotoxic t cell clones (already recognize antigen)...fully activated so they persist as memory cells
memory cells stay behind and wait for next antigen encounter
attack step for cytotoxic t cells involves the production of...which does perforin...destruction of cell wall/membrane to kill it
cytotoxic t cell attack step also involves retention of memory cells
target for perforin is a..but it is... cell w/ virus or cancer cell...specific
encounter and recognition of b lymphocytes involves the productio nof antibodies
b lymphocyte encounter and recognition requires...which is like a... receptor-antigen interaction(antibody and antigen)
the surface antibody for receptor-antigen interaction is called a...and is the... immunoglobilin...antigen binding site
Ig classes are IgA(produced in secretory tissues like milk, urogenital tracts etc), IgD(involved in 3 steps), IgE(helps activate non-specific cells), IgM(protection from pathogens and bacteria)
activation of by lymphocytes: a few require only...most also require.. antigen binding...activation via t helper cells
what do t helper cells cytokines produce that activates b lymphocytes? interleukin 2
interleukin2 stimulates...and some cells are not.. production of B lymphocyte clones...fully activated so they become memory cells and other become plasma cells
attack step of b lymphocytes produces...and are released to free antibody...blood
plasma cell life span days
b lymphocyte types of antibodies IgG (gamma globulin) and IgM (basic pathogen defense - specific immunity agaisnt bacteria and viruses), IgE (specific immunity against multicellular parasites and allergic responses)
last two types of antibodies IgA (secretions in gut, milk, urogenital - plasma cells in gastrointestinal, repsiratory and genitourinal tracts and mammary glands) and IgD is unknown
b lymphocytes effects of antibodies (Ig G and M)
b lymphocytes return site of infection..leaving blood, linking to microbe and identifying microbe for action via other immune cells for phagocytosis
b lymphocytes facilitates...through the... phagocytosis...neutrophils and macrophages
b lymphocytes activate the classical complement system which requires specific antibody to be known
classical complement system produces...and activates... membrane attack complex...opsonin
b lymphocyte antibody can link target cell to NK cell: antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
after b lymphocytes leave the blood, link to microbe, identify microbe then the antibody-antigen complexes with toxins and viruses are available for phagocytosis
active immunity uses memory cells and vaccinations
vaccinations prevent pathogen from taking hold of all cells
active immunity activates...and passive immunity... specific...does not activate specific
passive immunity does not use..and is seen in... memory cells...mother to fetus (IgG) - crossing placenta, breast milk (IgA) and antibiotics
infections trigger the acute phase response
acute phase response is an...for the... adaptive response of the organs...enhancement and negative feedback
infections mean there is reduced resistance
reduced resistance can occur because of... poor...and also... nutrition...pre-existing diseases or injury
reduced resistance depends well as...which keeps... mental states...stress(cortisol)...the immune system from going crazy
reduced resistance involved...which is when you lack... immunodeficiency...some component of the immune system (cellular/ability to produce a chemical - cytokines)
combined immunodeficiency means you lack both B and T cells
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by...and what are targeted... HIV...helper t lymphocytes
harmful immune effects occur because of graft rejections, transfusions, pregnancy, allergies and autoimmune disease, excessive inflammatory response
graft rejection involves problems with MHC I - primarily cytotoxic t lymphs
transfusions involve ABO D
pregnancy means the fetus is as the...are not recognized by the... graft...placental MHC proteins (fetus is not recognized as foreign)
pregnancy issues often involve blood types
generally ABO are not the problem in pregnancies, but D is the problem
ABO antibodies are Ig M antibodies that don't cross the placenta well because they're too big
Ig M is a multimeric complex
rh factor causes hemolytic disease of the newborn (blood mixing)
hemolytic disease means the mom is...and the baby most of the exposure of the mother to fetal blood is at... birth
hemolytic disease means subsequent pregnancies IgG antibodies can cross the placenta (fetal blood agglutinates)
what vaccination do new mothers get Rho-gam (similar to passive immunity), which is IgG: Rh antibodies
allergies are hypersensitivity
allergies involve allergens and sensitization
delayed hypersensitivity means the...and triggers the... skin responds...inflammatory response w/o antibodies (poison ivy)
immune complex hypersensitivity means excessive amounts of Ig G and IgM complex with free antigens and they stick to blood vessels
excessive amounts of Ig G and IgM complex causes excessive triggering of inflammatory responses
immediate hypersensitivity is considered to be...and it is the stimulation of... classic/typical allergy...Ig E producing B lymphocytes
immediate hypersensitivity there is Ig E attacment to mast cells (heparin and histamine) and basophils
ige attachment to mast cells and basophils includes local inflammation and systemic inflammation (anaphylaxis - deadly)
autoimmune disease means self proteins detected as foreign antigens
types of autoimmune disease include multiple sclerosis (myelin), myasthenia gravis (skeletal muscle ACh receptors), rheumatoid arthritis (synovial joints)type I diabetes mellitus (pancreatic islet B cells), systemic lupus erythematosus
systemic lupus erythematosus is overactive b and t cells and excessive proeduction of self antibodies
excessive inflammatory response leads to septic shock, chronic inflammatory disease, athersclerosis and asbestosis
septic shock leads to hypotension
chronic inflammatory disease is things like asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease
atherosclerosis means damaged which triggers.. endothelium...inflammatory response
Created by: handrzej



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